HNSA Crest with photos of visitors at the ships.

PART 2

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF TORPEDOES

Note: Characteristics given are for warshot torpedoes. Weights indicated for these torpedoes include warhead fuel, etc.

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Howell
Torpedo
DEVELOPMENT DATE:
CIRCA 1880

APPROXIMATE IN-SERVICE DATES:
1890-1898

Illustration of Howell Torpedo.

The Howell Torpedo was named for its inventor, U.S. Navy LCDR John A. Howell. (He later became a Rear Admiral.) This torpedo was the only U.S. torpedo of its era (circa 1880) to attain enough success to be produced in quantity. The power for the Howell was received from a flywheel prespun before launch. In 1889, the U.S. Navy ordered 50 Howell Torpedoes from the Hotchkiss Ordnance Co., Providence, R.I., who had purchased the rights to the torpedo from Howell. This torpedo was used as an antisurface ship, battleship- and torpedo boat-launched weapon until 1898 when it was supplanted by the Whitehead Torpedo. An actual photograph of the Howell is shown on page 17.

CHARACTERISTICS
PHYSICAL
Length132 inches
Diameter14.2 inches
Weight580 pounds
PropulsionPrespun flywheel
EnablingNo
GuidanceGyro effect of
the flywheel
HomingNo
FC SettingsNone
Warhead100 pounds
wet guncotton
ExploderContact device
PERFORMANCE
Speed= 25 knots
Range400 yards (800
when flywheel
runs down)

61


Whitehead
Torpedo
Mk1
DEVELOPMENT DATE:
CIRCA 1892

APPROXIMATE IN-SERVICE DATES:
3.55 M 1894-1913, 5 M 1894-1922

Early accounts indicate that there were two versions of the Whitehead Torpedo Mk 1: a 3.55-meter (140-inch) version and a 5-meter (197-inch) version. The longer Mk I carried nearly twice the explosive charge (220 pounds) of the short version and was fitted with the Obry steering gear (gyro control in azimuth). The Whitehead Mk 1 (both lengths) was a "cold" running torpedo; the three-cylinder reciprocating engine ran on cold, compressed air which was stored in a section of the torpedo called the air flask. The E. W. Bliss Co., Brooklyn, N.Y., was the manufacturer of this torpedo for the U.S. Navy. It was used as an antisurface ship, battleship- and torpedo boat-launched weapon.

CHARACTERISTICS

PHYSICAL
 
3.55 M5 M
Length140 inches197 inches
Diameter17.7 inches17.7 inches
Weight845 pounds1160 pounds
Propulsion3-cylinder
reciprocating
3-cylinder
reciprocating
EnablingNoNo
GuidanceDepth controlDepth control, gyro
Flask Air Pressure1350 psi1350 psi
HomingNoNo
FC SettingsPresetPreset
Warhead118 pounds
wet guncotton
220 pounds
wet guncotton
ExploderWar Nose Mk 1*
Contact
War Nose Mk 1*
Contact
 
PERFORMANCE
 
Speed26.5 knots27.5 knots
Range800 yards800 yards

*War Noses Mk 1, Mk 2, and Mk 5 were used interchangeably.

62


Whitehead Torpedo Mk 1 (3.55 meter)

Whitehead Torpedo Mk 1 (3.55 meter)

Whitehead Torpedo Mk 1 (5 meter)

Whitehead Torpedo Mk 1 (5 meter)

63


Whitehead
Torpedo
Mk2
DEVELOPMENT DATE:
CIRCA 1893

APPROXIMATE IN-SERVICE DATES:
3.55 M 1896-1913, 5 M 189/-1922

There were two versions of the antisurface ship Whitehead Torpedo Mk 2; one was 3.55 meters (140 inches) in length while the second was 5 meters (197 inches) long. Both versions were 45 centimeters (17.7 inches) in diameter. The 5-meter Mk 2 had twice the range of the 3.55-meter Mk 2 (1500 yards versus 800 yards) and had a 10-percent increase in explosive charge (132 pounds versus 118 pounds). The 5-meter Mk 2 was probably based on the 5-meter Mk 1 rather than being a modification of the 3.55-meter Mk 2. This latter torpedo was identical to the 3.55-meter Mk 1 except for mechanical details. For the 5-meter Mk 2 within the 5-meter Mk 1 envelope, the capacity of the air flask was increased by 20 percent and the air flask pressure was increased from 1350 psi to 1500 psi. The launch platforms were battleships and torpedo boats.

Whitehead Torpedo Mk 2 (3.55 meter)

Illustration of Whitehead Torpedo Mk 2 (3.55 meter)

Whitehead Torpedo Mk 2 (5 meter)

Illustration of Whitehead Torpedo Mk 2 (5 meter)

64


CHARACTERISTICS

PHYSICAL
 
3.55 M5 M
Length140 inches197 inches
Diameter17.7 inches17.7 inches
Weight845 pounds1232 pounds
Propulsion3-cylinder
reciprocating
3-cylinder
reciprocating
EnablingNoNo
GuidanceDepth controlDepth control
Flask Air Pressure1350 psi1500 psi
HomingNoNo
FC SettingsPresetPreset
Warhead118 pounds
wet guncotton
132 pounds
wet guncotton
ExploderWar Nose Mk 1*
Contact
War Nose Mk 1*
Contact
 
PERFORMANCE
 
Speed27 knots28.5 knots
Range800 yards1500 yards

*War Nose Mk 1, Mk 2, and Mk 5 were used interchangeably.

65


Whitehead
Torpedo
Mk3
DEVELOPMENT DATE:
CIRCA 1893

APPROXIMATE IN-SERVICE DATES:
3.55M 1898-1922

Illustration of Whitehead Torpedo Mk 3

Unlike Whitehead Torpedoes Mk 1 and Mk 2, there was only one version of the Whitehead Mk 3 torpedo, the 3.55-meter. The main difference between the 3.55-meter Whitehead Mk 3 and the previous versions of this length was the inclusion of the Obry steering gear (gyro) for azimuth control. According to U.S. Navy acceptance tests for the Whitehead type torpedo, the maximum deviation right or left of the target was reduced from 24 to 8 yards in the Whitehead Mk 3. About 100 Torpedoes Mk 3 were purchased from the E. W. Bliss Co., and in 1913, redesignated Torpedo Type A. The Whitehead Torpedo Mk 3 was withdrawn from service use in 1922 when all torpedoes designed prior to Torpedo Mk 7, were condemned in favor of more modern weapons.

CHARACTERISTICS
PHYSICAL
Length140 inches
Diameter17.7 inches
Weight845 pounds
Propulsion3-cylinder
EnablingNo
GuidanceGyro
HomingNo
FC SettingsPreset
Warhead118 pounds
wet guncotton
ExploderWar Nose Mk 1*
Contact
PERFORMANCE
Speed= 26.5 knots
Range800 yards

*War Noses Mk 1, Mk 2, and Mk 5 were used interchangeably.

66


Bliss-Leavitt
Torpedo
Mk1
DEVELOPMENT DATE:
1904

APPROXIMATE IN-SERVICE DATES:
1904-1922

Illustration of Bliss-Leavitt Torpedo Mk 1

After the E.W. Bliss Co. had manufactured Whitehead Torpedoes for several years, one of the company's engineers, F. Leavitt, developed a turbine-driven antisurface ship torpedo which was designated the Bliss-Leavitt Torpedo Mk 1. In addition to the engine change, the air flask pressure of the new weapon was increased to 2250 psi (vice 1500 psi for the Whitehead units). The air in the new model was heated by burning alcohol in a chamber upstream from the engine. The increased air flask pressure and heated air served to increase the range of the Bliss-Leavitt Mk 1 to 4000 yards at 27 knots. (The range was 1500 yards at 28.5 knots for the 5-meter Whitehead Mk 2.) This torpedo, in service on battleships, torpedo boats, and cruisers, used a single vertical turbine wheel rotating about the torpedo's longitudinal axis and driving a single propeller. The unbalanced torque was sufficient to cause the Mk 1 to have a tendency to roll.

CHARACTERISTICS
PHYSICAL
Length197 inches
Diameter21 inches
Weightapprox. 1500 pounds
PropulsionSingle vertical
turbine wheel
EnablingNo
GuidanceGyro
Flask Air Pressure2250 psi
HomingNo
FC SettingsPreset
Warheadapprox. 200 pounds
wet guncotton
ExploderWar Nose Mk 1*
Contact
PERFORMANCE
Speed27 knots
Range4000 yards

*War Noses Mk 1, Mk 2, and Mk 5 were used interchangeably.

67


Bliss-Leavitt
Torpedo
Mk2
DEVELOPMENT DATE:
1905

APPROXIMATE IN-SERVICE DATES:
1905-1922

Illustration of Bliss-Leavitt Torpedo Mk 2

The Bliss-Leavitt Torpedo Mk 2 was a "hot running" (propelled by heated air), 21-inch (in diameter) torpedo used on battleships, torpedo boats, and cruisers. This antisurface ship torpedo, developed by the E.W. Bliss Co., Brooklyn, N.Y., was the first weapon to use two contrarotating turbines with each driving a propeller. The development eliminated the unbalanced torque which had contributed to the tendency of the Bliss-Leavitt Mk 1 to roll. About 250 units were manufactured by the E.W. Bliss Co. for the U.S. Navy.

CHARACTERISTICS
PHYSICAL
Length197 inches
Diameter21 inches
Weightapprox. 1500 pounds
PropulsionTurbine (contra-
rotating)
EnablingNo
GuidanceGyro
Flask Air Pressure2250 psi
HomingNo
FC SettingsPreset
Warheadapprox. 200 pounds
wet guncotton
ExploderWar Nose Mk 5*
Contact
PERFORMANCE
Speed26 knots
Range3500 yards

*War Noses Mk 1, Mk 2, and Mk 5 were used interchangeably.

