HNSA Crest with photos of visitors at the ships.
CHAPTER 6, THE TORPEDO SETTING MECHANISMS

The Depth Setting Mechanisms76
The Gyro Setting Mechanism83
The Gyro Setting Spindle Mechanism86
The Speed Setting Mechanisms91
 
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THE TORPEDO SETTING MECHANISMS
 
THE DEPTH SETTING MECHANISMS
 
The depth setting mechanism on the torpedo tube sets the mechanism in the afterbody of the torpedo for the depth under water at which it is determined the torpedo is to travel while on its course to its target. The mechanism in the torpedo is so designed that, once the depth has been determined and the mechanism set, the torpedo will maintain that depth. Should the torpedo incline upward or downward from its set depth, a pendulum arrangement, with a hydrostatic valve and a steering engine, offsets the inclination up or down and brings the torpedo back to its horizontal course at the predetermined set depth.

Set in the afterbody of the torpedo is a socket in which is a spindle with a square male shank for setting the depth mechanism. This spindle in the torpedo is engaged by a spindle which has a squared socket wrench at its lower end, this socket being suspended flexibly, in pendulum fashion, and passing down into the tube from the depth setting mechanism attached on the outer side of the barrel. The socket is moved down into the tube to engage the spindle in the torpedo, and raised or retracted, by means of the engaging lever. When the socket has engaged the spindle in the torpedo, the depth mechanism is set by means of the depth setting crank which can be turned only when the spindle is engaged in the socket. One revolution of the depth setting crank equals two feet of depth setting.

The position of the depth setting mechanism in relation to the other operating mechanisms is shown in Figure 147, a view of the inboard breech end of the torpedo tube. A close up view of the engaging lever and the hand crank for operating the depth setting mechanism as attached on the tube is shown in Figure 148. In this view, the depth setting

  socket is disengaged or in the out position, as shown by the arrow, the lever being down. The interlock bolt is engaging the lug on the interlock sleeve, and the setting lever is released so it may be moved to spindle in position, as shown in Figure 149. In this position, a lug on the engaging lever locks the interlocking bolt and prevents the firing interlocking lever on the tube interlocking system from being moved to "Tube Ready to Fire" position.

Figure 150 shows the engaging lever moved to spindle out position, releasing the interlocking bolt and also the lug on the collar of the interlocking sleeve.

The closely interrelated operation of the interlocking mechanism described in Chapter 4 is emphasized here when it is understood that the depth setting mechanism has its own individual connection with the interlocking mechanism, as has every other unit of the operating mechanism, to prevent improper or unintentional firing of the tube. That is the function of this interlock bolt shown in the three illustrations, Figures 148, 149, and 150. The interlocking bolt is also shown in the other views which follow.

The depth setting mechanism, assembled, but detached from the barrel, is shown in Figure 151. Here the interlock bolt is shown in locked position, the engaging lever is in spindle out position, and the hand crank is locked by the detent plunger which passes through the extension of the housing between the setting lever and the hand crank, and is engaged by a lug on the setting lever when the lever is in spindle out position. When the setting lever is moved to spindle in position, the lug on the lever disengages the detent plunger so it is released from the slot in the detent wheel on the hand crank, as

 
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Figure 147 Inboard side of tube
Figure 147 Inboard side of tube, showing position of torpedo setting mechanism. (A) Gyro setting mechanism; (B) Interlock sleeve; (C) Hand crank for rotating depth setting spindle; (D) Depth index dial; (E) Lever for engaging and disengaging depth setting spindle; (F) Operating wheel for speed setting mechanism; (G) Lever for engaging and disengaging speed spindle.
 
Figure 148 Figure 149 Figure 150
The depth setting controls. (A) Arrow showing the "Spindle Out" position of engaging and disengage lever; (B) Interlock bolt engaged by lug on (C) collar of interlock sleeve; (D) Lever for engaging and disengaging spindle; (E) Hand crank for rotating spindle; (F) Engaging and disengaging lever in "Spindle In" position; (G) Interlock bolt engaging lug on collar of interlock sleeve; (H) Interlock bolt releasing lug on collar of interlock sleeve and engaging (I) Lug to lock (J) Lever in "Spindle Out" position.
 
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Figure 151
Figure 151 Depth setting mechanism assembled, but detached from barrel. (A) Index dial; (B) Interlock bolt; (C) Decent plunger engaging decent wheel to lock hand crank; (D) Engaging and disengaging lever; (E) Hand crank for rotating spindle to set depth.

shown in Figure 152, thereby unlocking the hand crank for operating the depth setting mechanism.

Another view, from the side, showing the setting lever in spindle out position, and the interlock bolt in locked position to prevent moving the setting lever after the spindle has been disengaged from the socket in the torpedo and retracted from the tube, is shown in Figure 153. It will be noticed that the bolt has been moved back so the lug on the setting lever can not enter the opening in the interlock bolt, and the detent plunger is engaging the detent wheel on the hand crank.

Figure 154 shows the interlock bolt moved forward to disengage the setting lever, and Figure 155 shows the setting lever moved to spindle in position, the lug engaging the opening in the interlock bolt,

 

Figure 152
Figure 152 Turning hand crank after (A) Slot in detent wheel on (B) Hand crank has been released by (C) Detent plunger when (D) Lug on engaging and disengaging lever engages interlock bolt as (E) Lever is moved to "Spindle In" position.

thereby locking the interlocking mechanism until the bolt is released by moving the setting lever back to spindle out position.

Figure 156 gives a worm's eye view of the depth setting mechanism, looking up into the housing from below, to show the engaging socket on the spindle in the down position, as it would be when engaging the spindle in the torpedo to set the depth mechanism.

In Figure 157, also a worm's eye view, the engaging socket is shown up, in the position in which it would be when retracted from the tube after setting the depth mechanism in the torpedo.

Figure 158 is a break-away view showing the interior of the housing, giving a better idea of the action of the mechanism.