68


Bliss-Leavitt
Torpedo
Mk3
DEVELOPMENT DATE:
1906

APPROXIMATE IN-SERVICE DATES:
1906-1922

Illustration of Bliss-Leavitt Torpedo Mk 3

Developed and manufactured by the E.W. Bliss Co., Brooklyn, N.Y., the Bliss-Leavitt Torpedo Mk 3 was very similar to the Bliss-Leavitt Mk 2. This torpedo was a "hot running," 21-inch (in diameter) antisurface ship torpedo used on battleships, torpedo boats, and cruisers. The main difference between Mk 2 and Mk 3 was that the Mk 3 had an increased range (4000 yards versus 3500 yards for Mk 2). Approximately 200 Bliss-Leavitt Torpedoes Mk 3 were produced for the U.S. Navy.

CHARACTERISTICS
PHYSICAL
Length197 inches
Diameter21 inches
Weightapprox. 1500 pounds
PropulsionTurbine (contra-
rotating)
EnablingNo
GuidanceGyro
Flask Air Pressure2250 psi
HomingNo
FC SettingsPreset
Warheadapprox. 200 pounds
wet guncotton
ExploderWar Nose Mk 5*
Contact
PERFORMANCE
Speed26 knots
Range4000 yards

*War Noses Mk 1, Mk 2, and Mk 5 were used interchangeably.

69


Bliss-Leavitt
Torpedo
Mk4
DEVELOPMENT DATE:
1908

APPROXIMATE IN-SERVICE DATES:
1908-1922

Illustration of Bliss-Leavitt Torpedo Mk 4

The Bliss-Leavitt Torpedo Mk 4, an 18-inch antisurface ship weapon, was the first torpedo specifically designed for submarine launching. (Earlier torpedoes were used on battleships and cruisers.) Developed and produced by the E.W. Bliss Co., about 100 of these units were purchased by the U.S. Navy for experimental purposes. The experiments with the Bliss-Leavitt Torpedo Mk 4 led to design improvements to the gyro and the reducing valve. In 1922, the torpedo and all other torpedoes designed prior to Torpedo Mk 7, were considered obsolete and withdrawn from service use.

CHARACTERISTICS
PHYSICAL
Length197 inches
Diameter17.7 inches
Weightapprox. 1500 pounds
PropulsionVertical turbine
EnablingNo
GuidanceGyro
Flask Air Pressure2250 psi
HomingNo
FC SettingsPreset
WarheadInfo not available
ExploderWar Nose Mk 1*
Contact
PERFORMANCE
SpeedInfo not available
RangeInfo not available

*War Noses Mk 1, Mk 2, and Mk 5 were used interchangeably.

70


Whitehead
Torpedo
Mk5
DEVELOPMENT DATE:
CIRCA 1901

APPROXIMATE IN-SERVICE DATES:
1910-1922

Illustration of Whitehead Torpedo Mk 5

A "hot running" (powered by heated air) torpedo of Whitehead design, the Mk 5 torpedo was the first torpedo to be manufactured by the Naval Torpedo Station in Newport, R.I. (1908). The Mk 5 was similar in performance to the Bliss-Leavitt torpedoes of that era, and approximately 500 units were produced by the Torpedo Station and Vickers Ltd. of England. This torpedo was doomed, however, by a major technological advancement (increased efficiency and range) in the Bliss-Leavitt Torpedo Mk 7 which came soon after the Mk 5 was produced. The Mk 5 was the first to permit the firing ship to vary speed and range. The Mk 5 was accomplished by adjustment of the reducing valve prior to tube loading. The Mk 5 was used on battleships, torpedo boats, and submarines, and was an antisurface ship weapon.

CHARACTERISTICS
PHYSICAL
Length204 inches
Diameter17.7 inches
Weight1452 pounds
Propulsion4-cylinder
reciprocating
EnablingNo
GuidanceGyro
Flask Air Pressure2100 psi
HomingNo
FC SettingsPreset
Warhead200 pounds
wet guncotton
ExploderWar Nose Mk 5*
Contact
PERFORMANCE
Speed 
 Low27 knots
 Medium36 knots
 High40 knots
Range 
 Low4000 yards
 Medium2000 yards
 High1000 yards

*War Noses Mk 1, Mk 2, and Mk 5 were used interchangeably.

71


Bliss-Leavitt
Torpedo
Mk6
DEVELOPMENT DATE:
1911

APPROXIMATE IN-SERVICE DATES:
1911-1922

Illustration of Bliss-Leavitt Torpedo Mk 6

The Bliss-Leavitt Torpedo Mk 6 was an 18-inch antisurface ship torpedo designed for above-water tubes and could be launched from destroyers and cruisers. It featured a main engine that was a horizontal turbine rather than the vertical turbine used on all other Bliss-Leavitt torpedoes. The Mk 6 depth and gyro controls were also combined into one unit as another design change. Although the Mk 6 torpedo reached speeds up to 35 knots, its range was conversely reduced to 2000 yards. About 100 units were manufactured by the E.W. Bliss Co.

CHARACTERISTICS
PHYSICAL
Length204 inches
Diameter17.7 inches
Weightapprox. 1800 pounds
PropulsionTurbine
EnablingNo
GuidanceGyro
Flask Air Pressure2250 psi
HomingNo
FC SettingsPreset
WarheadInfo not available
ExploderWar Nose Mk 5*
Contact
PERFORMANCE
Speed35
Range2000

*War Noses Mk 1, Mk 2, and Mk 5 were used interchangeably.

72


Bliss-Leavitt
Torpedo
Mk7
DEVELOPMENT DATE:
1911

APPROXIMATE IN-SERVICE DATES:
1912-1945

Illustration of Bliss-Leavitt Torpedo Mk 7

Torpedo Mk 7, a submarine/destroyer-launched antisurface ship torpedo, was a major step forward in the evolution of the modern torpedo. It featured the introduction of water into the combustion pot to cool the combustion gases and produce steam. Propulsive efficiency was increased which, in turn, resulted in an increase in the range. Developed by the Bliss-Leavitt Co., Brooklyn, N.Y., and the Naval Torpedo Station, Newport, R.I., Torpedo Mk 7 was issued to the Fleet in 1912 and remained in service through World War II. This torpedo was also in development/experimentation as an aircraft-launched weapon in the early 1920s.

CHARACTERISTICS
PHYSICAL
Length204 inches
Diameter17.7 inches
Weight1628 pounds
PropulsionTurbine
GuidanceGyro
EnablingNo
Flask Air Pressure2000/2500 psi
(depending on mod)
HomingNo
FC SettingsMechanical
WarheadMk 7 Mod 5
326 pounds TNT
or TPX
ExploderMk 3 Mod 1
Contact
PERFORMANCE
Speed35
Range3500/6000 yards
(depending on
mod)

73


Short Torpedo
Mk7
(Type D)
DEVELOPMENT DATE:
1917

APPROXIMATE IN-SERVICE DATES:
NO RECORD OF SERVICE USE

Illustration of Short Torpedo Mk 7 (Type D)

The Type D Torpedo was a shorter version of the Mk 7 torpedo. Developed by Washington Navy Yard, Washington, D.C., in order to fit certain submarine torpedo tubes, the Mk 7 air flask was shortened and the weight of the warhead was reduced. The fuel and water tanks were relocated to obtain more air flask capacity on the Type D. The fuel tank was mounted in the aft air flask bulkhead while the water tanks were mounted in the afterbody. The overall weight of the warshot torpedo, as compared to the Mk 7, was 590 pounds lighter and 58 inches shorter. In addition, air, fuel and water capacities were approximately one-third of the capacities found in the Mk 7 torpedo. This torpedo was never produced in quantity.

CHARACTERISTICS
PHYSICAL
Length144 inches
Diameter17.7 inches
Weight1036 pounds
PropulsionTurbine
EnablingNo
GuidanceGyro
Flask Air Pressure2250 psi
HomingNo
FC SettingsMechanical
WarheadTotal weight-
281
ExploderMk 3
Contact
PERFORMANCE
Speed35
Range= 2000 yards

74


Bliss-Leavitt
Torpedo
Mk 8
DEVELOPMENT DATE:
1911

APPROXIMATE IN-SERVICE DATES:
1911-1945

Illustration of Bliss-Leavitt Torpedo Mk 8

Developed during World War I, the Mk 8 was the U.S. Navy's first 21-inch by 21-foot torpedo. The Naval Torpedo Station at Newport, R.I., the Torpedo Station in Alexandria, Va., and the U.S.N. Gun Factory in Washington, D.C. were all involved in the production of this destroyer-launched, antisurface ship torpedo which was still in the inventory at the start of the second World War. Approximately 600 Mk 8 torpedoes were issued to Great Britain to use with 50 old-type U.S. destroyers turned over to England under the lend-lease act.

CHARACTERISTICS
PHYSICAL
Length256.3 inches
Diameter21 inches
Weight2600 pounds
PropulsionTurbine
GuidanceGyro
EnablingNo
Flask Air Pressure2800 psi
HomingNo
FC SettingsMechanical
WarheadMk 8 Mod 4
466 pounds TNT
ExploderMk 3 Mod 2
Contact
PERFORMANCE
Speed36
Range16,000 yards

75


Bliss-Leavitt
Torpedo
Mk 9
DEVELOPMENT DATE:
1915

APPROXIMATE IN-SERVICE DATES:
1915-1945

Illustration of Bliss-Leavitt Torpedo Mk 9

Developed around 1915 by the Naval Torpedo Station, Newport, R.I., and the E.W. Bliss Co., Brooklyn, N.Y., Torpedo Mk 9 was designed for use by battleships. Prior to issue, however, use of torpedoes on battleships was discontinued and Mk 9 torpedoes were placed in reserve (storage). Modified for use in R- and S-class submarines, this antisurface ship torpedo was used in early World War II to supplement the initial supply of Torpedoes Mk 14. Torpedo production for the U.S. Navy was terminated by the E.W. Bliss Co. about 1920 after completion of the Mk 9 project.