 
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Figure 153, descrip at right
Figure 153
  The interlock bolt (A) locking engaging and disengaging lever in "Spindle Out" position, and causing detent plunger to engage detent wheel (B) on hand crank, preventing hand crank from being moved.
Figure 154, descrip at right
Figure 154
  Interlock bolt (A) moved forward to release engaging and disengaging lever so it can be moved to "Spindle In" position. Detent plunger (B) still engaging detent wheel on hand crank.
Figure 155, descrip at right
Figure 155
  Engaging and disengaging lever moved to "Spindle In" position, lug on lever engaging interlock bolt (A), decent plunger releasing detent wheel (B) on hand crank so spindle can be rotated to set depth.
 
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Figure 156
Figure 156 Worm's eye view of depth setting mechanism showing spindle with socket down in position to engage socket in torpedo.

The parts of the depth setting mechanism, disassembled, are shown in Figures 159 and 160, Figure 159 showing the parts that are assembled in the housing horizontally, and Figure 160 those parts that are assembled in the housing vertically.

As the engaging lever is moved to spindle out or to spindle in position, the shaft attached to the

 

Figure 157
Figure 157 Same as Figure 156, but showing spindle up, or in retracted position.

setting lever operates a fork (see Figures 156 and 157) which raises or lowers the sleeve in which the engaging socket is secured by means of a rivet pin. The socket lies in a vertical plane through the tube axis within a tolerance of 0.015 of an inch to permit self-alignment with the depth setting spindle in the torpedo. Engagement of the socket with the spindle

Figure 158 View of the interior of the depth
setting mechanism
Figure 158 View of the interior of the depth setting mechanism, showing operation of raising and lowering the spindle, as well as rotating it. (A) Bevel gear operated by pinion gear; (B) Socket fork, which raises or lowers (C) Spindle and socket; (D) Sleeve for spindle and socket; (E) Pinion gear.
 
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in the torpedo is facilitated by an allowed lost motion between the spindle to which the socket is attached and the socket sleeve.

Rotation of the depth setting socket is accomplished by means of the hand crank attached to the shaft, which turns the sleeve by means of the bevel gears keyed to the sleeve and the bevel pinion attached to the shaft. This is shown in Figure 158.

An index dial (see Figure 151) graduated in feet from 0 to 50, is driven from the depth setting shaft, operated by the hand crank. Two forms of index dials are used, one, as shown in Figure 151, having the graduations on the flat top surface so as to be read from above looking down. This form of dial is used for middle and lower bow tubes and for lower stern tubes. The other form of dial, used for upper bow and stern tubes, has the graduations on the outer circumference of the dial so as to be read from the side instead of from the top of the dial.

  Rotating the hand crank when the socket is not fully engaged with the depth setting spindle in the torpedo is prevented by means of the detent plunger, which engages the detent wheel on the hand crank, as shown in Figures 151 and 152. When the engaging and disengaging lever is in the in position as shown by the arrow (see Figure 152), a lug on the setting lever is withdrawn from behind the detent plunger, which is then free to move under the impulse of its spring, disengaging the detent wheel on the hand crank (see A and C in Figure 152), allowing the hand crank to rotate the setting shaft. At the same time, the lug on the setting lever engages and locks the interlock bolt (see D in Figure 152).

When the engaging and disengaging lever is in the out position, the lug on the setting lever blocks the detent plunger, preventing it from moving out of the slot in the detent wheel on the hand crank, thereby locking the hand crank.

Figure 159 Parts of depth setting mechanism to be assembled in the housing horizontally.
Figure 159 Parts of depth setting mechanism to be assembled in the housing horizontally. (1) Latch and (2) Latch spring for (3) Engaging and disengaging lever; (4) Shaft for raising and lowering spindle and socket; (5) Nut and cotter pin for attaching lever to shaft; (6) Washer for shaft; (7) Latch plunger; (8) Screw for latch and lever; (9) Handle screw; (10) Handle; (11) Special nut for operating shaft; (12) Crank; (13) Pin and (14) Bushing for (15) Operating shaft; (16) Key for fastening operating shaft to bevel pinion gear; (17) Detent plunger and (18) Spring; (19) Set screw for attaching (20) Clip;   (21) Collar for detent plunger; (22) Screws for attaching (23) Cover plate; (24) Interlock bolt; (25) Gasket; (26). (27), (28) Gland, washer, and leather packing for engaging and disengaging shaft; (29) Housing; (30) Opening for detent plunger; (31) Opening for parts operating index dial; (32), (33), (34) Gland, washer, and leather packing for operating shaft; (35) Location pins and (36) Bolts for attaching housing to barrel; (37) Pinion gear for operating shaft; (38) Socket fork; (39) Dowel screw; (40) Set screw for pinion gear; (41) Bevel gear.
 
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If the index dial is not on a foot mark, a tooth space will not be in line with the plunger, and the engaging and disengaging lever can not be moved to spindle out position. Two tooth spaces are cut in the detent wheel on the hand crank so that the depth setting can be made to the nearest foot, one revolution of the hand crank moving the index dial two graduations, or the equivalent of two feet in depth. The teeth on the detent wheel are cut wide enough to allow a little movement either side of the graduation to help in engaging the socket on the spindle of the torpedo.

Before loading a torpedo into the tube, the depth index dials, on both the torpedo and the depth setting mechanism on the tube, should be set at the 10-foot setting.

  As previously mentioned, the firing interlocking lever, a part of the tube interlocking mechanism, can not be moved to "Tube Ready to Fire" position when the engaging and disengaging lever is in the spindle in position. This is due to the fact that a lug on the collar attached to the interlock sleeve engages a slot in the sliding interlock bolt, which in turn engages a lug on the engaging and disengaging lever, as shown in Figures 148, 149, and 150.

When the engaging and disengaging lever is in the spindle out position, the lug on the lever is clear of the sliding bolt, thereby releasing the lug on the collar of the interlocking sleeve, and permitting the firing interlocking lever to be moved to "Tube Ready to Fire" position. In this position, the body of the sliding interlock bolt is in the way of the lug on the engaging and disengaging lever, preventing it from being moved to the spindle in position.

 
Figure 160 Parts of depth setting mechanism to be
assembled in the housing vertically.
Figure 160 Parts of depth setting mechanism to be assembled in the housing vertically.
 
Figure 160 (left)
A Spindle and socket.
B Socket sleeve.
C Keys for attaching bevel gear to socket sleeve.
D Bevel gear for socket sleeve.
E Housing.
F Access opening.
G Special nut and set screw for bevel gear.
H Washer.
I Plug for access opening.
J Screws for attaching cover plate.
K Cover plate for access opening under index dial.
L Special nut and cotter pin for end of dial shaft.
M Key for attaching worm wheel to dial shaft.
N Worm wheel for rotating index dial.
O Opening for detent plunger.
P Index dial housing.
Q Dial shaft for rotating index dial.
R Index dial.
S Dowel pin and screws for attaching dial to shaft.
 
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THE GYRO SETTING MECHANISM
 
In the opening chapter of this manual, the torpedo tube was likened to a naval gun or a rifle, in that its purpose is to fire a projectile at a target. There are decided differences, of course, and one of those differences is the manner of sending the projectile, the weapon is aimed directly at, or in the direction of, the target. This is not so, however, with the torpedo tube.

It is easily seen that it would be an impossibility to turn the submarine so the tubes would be aimed directly at the target each time a torpedo was to

  be fired, especially so when in action where seconds count. Hence, in the afterbody of the torpedo, along with the other mechanisms which control the depth under water and the speed at which the torpedo shall travel, and so on, there is what is known as the gyro mechanism, which controls the direction, or rather the angle of travel, the torpedo shall take after it has left the tube.

The gyro mechanism in the torpedo, in combination with the vertical steering engine through the vertical rudders, will bring the torpedo around to whatever angle has been determined it should take

Figure 161
Figure 161
 

Figure 162 Operating engaging lever
and release button.
Figure 162 Operating engaging lever and release button.

Spindle retracting gear and tube unit (Note: The housing "N" with dials "M" and handcrank "O" are not part of a ship installation).
A Interlock sleeve.
B Disengaging ratchet, chain, and sprocket.
C Disengaging lever.
D Engaging lever.
E Latch, or handle lock release.
F Lever, locked.
G Release button.
H Mating toe on retracting lever.
 
I Indicator showing spindle in or out.
J Clutch fork shaft.
K Indicator switch housing.
L Spindle housing.
M Indicator dials.
N Housing for mechanism to rotate spindle.
O Hand crank for setting gyro angle.
 
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from the direction in which it has been launched, and will keep the torpedo from deviating one way or the other, to starboard or to port, from its predetermined course.

The gyro mechanism in the torpedo must be set for each shot, and the setting must be done in the last moments before firing. For that purpose, the gyro setting mechanism is included as one of the operating units on the outside of the barrel, with a spindle projecting through into the barrel and engaging a socket connected with the gyro mechanism in the afterbody of the torpedo.

The gyro setting mechanism, as installed in

Figure 163 Gyro setting spindle and retracting mechanism, complete assembly, detached from tube.
Figure 163 Gyro setting spindle and retracting mechanism, complete assembly, detached from tube. (A) Engaging lever; (B) Release button; (C) Retraction lever; (D) Indicator for showing spindle in or out; (E) Spindle housing; (F) Indicator switch housing; (G) Drive shaft which operates gears to rotate spindle for setting gyro angle.

  submarines, together with the associated apparatus and the torpedo control equipment, is designed for the purpose of giving the submarine a freedom of action in the operation of firing the tubes that will com pare with the freedom of action obtained in surface vessels due to the fact that they are able to point torpedo tubes in train.

There are variations in the arrangements of the gyro setting mechanisms in different submarines, The system described here is strictly applicable to the installations in SS198 and up, only. For other installations, refer to O.P. 586 (SS170 and up) or O.P. 281 (SS167-169).

Figure 164 The reverse side of the gyro setting mechanism, showing the flange which attaches to the barrel.
Figure 164 The reverse side of the gyro setting mechanism, showing the flange which attaches to the barrel. (A) Setting lever and latch; (B) Retraction lever, connected by ratchet, chain, and sprocket to the stop rod for retracting the spindle automatically when the firing mechanism is set in action; (C) Spindle, in the in or engaged position.

 
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Figure 161 shows the gyro setting mechanism as it is attached on the barrel, the levers for engaging and disengaging the spindle being in line with the top of the barrel, the shaft (clutch fork shaft) extending down to the spindle housing below. The housing, "N" in Figure 161, with the dials "M" and the handcrank "O," is part of a shop test installation and is not installed in any ship.

Figure 162 shows the engaging and disengaging lever, one hand pressing the release button, the other hand moving the lever, having pressed the latch in the upper part of the lever to unlock it.

Figure 163 is a close-up view of the engaging and

Figure 165 (at left) Close-up
view of the gyro setting spindle
housing
Figure 165 Close-up view of the gyro setting spindle housing, reverse side, showing the spindle in the in or engaged position.

disengaging lever and the spindle housing, detached from the barrel. Figure 164 is a view from the other side, the side which attaches to the barrel, showing the spindle which projects into the tube to engage the socket in the torpedo, also the retraction lever which is attached by gearing to the stop rod which raises the stop bolt, so that the gyro setting spindle is automatically retracted at the same time as the stop bolt, after the firing key has been pressed and the firing mechanism is set in operation, as explained in Chapter 5 on the firing mechanism.

A close-up view of the spindle in the in or engaged position is shown in Figure 165, and one showing the spindle in the out or retracted position is shown in Figure 166.

The parts of the gyro setting mechanism, disassembled, and arranged as nearly as possible in the order and the position in which they would be

  assembled, are shown in Figures 167 and 168.

The gyro setting mechanism, while directly connected as one unit, in reality consists of two distinct units, one for moving the spindle into or out of the socket (for engaging or disengaging the spindle), the other unit for rotating the spindle to set the mechanism in the torpedo after the spindle has been engaged in the socket on the torpedo.

The spindle is engaged in the socket of the torpedo by means of the engaging lever (D in Figure 161, this being connected to the clutch fork shaft which extends down to the spindle housing. In the spindle housing, attached to the lower end of the

Figure 166 Close-up
view of gyro setting spindle
Figure 166 (at right) Close-up view of gyro setting spindle in the out or retracted position.

shaft is a clutch fork the arms of which engage the spindle sleeve, to which the spindle is attached with a certain degree of looseness to allow flexibility for engaging the socket in the torpedo.

As the engaging lever is moved to engage or to retract the spindle, the position in or out is shown by means of an indicator plate attached to the shaft, and an arrow on a pointer plate (see I in Figure 161, also D in Figure 163).