CHARACTERISTICS
PHYSICAL
Length197 inches
Diameter21 inches
Weight2015 pounds
PropulsionTurbine
EnablingNo
GuidanceGyro
Flask Air Pressure2800 psi
HomingNo
FC SettingsMechanical
WarheadMk 9
210 pounds TNT
ExploderMk 3 Mod 2
Contact
PERFORMANCE
Speed27
Range7000 yards

76


Torpedo
Mk 10
DEVELOPMENT DATE:
1915

APPROXIMATE IN-SERVICE DATES:
1915-1945

Illustration of Torpedo Mk 10

Torpedo Mk 10 was developed by the E.W. Bliss Co. and the Naval Torpedo Station, Newport, R.I., and produced in 1915 by the Torpedo Station, to be used as a fast, short-range, antisurface ship torpedo. The Mk 10 featured the largest payload (warhead of =500 pounds) of any torpedo developed up to that time. Used in R- and S-class submarines after World War I, this torpedo saw service in the early years of the second World War.

CHARACTERISTICS
PHYSICAL
Length195 inches
Diameter21 inches
Weight2215 pounds
PropulsionSteam turbine,
alcohol
EnablingNo
GuidanceGyro, straight
running
Flask Air Pressure2500 psi
HomingNone
FC SettingsMechanical
WarheadMk 10 Mod 3
497 pounds TNT
ExploderMk 3
Contact
PERFORMANCE
Speed36
Range3500 yards

77


Torpedo
Mk 11
DEVELOPMENT DATE:
1926

APPROXIMATE IN-SERVICE DATES:
1926-1945

Illustration of Torpedo Mk 11

Developed by Washington Navy Yard, Washington, D.C., and the Naval Torpedo Station, Newport, R.I. the Mk 11 torpedo was a destroyer-launched, antisurface ship torpedo which had the first three-speed setting capability (selectable while tube loaded). The development was completed in 1926 and Torpedo Mk 11 became the first torpedo to be designed totally within the Navy (without industry collaboration). An objective was to attain a "universal" use torpedo (i.e., could be launched from any type of platform).

CHARACTERISTICS
PHYSICAL
Length271 inches
Diameter21 inches
Weight3511 pounds
PropulsionTurbine
EnablingNo
GuidanceGyro
Flask Air Pressure2800 psi
HomingNo
FC SettingsMechanical
WarheadMk 11
500 pounds TNT
ExploderMk 3 Mod 1
Contact
PERFORMANCE
Speed (knots) 
  Low27
  Medium34
  High46
Range (yards) 
  Low15,000
  Medium10,000
  High6000

78


Torpedo
Mk 12
DEVELOPMENT DATE:
1928

APPROXIMATE IN-SERVICE DATES:
1928-1945

Illustration of Torpedo Mk 12

Similar in design to the Mk 11 torpedo (but with detail refinements), Torpedo Mk 12 was a destroyer-launched, antisurface ship torpedo. This torpedo had a lower high-power setting than the Mk 11 (44 versus 46 knots) to improve reliability. The development of this torpedo by the Naval Torpedo Station, Newport, R.I., was completed in 1928. Two hundred units were manufactured by the Torpedo Station.

CHARACTERISTICS
PHYSICAL
Length271 inches
Diameter21 inches
Weight3505 pounds
PropulsionTurbine
EnablingNo
GuidanceGyro
Flask Air Pressure2800 psi
HomingNo
FC SettingsMechanical
WarheadMk 11
500 pounds TNT
ExploderMk 3 Mod 1
Contact
PERFORMANCE
Speed (knots) 
  Low27.5
  Medium35.5
  High44
Range (yards) 
  Low15,000
  Medium10,000
  High7000

79


Torpedo
Mk 13
DEVELOPMENT DATE:
1936

APPROXIMATE IN-SERVICE DATES:
1936-1950

Illustration of Torpedo Mk 13

Torpedo Mk 13 was the first torpedo designed specifically for aircraft launching. Developed by the Naval Torpedo Station, Newport, R.I., approximately 17,000 of these antisurface ship torpedoes were produced during World War II. Among the producers were the Naval Torpedo Station; Pontiac Motor Division, Pontiac, Mich.; the Amertorp Corp., Forest Park Ill., and St. Louis, Mo.; and the International Harvester Co. The Mk 13 torpedo saw service during the second World War and was eventually outmoded by ASW torpedoes.

CHARACTERISTICS
PHYSICAL
Length161 inches
Diameter22.5 inches
Weight2216 pounds
PropulsionTurbine
GuidanceGyro
EnablingNo
Flask Air Pressure2800 psi
HomingNo
FC SettingsMechanical
WarheadMk 13
600 pounds TPX
ExploderMk 8
Contact
PERFORMANCE
Speed33.5 knots
Range6300 yards

80


Torpedo
Mk 14
DEVELOPMENT DATE:
1931

APPROXIMATE IN-SERVICE DATES:
1938

Illustration of Torpedo Mk 12

Torpedo Mk 14, developed as a replacement for the Mk 10 torpedo had a longer range than the Mk 10 and had a 100-pound heavier warhead charge. This torpedo was the primary submarine-launched, antisurface ship torpedo used in World War II until the introduction of the electric Torpedo Mk 18. Approximately 4,000,000 tons of Japanese shipping were sunk by the Mk 14 torpedo. Originally introduced for use as mechanically-set torpedo, the Mk 14 was modified for use with modern fire control systems (and designated Mod 5). This torpedo is still in service use. Torpedo Mk 14 was developed by the Naval Torpedo Station, Newport, R.I. and approximately 13,000 were produced during the second World War by the Naval Torpedo Stations in Newport; Alexandria, Va.; and Keyport, Wash.; and the Naval Ordnance Plant, Forest Park, Ill.

CHARACTERISTICS
PHYSICAL
Length246 inches
Diameter21 inches
Weight3209 pounds
PropulsionTurbine
GuidanceGyro
EnablingNo
HomingNo
FC SettingsElectrical
WarheadMk 16 Mod 6
643 pounds HBX
ExploderMk 6 Mod 13
Contact
PERFORMANCE
Speed (knots) 
  Low31.1
  High46.3
Range (yards) 
  Low9,000
  High4500

81


Torpedo
Mk 15
DEVELOPMENT DATE:
1938

APPROXIMATE IN-SERVICE DATES:
1938-1956

Illustration of Torpedo Mk 15

Developed and produced by the Naval Torpedo Station, Newport, R.I., Torpedo Mk 15 was designed as a replacement for the Mk 11 and Mk 12 torpedoes in surface ship application. It was 17 inches longer and 300 pounds heavier than its predecessors. The additional weight was due to increased payload. Approximately 9700 Mk 15 torpedoes were produced during the period 1940 through 1944. This torpedo was the last destroyer-launched, antisurface ship torpedo in wide service use. As part of the Fleet modernization program of the 1950's, it was phased out of service by the removal of the quintuple-mount torpedo tubes from destroyers. Torpedo Mk 15 was developed by the Naval Torpedo Station, Newport, R.I., and produced by the Torpedo Station and by the Naval Ordnance Plant, Forest Park, Ill.

CHARACTERISTICS
PHYSICAL
Length288 inches
Diameter21 inches
Weight3841 pounds
PropulsionTurbine
GuidanceGyro
EnablingNo
HomingNo
FC SettingsMechanical
WarheadMk 7 Mod 3
825 pounds HBX
ExploderMk 6 Mod 13
Contact
PERFORMANCE
Speed (knots) 
  Low26.5
  Medium33.5
  High45.00
Range (yards) 
  Low15,000
  Medium10,000
  High6000

82


Torpedo
Mk 16
DEVELOPMENT DATE:
1943

APPROXIMATE IN-SERVICE DATES:
1943-1975

Illustration of Torpedo Mk 16

In 1943, the Naval Torpedo Station, Newport, R.I., and the Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C., began development of a submarine-launched, antisurface ship torpedo designated Torpedo Mk 16. The decision to use "Navol" (concentrated hydrogen peroxide (H2O2O)) as an oxidant came as a result of research on chemical torpedoes which began in 1915. Torpedo Mk 16, which was also produced at the Torpedo Station in Newport, and at the Naval Ordnance Plant, Forest Park, Ill., had the same physical characteristics as the Mk 14 Mod 3 torpedo. As a result of World War II, production began before development was completed on this torpedo. None of the Mk 16 torpedoes were used in combat, although 60 units were completed prior to the end of the war. Production continued in post-World War II years, however, with over 1700 Torpedoes Mk 16 manufactured. The final version was Torpedo Mk 16 Mod 8 which was withdrawn from service use in 1975.

CHARACTERISTICS
PHYSICAL
Length246 inches
Diameter21 inches
Weight4000 pounds
PropulsionTurbine
GuidanceGyro
EnablingYes
HomingNo
FC SettingsElectrical
WarheadMk 16 Mod 7
746 pounds HBX
ExploderMk 9 Mod 4
Contact/Influence
PERFORMANCE
Speed46.2 knots
Range11,000 yards

83


Torpedo
Mk 17
DEVELOPMENT DATE:
1940

APPROXIMATE IN-SERVICE DATES:
1944-1950

Illustration of Torpedo Mk 17

Development on Torpedo Mk 17 began in 1940 by the Naval Torpedo Station, Newport, R.I., and the Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C. A long-range, high-speed torpedo, the Mk 17 was a destroyer-launched, antisurface ship weapon using "Navol" (concentrated hydrogen peroxide (H2O2O)) as an oxidant. Torpedo Mk 17 development, halted in 1941 due to pressure to produce Torpedoes Mk 13 and Mk 15 for the war effort, was resumed again in 1944. (Detailed knowledge of the Japanese type 93 "Long Lance," a 22,000-yard, 49-knot oxygen torpedo became available about this time.) As in the case of the Mk 16 torpedo, the Mk 17 went into production before development was completed. The producer was the Torpedo Station in Newport. Although there were 450 Mk 17 torpedoes completed before the end of the second World War, none were used in combat. Torpedo Mk 17 was discontinued around 1950 after seeing only limited use in post-war years. Main factors in the early demise of the Mk 17 were its contribution to destroyer topside weight, similarity to the Mk 16, and, also, the emerging role of destroyer as an antisubmarine warfare platform.