The gyro setting spindle has a square shank at the end which engages the socket in the torpedo for setting the gyro mechanism. This squared shank of the spindle must line up with the socket in the torpedo-that is, the sides of the squares on both the spindle shank and the socket must be parallel. The spindle, as previously stated, is mounted in the sleeve with a slight looseness, and is centered in the sleeve by means of a spring, which facilitates engaging the

 
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THE GYRO SETTING SPINDLE MECHANISM
 
Figure 168
Figure 168 Indicator switch, clutch fork, etc., which assemble into the spindle housing (25) and the switch housing (26) of Figure 167. (A) Bolts and washers; (B) Plug; (C) Cover plate; (D) Push button switch; (E) Washer; (F) Indicator switch housing; (G) and (H) Connections for wiring to switch; (I) Pin for lever; (J) Bolts and washers for attaching indicator housing; (K) Cotter pin; (L) Lever; (M) Clutch fork; (N) Taper pin; (O) Pins for clutch fork arms; (P) Spindle housing (same as 25 in Figure 167).

Figure 167 (below and next page) The parts of the gyro setting spindle mechanism, disassembled, are shown on these two facing pages as nearly as possible in the position in which they would be assembled in the housing.
Figure 167
 
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Figure 167, second part
1 Cover.
2 Packing.
3 Screws for cover.
4 Bearing retainer.
5 Gasket.
6 Bolts and washers for bearing retainer.
7 Bearing nut.
8 Lock washer.
9 Bearing.
10 Gland,
11 Rivet pins.
12 Gland springs.
13 Gland washer.
14 Adapter ring.
15 Packing.
16 Packing.
17 Packing.
18 Rubber gasket.
19 Spindle drive housing.
20 Oil filling plug.
21 Ball bearing spacer.
22 Bearing.
23 Worm wheel.
24 Bearing.
25 Housing for spindle (flange attaches to (19) spindle drive housing).
26 Indicator switch housing.
27 Spindle sleeve.
28 Spindle spring.
29 Spindle.
30 Plug.
31 Key stud.
32 Key.
 
33 Lock washer.
34 Gland nut,
35 Access cover plate.
36 Screws for cover plate.
37 Oil shield.
38 Worm drive shaft.
39 Bearing,
40 Lock washer.
41 Bearing nuts.
42 Gasket.
43 Bearing retainer.
44 Washers and bolts forbearing retainer.
45 Packing.
46 cover.
47 Screws for cover.
48 Gasket, with bolts, washers, nuts, and pins, for attaching spindle housing to spindle drive housing.
49 Nut, with cotter pin, for clutch fork shaft.
50 Indicator collar.
51 Retracting lever.
52 Pointer plate, with screws.
53 Key for shaft.
54 Clutch fork shaft.
55 Latch;
56 Latch spring.
57 Rivet pin.
58 Latch release.
59 Pivot pin.
60 Engaging lever.
61 Latch, grip.
62 Latch spring.
63 Latch.
64 Top bracket.
65 Washer.
66 Nut, with cotter pin, for top of shaft.
 
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spindle in the socket and allows for any slight misalignment.

When a torpedo is loaded into the tube, both the torpedo gyro and the setting spindle should be set at zero to insure lining up of the spindle and the socket. (This applies except when it is desired to check the actual setting on the torpedo at some other angle than zero, and a torpedo is withdrawn from the tube for that purpose.) At the zero setting on both the spindle and the socket, the sides of the squares on both the spindle and the socket are horizontal and vertical.

If it is found hard to enter a spindle into the socket of the torpedo, the spindle may be rotated slightly in either direction by means of the hand drive of the gyro setting indicator regulator.

The spindle sleeve passes through a stuffing box to enter the tube. The spring pressure on the chevron-type sealing rings in this stuffing box (parts 15, 16 and 17 of Figure 167) is not adjustable, and has been held to the minimum so as not to bind the spindle sleeve. Split sealing rings should not be used. Before new rings are installed, they should be soaked in hot neats-foot oil. After new rings are installed they should be exercised by rotating the setting spindle sleeve for 20 minutes, occasionally also working

  it in and out.

A stuffing box drain is provided in the housing base to drain off small quantities of water which may leak past the stuffing box before it can do any damage. This drain must not be obstructed in any way; otherwise any leakage past the stuffing box will back up into the tube unit housing, and will corrode the working parts.

When engaging the spindle, the operating handle is grasped, as shown in Figure 162, and the latch or handle lock release, which is mounted in the top of the handle, is pressed down to unlatch the handle from the handle lever bracket. Pressing the latch or handle lock release acts to pull down the handle lock bolt. The handle is then turned to the in position shown on the indicator plate (D in Figure 163). When the handle has been moved to this position, the shaft bolt release button (G in Figure 161) is pressed to disengage the handle shaft bolt from the handle, and to engage it with the mating toe on the retracting lever (H in Figure 161). Holding the shaft bolt release button in, the operating handle is returned to its latched position, as shown at F in Figure 161.

The foregoing process is reversed to retract or disengage the spindle manually. The operating handle

Figure 169 Gyro spindle retracting lever
Figure 169 Gyro spindle retracting lever, with retracting chain and slide. (A) Chain and sprocket connected with stop rod for retracting the spindle automatically; (B) Intermediary multiplying lever, carrying slide block which engages (C) Spindle retracting lever.
 
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Figure 170 Gyro setting indicator-regulator
Figure 170 Gyro setting indicator-regulator by which the gyro angles of all torpedoes in one nest of torpedo tubes are set.

or lever is unlatched from its latched position and rotated until the handle shaft bolt snaps into engagement with it while releasing itself from the retracting lever. The operating handle is their returned to its latched position, carrying with it the handle shaft, setting spindle, and all connecting parts.

For retracting the spindle automatically, the disengaging or retracting lever is connected, by means of a sprocket and chain, to the stop rod which also retracts the torpedo stop bolt. The stop rod is connected to the piston of the stop cylinder as described in Chapter 5 on the firing mechanism. As the firing key is pressed, admitting air from the ship's service line through the stop cylinder valve to the stop cylinder, the piston of the stop cylinder, to which the stop rod is connected, moves to contact the piston of the pilot valve which releases the air to open the firing valve. As the piston of the stop cylinder moves, it draws the stop rod with it, thus retracting, first, the gyro, setting, spindle and, next, the stop bolt, before venting the fixing valve.