CHARACTERISTICS
PHYSICAL
Length288 inches
Diameter21 inches
Weight4600 pounds
PropulsionTurbine
GuidanceGyro
EnablingNo
HomingNo
FC SettingsMechanical
WarheadMk 17 Mod 3
879.5 pounds HBX
ExploderMk 6 Mod 1
Contact
PERFORMANCE
Speed46 knots
Range18,000 yards

84


Torpedo
Mk 18
DEVELOPMENT DATE:
1943

APPROXIMATE IN-SERVICE DATES:
1943-1950

Illustration of Torpedo Mk 18

Torpedo Mk 18, a submarine-launched, antisurface ship weapon, was one of the most successful torpedoes of World War II. This torpedo, based on a captured G7e German torpedo, was widely used in the latter stages of the war. Torpedo Mk 18 was developed by the Westinghouse Electric Corp., Sharon, Pa., and the Electric Storage Battery Co., Philadelphia, Pa., and approximately 9000 were produced by Westinghouse and the Naval Ordnance Plant, Forest Park, Ill. In 1944, 30 percent of the torpedoes fired from submarines were Mk 18 torpedoes, while in 1945, it was 65 percent. The tactical advantage of Torpedo Mk 18 was the lack of a wake. About 1,000,000 tons of Japanese shipping were sunk by the Mk 18 torpedo.

CHARACTERISTICS
PHYSICAL
Length245 inches
Diameter21 inches
Weight3154 pounds
PropulsionElectric Motor
GuidanceGyro
EnablingNo
HomingNo
FC SettingsMechanical
WarheadMk 18 Mod 3
575 pounds HBX
ExploderMk 8
Contact
Mk 9
Contact/Influence
PERFORMANCE
Speed29 knots
Range4,000 yards

85


Torpedo
Mk 19
DEVELOPMENT DATE:
1942

APPROXIMATE IN-SERVICE DATES:
NEVER IN SERVICE

Illustration of Torpedo Mk 19

Torpedo Mk 19 was a follow-on development of the Mk 18 torpedo, designed to incorporate all-electric controls in lieu of pneumatic controls. The Mk 19, an antisurface ship torpedo, which was developed by the Westinghouse Electric Corp., Sharon, Pa., was designed to be submarine launched. The propulsion power was supplied by a direct current, series-wound motor which received its energy from a secondary storage battery. The gyroscope and depth control were electrically controlled and operated; the rudders were solenoid operated. Ten prototypes were built, but further development was cancelled in favor of Torpedo Mk 26.

CHARACTERISTICS
PHYSICAL
Length246 inches
Diameter21 inches
Weight3240 pounds
PropulsionElectric, secondary
battery
EnablingYes
GuidanceGyro
HomingNone
FC SettingsMechanical
WarheadMk 20
800 pounds Torpex
ExploderMk 7
Contact/Influence
PERFORMANCE
Speed29 knots
Range4000 yards

86


Torpedo
Mk 20
DEVELOPMENT DATE:
1943

APPROXIMATE IN-SERVICE DATES:
NEVER IN SERVICE

Illustration of Torpedo Mk 20

Torpedo Mk 20 was actually the 1943 designation for the continuation of the development of a submarine-launched, antisurface ship torpedo originally designated Mk 2 (in 1941). The torpedo was developed by the Naval Torpedo Station, Newport, R.I.; the Electric Storage Battery Co., Philadelphia, Pa.; and the General Electric Co., Pittsfield, Mass. This was the second attempt to develop a torpedo of this type. Earlier efforts (Mk 1) in post-World War I years (1919-1931) were terminated due to unsatisfactory speed/range performance. Torpedo Mk 20 never progressed beyond the development stage due to the success of the Mk 18 torpedo. However, 20 units were produced by the General Electric Co., Bridgeport, Conn., for testing.

CHARACTERISTICS
PHYSICAL
Length246 inches
Diameter21 inches
Weightapprox. 3100 pounds
PropulsionElectric motor
GuidanceGyro
EnablingNo
HomingNo
FC SettingsMechanical
WarheadMk 20
500 pounds TNT
ExploderNone assigned
PERFORMANCE
Speed33 knots
Range3500 yards

87


Torpedo
Mk 21
Mod 0
DEVELOPMENT DATE:
1943

APPROXIMATE IN-SERVICE DATES:
NEVER IN SERVICE

Illustration of Torpedo Mk 21 Mod 0

Torpedo Mk 21 Mod 0, an antisurface ship, aircraft-launched, passive acoustic homing torpedo was developed by the Westinghouse Electric Corp., Sharon, Pa. During the same time period, the Harvard Underwater Sound Laboratory, Harvard University; and the Bell Telephone Laboratories, Murray Hills, N.J., were adapting Torpedo Mk 13 for acoustic control. The Mk 21 Mod 0 torpedo successfully passed launching tests late in 1943. Because of the increasing difficulties encountered by the developer, the Torpedo Mk 21 Mod 0 project was abandoned after only a few development models had been built.

CHARACTERISTICS
PHYSICAL
Length161 inches
Diameter22.5 inches
Weightapprox. 2300 pounds
PropulsionElectric
EnablingNo
GuidanceGyro
HomingPassive acoustic
FC SettingsPreset
WarheadMk, Mod not
available
approx. 400 pounds HBX
ExploderMk 8
Contact
PERFORMANCE
Speed25 knots
RangeNot specified

88


Torpedo
Mk 21
Mod 2
DEVELOPMENT DATE:
1943

APPROXIMATE IN-SERVICE DATES:
NEVER IN SERVICE

Illustration of Torpedo Mk 21 Mod 2

Torpedo Mk 21 Mod 2 was a passive homing version of the Mk 13 torpedo intended for use as a payload for the Petrel guided missile. An aircraft launched, antisurface ship weapon, it was developed as a joint effort by the Bell Telephone Laboratories, Murray Hill, N.J.; the Harvard Underwater Sound Laboratory, Harvard University; and later, the Ordnance Research Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University. The Naval Ordnance Plant, Forest Park, Ill., produced a limited quantity (312) during 1946 through 1955. Development was discontinued and this torpedo was not used in service to any appreciable degree.

CHARACTERISTICS
PHYSICAL
Length161 inches
Diameter22.5 inches
Weight2130 pounds
PropulsionSteam turbine
EnablingNone
GuidanceGyro
HomingPassive acoustic
FC SettingsMechanical
WarheadMk 21
350 pounds HBX-3
ExploderMk 8
Contact
PERFORMANCE
Speed33.5 knots
Range6000 yards

89


Torpedo
Mk 22
DEVELOPMENT DATE:
1944

APPROXIMATE IN-SERVICE DATES:
NEVER IN SERVICE

Illustration of Torpedo Mk 22

Developed by the Bell Telephone Laboratories, Murray Hill, N.J.; and Westinghouse Electric Corp., Sharon, Pa., Torpedo Mk 22 was the World War II development of an antisurface ship, submarine-launched torpedo. It had active acoustic terminal homing in azimuth only, probably in an attempt to reduce boundary (surface/bottom) capture problems. Further development on this torpedo was discontinued after the BuOrd evaluation stage, which coincided with the end of the second World War. The decision to continue with the development of Torpedo Mk 35 during the post-war years was the probable cause for the discontinuation of Mk 22 work.

CHARACTERISTICS
PHYSICAL
Length246 inches
Diameter21 inches
Weight3060 pounds
PropulsionElectric
EnablingYes
GuidanceGyro
HomingActive acoustic
FC SettingsMechanical
WarheadInfo not available
500 pounds HBX
ExploderInfo not available
PERFORMANCE
Speed29 knots
Range4000 yards

90


Torpedo
Mk 23
DEVELOPMENT DATE:
1943

APPROXIMATE IN-SERVICE DATES:
1943-1946

Illustration of Torpedo Mk 23

Torpedo Mk 23 was developed to satisfy what appeared to be a valid tactical requirement of World War II: the high-speed feature of the Mk 14 torpedo. In the early stages of the war, the low-speed feature (31 knots - 9000 yards) of the Mk 14 was rarely used. Due to the changing requirements of the war, however, most of the 9600 Mk 23 torpedoes saw little service. In the latter stages of the second World War, fewer targets and better/smarter escorts/escort tactics necessitated firing from longer ranges. The Mk 14 torpedo, with its low power and longer range, became the preferred weapon. Much of the Mk 23 inventory was scrapped or converted to Torpedoes Mk 14 while other units were cannibalized for spare parts. This submarine-launched, antisurface ship torpedo was developed by the Naval Torpedo Station, Newport, R.I., and produced by the Naval Torpedo Stations at Newport; Alexandria, Va.; and Keyport, Wash.; and by the Naval Ordnance Plant, St. Louis, Mo.

CHARACTERISTICS
PHYSICAL
Length246 inches
Diameter21 inches
Weight3259 pounds
PropulsionTurbine
GuidanceGyro
EnablingNo
HomingNo
FC SettingsMechanical
WarheadMk 16 Mod 6
643 pounds HBX
ExploderMk 6 Mod 13
Contact
PERFORMANCE
Speed46.3 knots
Range4500 yards

91


Torpedo
Mine
Mk 24
DEVELOPMENT DATE:
1942

APPROXIMATE IN-SERVICE DATES:
1942-1948

Illustration of Torpedo Mine Mk 24

Called a mine for security reasons, the Mk 24 was developed as an outgrowth of work on an underwater listening device sponsored by the Naval Defense Research Committee during World War II. This torpedo, with a small warhead, was a crippling weapon designed for "mission kill" vice "platform kill." Approximately 4000 of these aircraft-launched, passive acoustic, antisubmarine torpedoes were produced and in service during World War II and subsequent years until replaced by Torpedo Mk 34. Mine Mk 24 was developed by a group of activities including Western Electric Co., Kearney, N.J.; Bell Telephone Laboratories, Murray Hill, N.J.; Harvard University Underwater Sound Laboratory, Cambridge, Mass.; and General Electric Col Schenectady, N.Y. The Western Electric Co., Kearney, N.J., and General Electric Co. in Erie and Philadelphia, Pa. were the producers.

CHARACTERISTICS
PHYSICAL
Length84 inches
Diameter19 inches
Weight680 pounds
PropulsionElectric, secondary
battery
EnablingNo
GuidancePreset circle search
HomingPassive acoustic
FC SettingsMechanical
WarheadMine Mk 24
92 pounds HBX-1
ExploderMk 142 fuze
Contact
PERFORMANCE
Speed12 knots
Range (search
duration)
10 minutes = 4000
yards

92


Torpedo
Mk 25
DEVELOPMENT DATE:
1943

APPROXIMATE IN-SERVICE DATES:
NEVER IN SERVICE

Illustration of Torpedo Mk 25

Sponsored by the National Defense Research Committee, Torpedo Mk 25 was developed by Columbia University, Division of War Research, as a replacement for Torpedo Mk 13. The new torpedo was an aircraft-launched, antisurface ship weapon designed for higher speed, greater strength and more ease of manufacture than the Mk 13 torpedo. Torpedo Mk 25 had thermal propulsion, was turbine driven and obtained a speed of 40 knots and a range of 2500 yards. Twenty-five units were produced by the Naval Ordnance Plant, Forest Park, Ill., during 1946 for test and evaluation. This torpedo was never mass-produced, however, due to the large inventory of Mk 13 torpedoes left at the end of World War II, and the changing role of Naval aircraft from a torpedo strike warfare platform to an antisubmarine warfare platform.

CHARACTERISTICS
PHYSICAL
Length161 inches
Diameter22.5 inches
Weight2306 pounds
PropulsionAlcohol turbine
EnablingNo
GuidanceGyro
Flask Air Pressure2800 psi
HomingNo
FC SettingsMechanical
WarheadMk 25
725 pounds
ExploderInfo not available
PERFORMANCE
Speed40 knots
Range2500 yards

93


Torpedo
Mk 26
DEVELOPMENT DATE:
1944

APPROXIMATE IN-SERVICE DATES:
NEVER IN SERVICE

Illustration of Torpedo Mk 26

Torpedo Mk 26, an improved version of the Mk 28, was developed by the Westinghouse Electric Corp. as an antisurface ship, submarine-fired weapon. This torpedo introduced a primary (seawater) battery developed by Bell Telephone which provided high performance. The Mk 26 torpedo was also the first torpedo to use an explosive impulse start gyro and electric "on-off" control for steering and depth control. Approximately 25 developmental models were built by Westinghouse, but production was deferred in favor of the Mk 16 torpedo.

CHARACTERISTICS
PHYSICAL
Length246 inches
Diameter21 inches
Weight3200 pounds
PropulsionElectric, seawater
battery
EnablingYes
GuidanceGyro
HomingNo
FC SettingsElectrical
WarheadMk 26
900-1000 pounds
ExploderInfo not available
PERFORMANCE
Speed40 knots
Range6000 yards

94


Torpedo
Mk 27
Mod 0
DEVELOPMENT DATE:
1943

APPROXIMATE IN-SERVICE DATES:
1943-1946

Illustration of Torpedo Mk 27 Mod 0

Torpedo Mk 27 Mod 0, developed by Bell Telephone Laboratories, was an acoustically-controlled, submarine-launched, anti-escort ship weapon. Used during the second World War, the torpedo had a single propeller driven by an electric motor. This torpedo was essentially a Mine Mk 24 modified for submarine launching in a 21-inch submerged torpedo tube by the addition of wood guides on the outer cylinder shell. Approximately 1000 units were produced by the Western Electric Corp., Kearney, N.J.

CHARACTERISTICS
PHYSICAL
Length90 inches
Diameter19 inches (with
21-inch guide
rails
Weight720 pounds
PropulsionElectric, secondary
battery
GuidanceGyro
EnablingYes
HomingActive acoustic
WarheadMk 27 Mod 0
ExploderMk 11 Mod 2
Contact
PERFORMANCE
Speed12 knots
Range (search
duration)
12 minutes approx. 5000 yards

95


Torpedo
Mk 27
Mod 4
DEVELOPMENT DATE:
1946

APPROXIMATE IN-SERVICE DATES:
1943-1960

Illustration of Torpedo Mk 27 Mod 4

Developed by the Ordnance Research Laboratory Pennsylvania State University, Torpedo Mk 27 Mod 4 was an improved version of the Mk 27 Mod 0. This torpedo was an anti-escort torpedo, fully compatible with electrical setting fire control systems through the incorporation of the standard 65-pin umbilical cable. Approximately 3000 of these torpedoes were produced by the American Kitchens Div. of the AVCO Corp., Connersville, Ind.; and the Naval Ordnance Plant, Forest Park, Ill., from 1946 through 1954. In service in submarines for about ten years, Torpedo Mk 27 Mod 4 was withdrawn from service use in 1960 with the introduction of Torpedo Mk 37.

CHARACTERISTICS
PHYSICAL
Length125.75 inches
Diameter19 inches (21-inch
guide rails
Weight1175 pounds
PropulsionElectric
GuidanceGyro
EnablingYes
HomingYes
WarheadMk 27 Mod 2
128 pounds HBX
ExploderMk 11 Mod 2
Contact
PERFORMANCE
Speed15.9 knots
Range12 minutes/6200 yards
yards

96


Torpedo
Mk 28
DEVELOPMENT DATE:
1944

APPROXIMATE IN-SERVICE DATES:
1944-1960

Illustration of Torpedo Mk 28

Developed and produced late in World War II by the Westinghouse Electric Corp., Sharon, Pa., Torpedo Mk 28 was an antisurface ship, submarine-launched, acoustic homing torpedo with a medium explosive charge. The torpedo also incorporated all-electric controls. Approximately 1750 torpedoes were produced during the period from 1944 to 1952 but in-service use ceased after the introduction of Torpedo Mk 37.

CHARACTERISTICS
PHYSICAL
Length246 inches
Diameter21 inches
Weight2800 pounds
PropulsionElectric
GuidanceGyro
Enabling500-2500 yards
HomingPassive
FC SettingsMechanical
WarheadMk 28 Mod 2
585 pounds HBX
ExploderMk 14 Mod 2
Contact
PERFORMANCE
Speed19.6 knots
Range4000 yards/
6 minutes

97


Torpedo
Mk 29
DEVELOPMENT DATE:
1945

APPROXIMATE IN-SERVICE DATES:
NEVER IN SERVICE

Illustration of Torpedo Mk 29

Torpedo Mk 29 Mod 0 was an antisurface, submarine-launched, passive acoustic torpedo. This torpedo, developed by the Westinghouse Electric Corp., Sharon, Pa., used the same acoustic system as Torpedo Mk 28. Torpedo Mk 29 Mod 0 differed significantly from the Mk 28 in other ways, however. The newer torpedo was faster, operated at various depths, had an external depth setter, and ran as either a straight or a homing torpedo. Torpedo Mk 29 Mod 1, developed during the same time period, had two speeds, a remote-setting variable enabler and an anticircular run device. In the Mod 1, the electric motor on the impulse start gyro was replaced by a cartridge-start impeller motor to obtain a longer gyro controlling time. In April 1945, the Mk 29 program was discontinued after BuOrd evaluation, due to the fiscal constraints of the peacetime economy and planned developments.

CHARACTERISTICS
PHYSICAL
Length246 inches
Diameter21 inches
Weight3200 pounds
PropulsionElectric
EnablingYes
GuidanceGyro
HomingPassive acoustic
FC SettingsMechanical
WarheadMk 28 Mod 2
550 pounds HBX
ExploderMk 14 Mod 2
Contact
PERFORMANCE
Speed (knots) 
  Low21
  High28
Range (yards) 
  Low12,000
  High4000

98


Torpedo
Mk 30
DEVELOPMENT DATE:
1944

APPROXIMATE IN-SERVICE DATES:
NEVER IN SERVICE

Optical wake sensing devices developed in Australia were the basis of Torpedo Mk 30 development by the Naval Ordnance Laboratory, Washington, D.C. The Mk 30 was a destroyer/submarine-launched, antisurface ship, homing torpedo that used the wake of a target ship to operate the steering mechanism. Torpedoes Mk 18 and Mk 14 were used as test vehicles for the detector heads and control units of this wake following system. The test program for this torpedo was transferred from the Naval Mine Warfare Test Station in Solomon, Md., to the Ordnance Research Laboratory at Pennsylvania State University in 1946. Subsequently, the program was abandoned as a complete torpedo development. It was, however, continued as a study of a system for homing control.

99


Torpedo
Mine
Mk 30
DEVELOPMENT DATE:
1942

APPROXIMATE IN-SERVICE DATES:
NEVER IN SERVICE

Illustration of Torpedo Mk 30

Mine Mk 30, an aircraft-launched, antisubmarine torpedo, was developed by the Brush Development Co., Cleveland, Ohio, during 1942 and early 1943. It was designed in parallel with and as a backup for Mine Mk 24 because, at that time, there was apprehension about the Mine Mk 24 acoustic steering. Mine Mk 30 was unique because of its size; it was 10 inches in diameter, 98 inches long, and weighed 265 pounds. (Fifty pounds of the total weight was the explosive charge.) Three prototype Mines Mk 30 were manufactured and tested in January of 1943 and satisfactory performance was indicated. No production of Mine Mk 30 was initiated, however, because of the successful acoustic steering of an aircraft-launched Mine Mk 24 in late 1942.