  The connection between the retracting lever and the stop rod is shown in Figure 169. This connection can also be seen in Figures 161 and 162. A slide block engages the retraction lever, the slide block being carried on a pin which is secured in the end of the in multiplying lever. A sprocket, is fixed to the axle of the intermediary multiplying lever, and a chain which engages this sprocket has both ends fastened to the retraction slide, so that motion of the stop rod and retraction slide toward the breech rotates the intermediary multiplying lever, which in turn rotates the, retracting lever and the clutch fork shaft so as to retract the gyro setting spindle.

When the tube has, been fired, the stop rod and the gyro spindle retraction slide are returned to their original positions by the stop rod spring, carrying with them the intermediary multiplying lever and the retracting lever. The wide upper slot in the clutch cam permits this to be done without throwing the gyro setting spindle to its in or engaged position,

Figure 171 Operator at gyro setting indicator-regulator.
Figure 171 Operator at gyro setting indicator-regulator.

 
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The gyro setting spindle may be removed from the housing, for inspection or replacement, without removing or disturbing the spindle sleeve. To-do this, the cap (35 in Figure 167) covering the access opening in the spindle housing is removed. The ears on the locking washer, which are intended to prevent the threaded and socketed plug from backing out, are then bent down, and the plug is removed, being eased out so that the pressure of the spindle spring will not eject it violently. Following this, the spindle rotating plug, together with its key and locking washer, also the spindle and its spring, are removed. As some of these parts are quite small, care must be taken not to lose any of them. The removal of the spindle may be facilitated by pushing it out from within the tube.

To reassemble, the foregoing process is reversed. It will be noticed that there are four .04 inch chamfered sections, each .25 inch long, at the horizontal and vertical center lines on the inner circumference or periphery of the threaded collar upon which the cap screws. The spindle sleeve should be entered with its keyways lined up with either pair of these chamfered sections. In this way, the spindle will be squared up so as to enter the setting socket of a torpedo with the gyro set at 0 degrees or any multiple of 1 1/4 degrees, since one turn of the spindle equals 5 degrees of gyro setting.

An indicator switch ("micro" type), D in Figure 168, is mounted in a housing, F in Figure 168, which in turn is bolted to the setting spindle housing. The switch is of the "normally open" type and is closed to light an indicating lamp by the action of a cam on the clutch fork, M in Figure 168, and the lever, L in the same figure, when the setting spindle is thrown to the "In" position.

Basic and spread gyro angles are set by the operation of the gyro setting indicator-regulator. See NAVORD. O.D. 2585.

The tubes described throughout this manual were designed principally for the use of the Mark 14 and Modifications torpedoes. Other types of torpedoes are also used in these tubes, and in some of these it is necessary to use a gyro setting socket adapter in the gyro setting socket in order to permit the setting spindle of the tube unit to engage the socket to

 

Figure 172 Adapter for gyro setting spindle
socket
Figure 172 Adapter for gyro setting spindle socket, used when torpedoes other than the Mark 14 and Modifications are used in tubes described in this pamphlet.

set the gyro mechanism in the torpedo.

This is due to the fact that in earlier submarines the gyro setting mechanisms were on the outboard side of the tube, and the stroke of the gyro setting spindle (upon which there was no particular reason for imposing any limitation) was established as about 3.30 inches. For greater convenience of operation, the gyro setting mechanisms were later placed on the inboard side of the tube, and the restricted space between the port and the starboard tubes made it necessary to decrease projections inboard of the tubes. Hence the stroke of the gyro setting spindles was reduced to 2.20 inches.

The adapter (shown in Figure 172) is installed in the gyro setting socket of the torpedo by means of a square locking plate. The sides of this locking plate are in alignment with the sides of the square end of the adapter body when the adapter is inserted in the gyro setting socket of the torpedo, and are held in this position by the engagement of a key on the locking plate with a keyway on the end of the adapter body, the parts being held in engagement by the pressure of a spring under the head of the locking screw, to which the locking plate is rigidly secured.

After the adapter is completely inserted in the gyro setting socket, the engagement between the key

 
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on the locking plate and the diagonal keyway on the end of the adapter body is released by the pressure of a screw driver applied to the slot in the head of the locking screw, and the locking plate turned until the key is, brought into alignment with a second keyway in the end of the adapter body at an angle of 45 degrees to the first keyway.

Upon the release of the pressure on the head of the locking screw, the spring pressure will cause the locking plate to become engaged with the adapter body in the new position, and the adapter will be securely held in the gyro setting socket by the engagement of the corners of the locking plate with the undercut in the bottom of the gyro setting socket.

In submarines of latest construction at the date of

  issue of this pamphlet, the following measures ate being taken to minimize the noise produced by gyro setting mechanisms, and to reduce its transmission to the hull plating (from whence it is "broadcast" through the water):

(1) Certain gears are made of phenolic com pound.

(2) Parts of similar material are introduced in shaft couplings.

(3) Housings in which noise is apt to originate are mounted on material which does not readily transmit sound.

The materials so used are not as strong as metal, and are apt to wear quicker. They should, therefore, be given particular attention whenever they show signs of weakness or excessive wear.

 
THE SPEED SETTING MECHANISMS
 
Certain torpedoes used in submarine torpedo tubes contain mechanisms for controlling the speed, high or low, at which the torpedo will travel after it is discharged from the tube. The rate of speed determines not only the speed with which the torpedo travels to its objective, but also its range or the distance it will travel before its power becomes exhausted.

A torpedo set for low speed, for instance, may travel at a rate of 32 knots, and its range will be approximately 9,000 yards. Set for high speed, the torpedo may make 47 knots, and its range will be about 4,500 yards.

The speed, low or high, is determined in accordance with other factors which pertain at the time of preparing to fire, the same as with the depth setting and the gyro angle. Hence the speed setting mechanism on the torpedo tube is so arranged that the speed can be set up to the time when the firing mechanism interlock lever (A of Figure 68) is thrown from "Muzzle Door Unlocked" to "Tube Ready to Fire," the same as the depth setting mechanism.