CHARACTERISTICS
PHYSICAL
Length96 inches
Diameter10 inches
Weight265 pounds
PropulsionElectric
EnablingNo
GuidanceGyro
HomingPassive acoustic
FC SettingsMechanical
WarheadMk 30
50 pounds
ExploderInfo not available
PERFORMANCE
Speed12 knots
Range3000 yards

100


Torpedo
Mk 31
DEVELOPMENT DATE:
1944

APPROXIMATE IN-SERVICE DATES:
NEVER IN SERVICE

Illustration of Torpedo Mk 31

Torpedo Mk 31 Mod 1, an acoustically-steered modification of the Mk 18 electric torpedo, was conceived as a readily producible interim weapon to be used in the Pacific until an entirely new high-speed acoustic torpedo could be developed. The Mk 31, developed by the Harvard Underwater Sound Laboratory, and the Ordnance Research Laboratory, was a destroyer-launched, antisurface ship torpedo. Although some units of the Mk 31 torpedo were produced by the Naval Torpedo Station, Newport, R.I., further development of the torpedo was stopped after BuOrd evaluation due to the status of other development programs (Torpedoes Mk 16 and Mk 35).

CHARACTERISTICS
PHYSICAL
Length246 inches
Diameter21 inches
Weight2800 pounds
PropulsionElectric
EnablingYes
GuidanceGyro
HomingPassive acoustic
FC SettingsMechanical
WarheadMk 31
500 pounds HBX
ExploderInfo not available
PERFORMANCE
Speed29 knots
Range4000 yards

101


Torpedo
Mk32
Mod2
DEVELOPMENT DATE:
1950

APPROXIMATE IN-SERVICE DATES:
1950-1955

Illustration of Torpedo Mk 32 Mod2

Torpedo Mk 32 Mod 2 was a surface ship-launched, antisubmarine torpedo featuring active acoustic homing. An end product of World War II acoustic homing system development, it was the first active acoustic torpedo. Developed by a combined effort between the General Electric Co., Schenectady, N.Y., and the Ordnance Reserach Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University, for aircraft launching, this torpedo saw limited use in destroyers with the Mk 2 over-the-side launchers for a number of years. A few (10) torpedoes of this type were produced by Leeds and Northrup, Philadelphia, Pa., during the second World War and approximately 3300 in post-war years by the Philco Corp., Philadelphia, and the Naval Ordnance Plant, Forest Park, Ill. Torpedo Mk 32 was withdrawn from service use with the introduction of the Mk 43 torpedo.

CHARACTERISTICS
PHYSICAL
Length83 inches
Diameter19 inches
25.4-inch fins)
Weight700 pounds
PropulsionElectric
GuidanceHelix search
EnablingNo
HomingActive
FC SettingsMechanical (preset)
WarheadMk 32 Mod 1
107 pounds HBX
ExploderMk 19 Mods 4 & 11
Contact
PERFORMANCE
Speed12 knots
Range24 minutes/
9600 yards

102


Torpedo
Mk33
Mod 0
DEVELOPMENT DATE:
1943

APPROXIMATE IN-SERVICE DATES:
NEVER IN SERVICE

Illustration of Torpedo Mk 33 Mod 0

Torpedo Mk 33 was a two-speed, passive acoustic homing, antisurface ship/ antisubmarine torpedo designed to be launched from a standard submarine torpedo tube or aircraft. Developed by the Bureau of Ordnance, the General Electric Co., and the Exide Co., this torpedo had a hydraulic steering system and had the first cast aluminum shell. Only 30 models of the Mk 33 torpedo were constructed and tested between 1943 and 1946. Production was discontinued when World War II ended but Torpedo Mk 33 features were incorporated into the Mk 35 torpedo.

CHARACTERISTICS
PHYSICAL
Length156 inches
Diameter21 inches
Weight1795 pounds
PropulsionElectric
EnablingYes
GuidanceGyro
HomingPassive acoustic
FC SettingsElectrical
WarheadMk, Mod not
available
550 pounds HBX
ExploderInfo not available
PERFORMANCE
Speed (knots) 
  Low12.5
  High18.5
Range (yards) 
  Low19,000
  High5,000

103


Torpedo
Mk34
Mod 1
(Mine Mk 44)
DEVELOPMENT DATE:
1944

APPROXIMATE IN-SERVICE DATES:
1948-1958

Illustration of Torpedo Mk 33 Mod 1 (Mine Mk 44)

Torpedo Mk 34 Mod 1 (initially designated Mine Mk 44), an improved version of Mine Mk 24, used magnetrostrictive hydrophones in lieu of crystal hydrophones. It also used two propulsion batteries in a parallel/series switching arrangement which provided for longer search time/range and a shift to higher speed during attack after acquisition. Developed by the U.S. Mine Warfare Test Station, Solomons, Md., approximately 4050 were produced during the period from 1948 through 1954. The main producers of this torpedo were the American Machine and Foundry Co., Buffalo, N.Y.; the Naval Ordnance Plant, Forest Park, Ill.; and the Naval Mine Depot, Yorktown, Va. In-service in ASW aircraft for many years, this torpedo was withdrawn from Fleet use with the introduction of Torpedo Mk 43.

CHARACTERISTICS
PHYSICAL
Length125 inches
Diameter19 inches (26.4
inches across
fins)
Weight1150 pounds
PropulsionElectric
GuidanceRandom search
circles
EnablingNo
HomingPassive
FC SettingsNo
WarheadMk 34 Mod 1
116 pounds HBX
ExploderMk 19 Mod 7
Contact
PERFORMANCE
Speed (knots) 
  Search11
  Attack17
Range30 minutes/12,000
  yards at 11 knots
6-8 minutes/3600
  yards at 17 knots

104


Torpedo
Mk35
DEVELOPMENT DATE:
1944

APPROXIMATE IN-SERVICE DATES:
1949-1960

Illustration of Torpedo Mk 35

Developed in 1944 by the General Electric Co., Torpedo Mk 35 was an outgrowth of work done on Mine Mk 24, and Torpedoes Mk 32 and Mk 33. This torpedo, intended as a "universal" torpedo (i.e., could be launched from any type of platform), was a surface ship-launched, antisurface ship weapon featuring deep diving and long range homing. Approximately 400 Mk 35 torpedoes were manufactured by G.E. Co., Aeronautical and Ordnance Systems Div., Pittsfield, Mass., during the period from 1949 through 1952. After having seen only limited service, Torpedo Mk 35 was withdrawn from Fleet use around 1960 as a result of the introduction of Torpedo Mk 37.

CHARACTERISTICS
PHYSICAL
Length162 inches
Diameter21 inches
Weight1770 pounds
PropulsionElectric, primary
seawater battery
EnablingYes
GuidanceGyro, helix
search
HomingActive, passive
acoustic; spiral
search pattern
FC SettingsElectrical
WarheadMk 35 Mods 2 or 3
270 pounds HBX
ExploderMk 19 Mod 3
Contact
PERFORMANCE
Speed27 knots
Range15,000 yards

105


Torpedo
Mk36
Mods 0
DEVELOPMENT DATE:
1946

APPROXIMATE IN-SERVICE DATES:
NEVER IN SERVICE

Illustration of Torpedo Mk 33 Mod 0

The ultimate objective of the Torpedo Mk 36 development program was the design of an accurate, wakeless, pattern-running underwater missile having the highest possible speed consistent with long range. Originally designed in early 1944 under an amended Mk 20 contract, Torpedo Mk 36 was an all-electric, submarine-launched, antisurface ship torpedo employing a motor of approximately 350 horsepower and a seawater-type primary battery. The General Electric Co., Pittsfield, Mass., and the Naval Torpedo Station, Newport, R.I., were responsible for its design. Between 1946 and 1950, further development of the Mk 36 torpedo was discontinued due to the development of Torpedo Mk 42.

CHARACTERISTICS
PHYSICAL
Length246 inches
Diameter21 inches
Weight4000 pounds
PropulsionElectric
EnablingNo
GuidanceGyro
HomingNo
FC SettingsMechanical
WarheadMk 36
800 pounds HBX-1
ExploderInfo not available
PERFORMANCE
Speed47 knots
Range7000 yards

106


Torpedo
Mk37
Mods 0 and 3
DEVELOPMENT DATE:
1946

APPROXIMATE IN-SERVICE DATES:
1956 TO PRESENT

Illustration of Torpedo Mk 37 Mods 0 and 3

Torpedo Mk 37 is a two-speed, electrically-driven, active/passive acoustic homing torpedo. The main developers of the Mk 37 were Westinghouse Electric Corp., Sharon, Pa.; the Harvard Underwater Sound Laboratory, Cambridge, Mass.; and the Ordnance Research Laboratory of Pennsylvania State University. Engineering development of Torpedo Mk 37 began in 1946 but work had started in 1942 on the Project 4 panel (an echo-ranging, Doppler-enabled, acoustic homing system), which was incorporated into the Mk 37. The Mk 37 torpedo was produced in quantity by the Naval Ordnance Plant, Forest Park, Ill., and was the standard U.S. Navy submarine-launched, antisubmarine weapon for about 20 years. All Torpedoes Mk 37 Mod 0 have been withdrawn from the Fleet, refurbished, updated, and reissued to the Fleet as the Mod 3. Since the Mk 37 torpedo is available for foreign countries under the Military Assistance Program, however, some countries still maintain the Mod 0 version.