  Also, like the depth and gyro setting mechanisms, a spindle operates in a housing on the outer side of the tube, projecting through and into the tube to engage a socket in the torpedo.

When loading a torpedo into the tube, the mechanism on the torpedo is set at low, if a two-speed torpedo, or to intermediate if three-speed. Likewise, the setting mechanism on the tube must be set at low.

Briefly stated, a speed setting mechanism consists of a spindle having a three-lobed head which is specially formed so that it will engage the socket in the torpedo only in one position, with a crank, shafting and gearing for turning the spindle, a handle with associated lever for engaging and withdrawing the spindle, and interlock details which engage the interlock sleeve so that the tube can not be fired with the spindle engaged, so that the spindle can not be engaged when the tube is ready to fire, and so that the spindle can not be turned except when all the way in nor retracted unless fully thrown to either of its two positions.

 
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Figure 173 Simple type of
speed setting mechanism
Figure 173 Simple type of speed setting mechanism, mounted on tube. (A) Interlock sleeve; (B) Hand crank for rotating spindle; (C) Lever for engaging and disengaging spindle; (D) Spindle housing.
 
There are two types of speed setting mechanisms, the simple and the cross over. Both are the same in operating principle, the difference being due to whether the mechanism is attached to a port or star board tube. On a port bow tube or a starboard stern tube, the socket in the torpedo which is engaged by the spindle is on the inboard side of the tube, the side nearest the center line of the vessel, when the, torpedo is placed in the tube. Hence, the simple   form of speed setting mechanism, as shown in Figures 173, 175, 176, 182, 183, 193, 194,195 and 196, is used on these tubes. It will be noticed that the spindle housing and the operating handle and lever are together, side by side, on the inboard side of the tube.

On starboard bow or port stern tubes, the socket in the torpedo is on the outboard side of the tube, the side farthest away from the center line of the vessel, hence the cross over type of speed setting

Figure 174 Cross over type
of speed setting mechanism.
Figure 174 Cross over type of speed setting mechanism. (A) Indicator plate; (B) Hand crank for rotating spindle (engaging and disengaging lever concealed); (C) Shafts extending over tube to intermediate pedestal and connecting with (D) Spindle housing.
 
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Figure 175 Simple type of speed
setting mechanism
Figure 175 Simple type of speed setting mechanism, dismounted from tube. (A) Hand crank in low speed position; (B) Indicator plate; (C) interlock bolt; (D) Engaging and disengaging lever; (E) Index collar and shaft; (F) Coupling; (G) Socket shaft; (H) Spindle housing.
Figure 176 Simple type of speed
setting mechanism.
Figure 176 Simple type of speed setting mechanism. (A) Pointer shown at high speed on indicator plate; (B) Index collar locked in high speed position; (C) Slot for locking index collar in low speed position; (D) Lug on base engaging index collar; (E) Indicator showing spindle out or in, lever being at spindle out position.
Figure 177 Cross over
type of speed setting mechanism.
Figure 177 Cross over type of speed setting mechanism. (A) Engaging and disengaging shaft; (B) Interlock bolt, spindle out position; (C) Speed setting shaft; (D) Pointer showing low speed on (E) Indicator plate; (F) Lug on collar of interlock sleeve locking interlock bolt in spindle out position; (G) Engaging and, disengaging lever; (H) Speed setting hand crank.
 
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Figure 178
Figure 178 Showing lug (A) on collar of interlock sleeve releasing interlock bolt to permit movement of engaging and disengaging lever to spindle in position.

Figure 180
Figure 180 Showing pointer moved to high speed position as hand crank is moved up, interlock bolt still engaging lug on collar of interlock sleeve.

  Figure 179
Figure 179 Indicator plate removed to show (A) Pointer, at low speed position, also (B) Interlock bolt in spindle in position, engaging lug on interlock sleeve.

Figure 181
Figure 181 Showing interlock bolt moved to release lug on collar of interlock sleeve as engaging and disengaging lever is moved to spindle out position, torpedo having been set for low speed.

 
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mechanism, as shown in Figures 174, 177 to 181, and 184 to 192, is used on these tubes. In this cross over type, the operating handle and lever are on the inboard side of the tube, but the spindle housing is on the outboard side.

The simple type of speed setting mechanism is shown, detached from the tube, in Figure 175. Here the right hand is holding the lever for engaging and disengaging the spindle, the palm of the hand pressing the latch which locks or unlocks the lever so it can be moved from one position to the other. In this case the lever is in the spindle in or engaged position. The left hand is holding the crank for rotating the spindle to set the speed, the position shown being for low speed, as shown by the pointer on the indicator plate. Note that the index collar (E) in Figure 175, which will be described more fully later, is released from the lug on the base, unlocking the hand crank so it can be rotated.

Figure 176 shows the engaging and disengaging lever in spindle out position, and the speed setting hand crank in high speed position, as shown by the pointer on the indicator plate. Note, also, that the index collar is engaged by the lug, locking the hand crank in the high speed position so it can not be rotated while the spindle is disengaged from the socket in the torpedo.

The cross over type of speed setting mechanism, as already stated, operates on the same basic principle as the simple type, the difference being that the two shafts (the engaging shaft connected with the engaging and disengaging lever, and the worm and shaft connected with the speed setting handle) extend across the tube to an intermediate pedestal on the outboard side, this pedestal carrying the fork and gear which moves and rotates the operating shaft leading to the spindle housing, as shown in Figure 174. This is shown again in Figure 177, which also shows the location of the speed setting controls with relation to the depth setting mechanism.

The speed setting mechanism, like all the other operating mechanisms, is linked up with the tube interlocking system. Referring to Figure 177, (F) shows the lug on the collar of the interlock sleeve

 

Figure 182
Figure 182 Back view of speed setting mechanism (showing setting wheel now being replaced by hand crank). (A) Index collar and (B) Lug on base which engages index collar to lock speed setting wheel or hand crank; (C) Fork on engaging and disengaging lever which moves operating shaft horizontally to engage or disengage spindle; (D) Interlock bolt connected by lug on fork attached to engaging and disengaging lever; (E) End of interlock bolt engaging lug on interlock sleeve.

Figure 183
Figure 183 Back of speed setting mechanism, showing (A) Index collar engaged by lug on base; (B) Interlock bolt in spindle out position, releasing (C) Lug on interlock sleeve.