CHARACTERISTICS
PHYSICAL
Length135 inches
Diameter19 inches (21-
inch guide
rails)
Weight1430 pounds
PropulsionElectric motor
Enabling Range300-95000 yards
GuidanceGyro
HomingActive, passive,
combination
FC SettingsElectrical
WarheadMk 37 Mod 0
330 pounds HBX-3
ExploderMk 19 type
Contact
PERFORMANCE
Speed (knots)Classified
Range (yards)Classified

107


Torpedo
Mk37
Mods 1 and 2
DEVELOPMENT DATE:
1959

APPROXIMATE IN-SERVICE DATES:
1960 TO PRESENT

Illustration of Torpedo Mk 37 Mods 1 and 2

Torpedo Mk 37 (Mods 1 and 2) was a follow-on development of Torpedo Mk 37 Mod 0. This submarine-launched, antisubmarine weapon was developed by the Naval Underwater Ordnance Station, Newport, R.I., and the Vitro Co., Silver Springs, Md. The principal modification to the Mod 0 was the addition of a wire guidance capability. This wire guidance feature lengthened the torpedo by 26 inches and increased the weight by 260 pounds. In addition to the change to the torpedo, submarine fire control systems and torpedo tubes were also modified to provide the wire guidance capability. Torpedoes Mk 37 Mod 1, manufactured by the Naval Ordnance Plant, Forest Park, Ill., were refurbished and reissued to the Fleet as Mk 37 Mod 2 torpedoes. Under the Military Assistance Program, the Mod 1 version has been sold to foreign governments; only the Mod 2 version is still in use by the U.S. Navy.

CHARACTERISTICS
PHYSICAL
Length161 inches
Diameter19 inches (21-
inch guide
rails)
Weight1690 pounds
PropulsionElectric motor
Enabling Range300-95000 yards
GuidanceGyro-wire
HomingActive, passive,
combination
FC SettingsElectrical
WarheadMk 37 Mod 0
330 pounds HBX-3
ExploderMk 19 Mod 1
Contact
PERFORMANCE
Speed (knots)Classified
Range (yards)Classified

108


Torpedo
Mk38
Mods 0
DEVELOPMENT DATE:
DEFERRED

APPROXIMATE IN-SERVICE DATES:
NEVER IN SERVICE

Torpedo Mk 38 was the designation given to a planned post-World War II antisurface ship, submarine-launched, acoustic homing torpedo intended to replace the Mk 28 torpedo. This development was postponed pending development and evaluation of Torpedo Mk 37. With the success of the Mk 37, development and subsequent evaluation plans for the Mk 38 were terminated.

CHARACTERISTICS
PHYSICAL
Length246 inches
Diameter21 inches
WeightInfo not avail-
able (approx. 3000
pounds)
PropulsionElectric, primary
battery
EnablingYes
GuidanceGyro
HomingActive, passive,
acoustic
FC SettingsElectrical
WarheadDevelopment
deferred
ExploderInfo not available
PERFORMANCE
Speed35 knots
Range10,000 yards

109


Torpedo
Mk39
Mods 1
DEVELOPMENT DATE:
1946

APPROXIMATE IN-SERVICE DATES:
1946-1956

Illustration of Torpedo Mk 39 Mod 1

Torpedo Mk 39 Mod 1, developed by the Vitro Corp., Silver Springs, Md., and the Ordnance Research Laboratory at Pennsylvania State University, was the first torpedo to employ a trailing wire for mid-course guidance through the submarine fire control system. This torpedo was actually a Torpedo Mk 27 Mod 4 converted by the Philco Corp., Philadelphia, Pa., for Fleet familiarization and development of wire guidance techniques. The wire guidance feature was eventually incorporated into Torpedoes Mk 37 Mod 1 and Mk 45 which were issued for Fleet use. Because of this incorporation of wire guidance into other torpedoes, the Mk 39 submarine-launched, antisubmarine torpedo was considered obsolete and remaining units were scrapped.

CHARACTERISTICS
PHYSICAL
Length133 inches
Diameter19 inches
Weight1275 pounds
PropulsionElectric
GuidanceWire
EnablingYes
HomingPassive
FC SettingsElectrical
WarheadMk 39 Mod 0
130 pounds HBX
ExploderMk 19 Mod 10
Contact
PERFORMANCE
Speed15.5 knots
Range13,000 yards/
26 minutes

110


Torpedo
Mk40
Test Vehicle
DEVELOPMENT DATE:
1946

APPROXIMATE IN-SERVICE DATES:
NEVER IN SERVICE

Illustration of Torpedo Mk 40 Test Vehicle

Torpedo Mk 40 was the designation given to a proposed 1000-pound, aircraft- or guided missile-launched, antisurface ship torpedo, with a hydro-turbo jet or pump jet propulsion system. Work on this project confirmed German demonstrations that multibase solid propellants may be utilized to provide a gas supply (for short periods of time) at the pressures and temperatures found desirable for the application in question. The Torpedo Mk 40 developed by the Naval Ordnance Test Station, Pasadena, Calif., was discontinued due to technology limitations and to the emergence of Naval aircraft as an ASW platform rather than as a strike warfare torpedo platform.

CHARACTERISTICS
PHYSICAL
Length105 inches
Diameter21 inches
Weight1250 pounds
PropulsionTurbine, Lithium
seawater
EnablingNo
GuidanceGyro
HomingNo
FC SettingsPreset
WarheadMk 40
300 pounds HBX
ExploderInfo not available
PERFORMANCE
Speed80 knots
Range2000 yards

111


Torpedo
Mk41
Mods 0
DEVELOPMENT DATE:
1949

APPROXIMATE IN-SERVICE DATES:
NEVER IN SERVICE

Illustration of Torpedo Mk 41 Mod 0

Developed by the General Electric Co., Pittsfield Mass., as the antisubmarine, aircraft-launched version of the Torpedo Mk 35, the Mk 41 Mod 0 torpedo utilized the same homing system and the same type of propulsion as the Mk 35. The main difference between the Mk 35 and the Mk 41 was that functions unnecessary for aircraft launch were eliminated from the Mk 41. The Mk 41 unit was also made as compact as possible. Approximately 200 units were produced by G.E. for evaluation but production was discontinued in favor of the Mk 43 type torpedo.

CHARACTERISTICS
PHYSICAL
Length120 inches
Diameter21 inches
Weight1327 pounds
PropulsionSeawater battery
EnablingNo
GuidanceHelix search
HomingActive, passive
FC SettingsPreset
WarheadMk 41
150 pounds HBX
ExploderMk 19 type
Contact
PERFORMANCE
Speed25 knots
Range8000 yards

112


Torpedo
Mk42
DEVELOPMENT DATE:
1949

APPROXIMATE IN-SERVICE DATES:
NEVER IN SERVICE

Illustration of Torpedo Mk 42

The Mk 42 torpedo was intended to be a submarine-launched, pattern-running, antisurface ship torpedo. In this development, an attempt was made to consolidate into one weapon past experience on the development of various torpedo components. Contributing to the development were the Naval Ordnance Test Station, Pasadena, Calif.; the Naval Ordnance Laboratory, Washington, D.C.; the Naval Torpedo Station, Newport, R.I.; the Ordnance Research Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University; and Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, N.J. Torpedo Mk 42 development was terminated in 1952 with the intent of developing a pattern-running mod of Torpedo Mk 16.

CHARACTERISTICS
PHYSICAL
Length246 inches
Diameter21 inches
Weight4000 pounds
PropulsionTurbine
EnablingYes
GuidanceGyro, pattern
running
HomingNo
FC SettingsElectrical
WarheadMk 42
800 pounds HBX
ExploderMk 19 type IRXEO
Influence
PERFORMANCE
Speed40 knots
Range20,000 yards

113


Torpedo
Mk43
Mod 0
DEVELOPMENT DATE:
1950

APPROXIMATE IN-SERVICE DATES:
1951-1957

Illustration of Torpedo Mk 43 Mod 0

Torpedo Mk 43 Mod 0 was an aircraft-launched ASW torpedo. It was developed and produced by the General Electric Co., Pittsfield, Mass., to provide a lightweight, inexpensive torpedo for ASW use from fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft and airships. Approximately 500 of these torpedoes were manufactured for evaluation purposes but were discontinued in favor of Torpedo

CHARACTERISTICS
PHYSICAL
Length88.25 inches
Diameter12.75 inches
Weight370.4 pounds
PropulsionElectric
EnablingNo
GuidanceHelix search
HomingActive acoustic
FC SettingsNo
WarheadMk 43 Mod 0
60 pounds HBX
ExploderMk 19 type
PERFORMANCE
Speed20 knots
Range4300 yards

114


Torpedo
Mk43
DEVELOPMENT DATE:
1950

APPROXIMATE IN-SERVICE DATES:
1951-1957

Illustration of Torpedo Mk 43 Mod 1
Mod 1
Illustration of Torpedo Mk 43 Mod 3
Mod 3

Torpedo Mk 43 Mods 1 and 3 were developed by Brush Development Co., Cleveland, Ohio, and the Naval Ordnance Test Station, Pasadena, Calif., during the post-World War II years. This was the first lightweight, antisubmarine torpedo capable of being launched by helicopters, fixed-wing aircraft, and surface ships. Approximately 5000 of these torpedoes were produced by the Brush Electronics Co., Cleveland, Ohio, and the Naval Ordnance Plant, Forest Park, Ill., from 1951 through 1959. This torpedo was withdrawn from Fleet use after the introduction of the Mk 44 torpedo.

Mod 1 Mod 3
CHARACTERISTICS
PHYSICAL
Length91.5 inches
Diameter10 inches (13.4
inches across
fins)
Weight260 pounds
PropulsionElectric
GuidanceHelix search
EnablingNo
HomingActive
FC SettingsNo
WarheadMk 43 Mod 1
54 pounds HBX
ExploderMk 19 type Mods 5 and 9
Contact
PHYSICAL
Length91.5 inches
Diameter10 inches
Weight265 pounds
PropulsionElectric
GuidanceHelix search
EnablingNo
HomingActive
FC SettingsNo
WarheadMk 100
54 pounds HBX
ExploderMk 19 type Mod 13
Contact
PERFORMANCE
Speed15 knots
Range9 minutes/
4500 yards
PERFORMANCE
Speed21 knots
Range6 minutes/
4500 yards

115


Torpedo
Mk44
DEVELOPMENT DATE:
1953

APPROXIMATE IN-SERVICE DATES:
1957-1967

Illustration of Torpedo Mk 44

Torpedo Mk 44 was a second-generation, lightweight ASW torpedo and the first service torpedo with a seawater-activated battery as a power source. This torpedo, the replacement for Torpedo Mk 43, had improvements in speed, warhead size, acoustic homing capabilities, and prelaunch-selectable search parameters. The Mk 44 was developed by the Naval Ordnance Test Station, Pasadena, Calif., and the Aeronautical and Ordnance Systems Division of the General Electric Co., Pittsfield, Mass. Production was started in 1957 at G.E., and in succeeding years at the Naval Ordnance Plant, Forest Park, Ill., and at the American Machine and Foundry Co., Buffalo, N.Y. Torpedo Mk 44 was used in service on U.S. destroyers and aircraft as an ASW weapon for about ten years until it was replaced by Torpedo Mk 46. In addition to being purchased by foreign governments under the Military Assistance Program, the Mk 44 torpedo was produced in Europe by NATO countries.

Mod 0 Mod 1
CHARACTERISTICS
PHYSICAL
Length100 inches
Diameter12.75 inches
Weight425 pounds
PropulsionElectric
Enabling16-26 seconds
GuidanceHelix search
HomingActive
FC SettingsElectrical
WarheadMk 101 Mod 0
75 pounds HBX-3
ExploderMk 19 type Mod 12
Contact
PHYSICAL
Length101.3 inches
Diameter12.75 inches
Weight433 pounds
PropulsionElectric motor
Enabling16-26 seconds
GuidanceHelix search
HomingActive
FC SettingsElectrical
WarheadMk 101 Mod 0
73 pounds HBX-3
ExploderMk 19 type Mod 12
Contact
PERFORMANCE
Speed (knots)Classified
Range (yards)Classified
PERFORMANCE
Speed (knots)Classified
Range (yards)Classified

116


Torpedo
Mk45
DEVELOPMENT DATE:
1957

APPROXIMATE IN-SERVICE DATES:
1958-1976

Illustration of Torpedo Mk 45

Torpedo Mk 45 was a submarine-launched, antisubmarine, antisurface ship torpedo with wire guidance capabilities and a nuclear warhead. Using a seawater-activated battery as a power source, the torpedo was capable of high-3peed, long-range, and deep-depth operation. Developed by the Applied Research Laboratory, University of Washington, Seattle, Wash., and the Westinghouse Electric Corp., Baltimore, Md., the Mk 45 torpedo was produced by Westinghouse starting in 1959. This torpedo, which was restricted to U.S. Navy use only, was phased out of service when Torpedo Mk 48 became available.

Mod 0 Mods 1 And 2
CHARACTERISTICS
PHYSICAL
Length225 inches
Diameter19 inches (21-
inch guide
rails)
Weight2330 pounds
PropulsionElectric
EnablingNo
GuidanceGyro, wire
HomingNo
FC SettingsElectrical
WarheadMk 34
Nuclear
ExploderNot applicable
PHYSICAL
Length227 inches
Diameter19 inches (21-
inch guide
rails)
Weight2213 pounds
(unflooded)
PropulsionElectric motor
Enabling RangeFixed 2050 yards
GuidanceGyro wire
HomingNo
FC SettingsElectrical
WarheadMk 102 Mod 0
Nuclear
ExploderNot applicable
PERFORMANCE
Speed (knots)Classified
Range (yards)Classified
PERFORMANCE
Speed (knots)Classified
Range (yards)Classified

117


Torpedo
Mk46
DEVELOPMENT DATE:
1960

APPROXIMATE IN-SERVICE DATES:
1963 TO PRESENT

Illustration of Torpedo Mk 46

Developed by the Naval Ordnance Test Station, Pasadena, Calif., and Aerojet General, Azusa, Calif., the Mk 46 torpedo is a third-generation, lightweight ASW weapon. It is powered by a thermal piston engine and is capable of higher speed, longer range, better acoustic performance, and deeper depth operation than its predecessors. (Torpedo Mk 46 Mod 0 uses a solid propellant grain while the Mod 1 uses liquid monopropellant fuel. The Mod 1 performance in speed and range is better.) Torpedo Mk 46 production began at Aerojet General in 1963 and in the next two years production commenced at the Naval Ordnance Plant, Forest Park, Ill., and at Minneapolis Honeywell Inc., Hopkins, Minn. The Mk 46 torpedo is currently in service on U.S. Navy destroyers and aircraft and has been purchased by foreign governments under the Military Assistance Program. The torpedo will continue in service until replaced by a new generation lightweight ASW torpedo.

Mod 0 Mods 1
CHARACTERISTICS
PHYSICAL
Length102 inches
Diameter12.75 inches
Weight568 pounds
(dry weight)
PropulsionSolid propellent/
piston engine
EnablingNot applicable
GuidanceGyro, wire
HomingActive or passive/
active
FC SettingsElectrical
WarheadMk 103 Mod 0
ExploderMk 20 Mod 0
PHYSICAL
Length102 inches
Diameter12.75 inches
Weight508 pounds
PropulsionOtto fuel/
Piston engine
Enabling RangeNot applicable
GuidanceLaminar search
HomingActive or passive/
active
FC SettingsElectric
WarheadMk 103 Mod 0
ExploderMk 20 Mod 0
PERFORMANCE
Speed (knots)Classified
Range (yards)Classified
PERFORMANCE
Speed (knots)Classified
Range (yards)Classified

118


Torpedo
Mk47
DEVELOPMENT DATE:
1970

APPROXIMATE IN-SERVICE DATES:
NEVER IN SERVICE

Torpedo Mk 47 was the designation given a proposed antisurface, submarine-launched, high-speed torpedo. This torpedo was to have either thermal or electric propulsion. The development program was terminated before characteristics for the Mk 47 were fully defined due to the status of Torpedo

119


Torpedo
Mk48
Mod 1
DEVELOPMENT DATE:
1965

APPROXIMATE IN-SERVICE DATES:
1971 TO PRESENT

Illustration of Torpedo Mk 42

Torpedo Mk 48 is a long-range, high-speed, deep-depth, wire-guided, acoustic homing weapon used for detecting and attacking surface ships and fast, deep-diving submarines. The development of Torpedo Mk 48 Mod 0 grew out of the Navy's in-house Research Torpedo Configuration Program in 1963. Developed by the Applied Research Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University, and the Westinghouse Electric Corp., Baltimore, Md. (the prime contractor), this mod employed a turbine propulsion system. The end product of this development was redesignated Torpedo Mk 48 Mod 2. In 1967 Gould, Inc., Cleveland, Ohio (the prime contractor), and the Naval Surface Warfare Center, White Oak, Md., began developing Torpedo Mk 48 Mod 1. This version had a substantially redesigned acoustic homing system, and a piston engine was used for propulsion. After both the Mod 1 and Mod 2 Mk 48 torpedoes were evaluated, the Torpedo Mk 48 Mod 1 was selected for production at Gould, Inc., for ultimate Fleet use.

CHARACTERISTICS
PHYSICAL
Length230 inches (max.)
Diameter21 inches (max.)
Weight3480 pounds
PropulsionPositive displace-
ment piston-type
engine
EnablingYes
GuidanceGyro, wire
HomingActive, passive,
combination
acoustic
FC SettingsElectrical
WarheadMk 107
ExploderMk 21 Mod 0
PERFORMANCE
Speed (knots)Classified
Range (knots)Classified

120


ASROC
Missile
DEVELOPMENT DATE:
1956

APPROXIMATE IN-SERVICE DATES:
1962 TO PRESENT

Illustration of ASROC Missile

The ASROC Missile is a solid fuel, rocket-propelled ballistic missile designed for standoff delivery from surface ships against submerged submarines. There are two basic missile configurations: (1) a rocket-thrown torpedo employing an acoustic homing torpedo as a payload, and (2) a rocket-thrown depth charge. In the torpedo configuration, the missile components are separated from the torpedo in flight and from that point, the torpedo enters the water and functions as though it was launched from an aircraft. The ASROC Missile is operational aboard cruisers, destroyers, and escort ships of the U.S. Navy. This missile was developed by the Naval Ordnance Test Station, Pasadena, Calif., and the Minneapolis Honeywell Regulator Co., Hopkins, Minn. There are many manufacturers of the ASROC since it is produced as individual components rather than as a complete unit. The components are then assembled into missiles by each issuing Navy activity.

Mod 3 Mod 4
CHARACTERISTICS
PHYSICAL
Length180 inches
Diameter 
  Airframe13.25 inches
  Fin Span33.0 inches
Weight949-957 pounds
PropulsionSolid propellent/
rocket motor
EnablingNot applicable
GuidanceBallistic
HomingNo
PayloadTorpedo Mk 44
SettingsElectrical
WarheadMk 101 Mod 0
ExploderMk 19 Mod 12
Contact
PHYSICAL
Length177.43 inches
Diameter 
  Airframe13.25 inches
  Fin Span33.0 inches
Weight1071-1073 pounds
PropulsionSolid propellent/
rocket motor
EnablingNot applicable
GuidanceBallistic
HomingNo
PayloadTorpedo Mk 46 FC
SettingsElectrical
WarheadMk 103 Mod 0
ExploderMk 20 Mod 0
Contact
PERFORMANCE
Speed (knots)Not Applicable
Range (yards)Classified
PERFORMANCE
Speed (knots)Not Applicable
Range (yards)Classified

121


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