 
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Figure 184
Figure 184

Figure 185
Figure 185

Figure 186
Figure 186

  engaging the interlock bolt (B) to prevent moving the engaging and disengaging lever. In the position shown, the firing interlock lever (A in Figure 83) would be in the "Tube Ready to Fire" position, the speed setting spindle would be out, or disengaged from the socket in the torpedo.

In Figure 178, the lug on the collar of the interlock sleeve has moved to release the interlock bolt so the engaging and disengaging lever can be moved to spindle in position, as shown in Figure 179. Here, in Figure 179, the indicator plate has been removed to show the pointer which moves back ward and forward to show low or high speed as the speed setting handle is rotated. Also, this shows the full view of the interlock bolt which is thrown by the rotation of the spindle engaging cross shaft in such a way that the interlock sleeve, when the firing interlock lever is in the "Muzzle Door Unlocked" position, can not be rotated until the spindle is retracted, and conversely, so that, when the spindle is out, it can not be re-engaged so long as the firing interlock lever is in the "Tube Ready to Fire" position.

Figure 180 shows the pointer moved over to high speed position as the speed setting hand crank is turned upward, the interlock bolt still engaging the lug on the interlock sleeve.

In Figure 181, the engaging and disengaging

Figure 187
Figure 187

 
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Figure 188
Figure 188
  Figures 184, 185, 186, 187, 188 The speed setting mechanism index collar, engaged and unlocked, in high and low speed positions. (A) Slot in index collar engaged by lug in high speed position; (B) Slot which is engaged when in low speed position; (C) Slot engaged in low speed position; (D) Index collar unlocked, high speed position; (E) Index collar unlocked, low speed position; (F) Index collar, unlocked, halfway between high and low speed positions.
Figure 189 Cross over type of speed
setting mechanism, dismounted from the
tube
Figure 189 Cross over type of speed setting mechanism, dismounted from the tube, showing (A) Spindle in in or engaged position; (B) Engaging and disengaging lever in engaged position; (C) Pointer and indicator plate, showing high speed, (D) Hand crank in high speed position.
Figure 190
Figure 190 Spindle (A) out or disengaged; (B) Lever moved to out position; (C) Pointer and indicator plate, showing low speed; (D) Hand crank in low speed position.
 
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Figure 191
Figure 191 Cross over connections for speed setting mechanism, disassembled at left, assembled at right. (A) Coupling for spindle operating shaft (index collar and shaft); (B) Spindle operating shaft; (C) Index collar; (D) Fork attached to lever for moving shaft horizontally; (E) Gear, and (F) Pinion attached to speed setting shaft for rotating spindle operating shaft; (G) Cap for pedestal; (H) Lug on pedestal for engaging index collar; (I) Pedestal; (J) Shaft collar; (K) Engaging and disengaging shaft; (L) Speed setting shaft; (M) Shaft collar; (N) Indicator plate; (O) Where indicator plate is attached; (P) Body; (Q) Body cap; (R) Lever hub; (S) Plate on base showing spindle out or in; (T) Pointer which moves to show high or low speed on indicator plate; (U) Worm on setting shaft engaging gear on index shaft to rotate pointer; (V) Index shaft for rotating pointer; (W) Engaging and disengaging lever; (X) Speed setting crank; (Y) Parts assembled.
 
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lever has been moved to spindle out position, moving the interlock bolt back to disengage the lug on the interlock sleeve collar, thereby releasing the interlock sleeve so that the firing interlock lever may be thrown to the "Tube Ready to Fire" position.

A close up view of the interlock bolt from the rear of the housing is shown in Figure 182 (this showing the hand wheel which was originally fitted but is being replaced by the hand crank for rotating the spindle). Here the engaging and disengaging lever is in the spindle in position, the interlock bolt being moved over to engage the lug on the interlock sleeve.

Figure 183, the same view as Figure 182, shows the interlock bolt moved back as the lever is moved to disengage the spindle, the end of the bolt clearing the lug on the interlock sleeve. Both Figures 182 and 183 illustrate the simple speed setting mechanism.

Note that the interlocking system acts to lock the speed setting mechanism after the speed has been sot and the spindle removed or retracted from the socket in the torpedo. And conversely, the interlock halt on the speed setting mechanism locks the interlocking system and thereby prevents improper operation of other mechanisms while the speed setting spindle is engaged in the socket of the torpedo for setting the speed.

Still referring to the simple mechanism: As the interlock bolt acts to lock or release the engaging and disengaging lever, so also does the index collar on the operating shaft act to lock or release the speed setting hand crank. This index collar is shown in Figures 175 and 176, also in Figures 182 and 183. As shown in Figure 182, the operating shaft is moved horizontally, backward or forward, by the fork attached to the engaging and disengaging lever. When the spindle is disengaged from the socket in the torpedo, one of two slots in the index collar is engaged by a lug on the base of the housing, as shown in Figure 183. In Figure 182 the index collar is shown released from the lug so the operating shaft can be rotated to set the speed.

The speed setting hand crank can not be turned to rotate the operating shaft while the engaging and

  disengaging lever is in the spindle out or disengaged position, the index collar on the operating shaft being engaged by the lug, thereby serving to prevent movement of the hand crank once the speed has been set. Also, as better shown in Figures 184 to 188, the index collar is formed so that abutting surfaces engage the lug on the base of the housing, even though the spindle is fully engaged, when the mechanism is properly set at high or low speed. This feature acts as a pair of stops to prevent forcing the mechanism in the torpedo past the designed limits. However, the forces afloat reported that speed setting shafts (A in Figure 193 and L in Figure 191) had been bent and twisted by the application of force to the setting crank after the index collar had come against the lug in the base of the housing. Accordingly, the Bureau requested that positive stops acting upon the setting crank be installed in new construction, and, although not shown by any illustration hereon, such stops are installed in a number of vessels. These stops consist of an elongated hub upon the crank shaft, upon which there is mounted, free to turn, a stop collar having a projecting portion which is engaged by two pins, one fixed in the crank and one fixed in the housing. The width of the projecting portion of the stop collar is such that the setting crank is stopped from turning more than 480 degrees.

In the cross over type of mechanism, the operation is essentially the same as in the simple type. The index collar has two slots, as shown in the close up view in Figure 184. Here one slot in the index collar is engaged by the lug after the mechanism has been set for high speed and the spindle has been retracted. Figure 185 shows the second slot in the index collar engaged by the lug after the mechanism has been set for low speed. The index collar unlocked, and in high speed position, is shown in Figure 186. Figure 187 shows the index collar unlocked and in low speed position, and Figure 188 shows the collar half way between the high and low speed positions.

When studying these views of the index collar it is well to recall that, as previously stated, the operating shaft is moved horizontally by the engaging and disengaging lever to engage or disengage the

 
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spindle in the socket of the torpedo. For setting the speed after the spindle is engaged, the operating shaft is rotated by the speed setting wheel or hand crank. Thus the horizontal movement of the operating shaft when moved by the fork attached to the engaging and disengaging lever causes the index collar to slide onto the lug on the base of the housing when the slot in the collar is in the proper position.

Figure 189 shows the cross over type of speed setting mechanism detached from the barrel. The spindle is shown in the in or engaged position, the engaging and disengaging lever being in that position. The hand crank is shown in high speed position, the pointer being at high on the indicator plate.

  Figure 190 shows the spindle in the out or disengaged position, the lever being in that position as shown by the arrow on the part of the housing over which the lever moves. It will be noted here that a plunger engages one of the two holes in the projection on the base of the housing, locking the engaging and disengaging lever when it is in the out or in position, this plunger being released by pressure on the latch which forms a part of the hand grip on the lever.

Figure 191 shows the parts of the cross over attachment, disassembled at the left, and assembled at the right, while Figure 192 shows the parts which assemble into the intermediate pedestal. Tracing the operation of this part of the mechanism from the parts as shown in these illustrations, it will be

Figure 192
Figure 192 Parts for intermediate pedestal on cross over type of speed setting mechanism. (A) Pinion and socket for speed setting shaft; (B) Gear; (C) Ring nut for gear; (D) Pedestal, showing pinion and gear in place; (E) Index collar and shaft; (F) Fork attached for engaging and disengaging lever; (G) Coupling; (H) Machine screws for coupling.
 
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Figure 193
Figure 193 Operating shaft and connecting parts for simple type of speed setting mechanism. (A) Pinion and worm; (B) Gear; (C) Ring nut for gear; (D) Index collar and shaft; (E) Pivot screw; (F) Interlock bolt; (G) Lever fork; (H) Screw pin; (I) Latch; (J) Latch spring; (K) Latch plunger; (L) Lever handle; (M) Speed setting crank; (N) Special nut; (O) Index shaft; (P) Pointer.
 
noticed that the engaging lever is connected to the engaging shaft which, at the lever end, is connected with the lever hub on the top of which is a lug which moves the interlock bolt backward or forward. At the far end the engaging shaft is attached to a fork which moves the spindle operating shaft to engage or disengage the spindle. The speed setting hand crank is connected with the speed setting shaft, a worm at the handle end engaging a gear on the index shaft to rotate the pointer to show low or high speed on the indicator plate. The far end of the speed setting shaft is attached to a pinion which meshes with the gear on the end of the spindle operating shaft to rotate the shaft for setting the   speed after the spindle is engaged in the socket of the torpedo.

Figure 193 shows the operating shaft and connecting parts (disassembled) for the simple type of speed setting mechanism. Figure 194 shows the operating shaft, levers, and connecting parts as assembled in the housing, with the upper part of the housing removed to show the position of the different parts. Figure 195 shows the position of the operating shaft and the speed setting shaft as assembled in the housing. Figure 196 shows the housing and assembled parts from the back, indicating more clearly the action of the gear and fork on the operating shaft.

 
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Figure 194
Figure 194 Operating shaft, lever, hand crank, pointer, interlock bolt, and connecting parts assembled in housing, with (A) Indicator plate; (B) Body; (C) Location of indicator plate; (D) Body cap.
 
Figure 195 Operating and speed setting shafts assembled in housing.
Figure 195 Operating and speed setting shafts assembled in housing.
 
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Figure 196 Housing and assembled parts
shown from the back.
Figure 196 Housing and assembled parts shown from the back.
 
Figure 197 Interior of spindle housing, showing operation of raising and
lowering the spindle, also rotating it
to set speed.
Figure 197 Interior of spindle housing, showing operation of raising and lowering the spindle, also rotating it to set speed.
 
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Figure 197 is a view of the spindle housing with the outer casing broken away to show the operation of raising and lowering the spindle, and also rotating it. Figure 198 shows the spindle housing parts disassembled. Tracing the operation of this part of the mechanism while referring to Figures 197 and 198, the socket shaft of the spindle housing is coupled to the index collar and shaft operated by the engaging lever and the setting hand crank. In the spindle housing, the socket shaft engages a bell crank fork, which in turn engages the spindle sleeve in which the spindle is attached. The horizontal movement of the socket shaft as the engaging lever is moved operates the bell crank fork to lower or raise the spindle sleeve.

The end of the socket shaft also connects with a

  pinion which engages a gear attached to the spindle sleeve, so that as the speed setting handle is turned, rotating the shaft, the pinion and gear act to rotate the spindle sleeve and with it the spindle for setting the mechanism in the torpedo.

The socket shaft (F in Figure 198) enters the spindle housing through a stuffing box, as shown at the left in Figure 197, the parts being shown at F, G, H, I, and J in Figure 198. This stuffing box, like all other stuffing boxes on the torpedo tube, should be kept tightened just enough to prevent leakage of water that enters the spindle housing. It should not, however, be tightened to the extent that it interferes with the movement of the socket shaft and prevents proper operation of the speed setting mechanism.

Figure 198 Parts for speed setting spindel housing.
Figure 198 Parts for speed setting spindle housing.
A Plug.
B Gasket.
C Pinion.
D Housing.
E Retaining ring.
F Socket shaft.
G Bearing.
H Leather packing.
I Gasket.
J Plug.
K Gear.
 
L Retaining ring.
M Adjusting ring.
N Sleeve cap and keys.
O Spindle retainer.
P Spindle sleeve.
Q Spindle.
R Bell crank fork.
S Pivot screw and washer.
T Gasket.
U Bolts studs, and nuts for attaching housing to barrel.
 
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