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Folks,

The Elements and Practice of Rigging And Seamanship, 1794, by David Steel, is a comprehensive English textbook of rigging, seamanship and naval tactics. A key reference for those interested in the age of Nelson. Although at times difficult because of its fine detail, it will reward those that search through it to understand the technology of the era.

The fonts in the 1794 original created unusual challenges to its conversion from images to text. Its s, f, S, F and l characters are not easily distinguished. Even in reprint, this is an expensive book and so we used photography rather than flatbed scanning to capture the document. Finally, each of the copies we had available had faded pages. All of this is to explain that even after quite a lot of work, this manual required more proof-reading and correction than any we have previously attempted. We really appreciate your reporting any errors that you find. We would especially like to thank Scott Weller for his thorough and accurate 2011 proofreading and reporting.

Please note that the page numbers in the tables jump from 138 to 141. This accurately reflects the 1794 original and the reprint from a different original.

In this online version of the manual we have attempted to keep the flavour of the original layout while taking advantage of the Web's universal accessibility. Different browsers and fonts will cause the text to move, but the text will remain roughly where it is in the original manual. We have not attempted to correct any errors found in the original document. However, this text was captured by optical character recognition and then encoded for the Web which has added new errors we wish to correct.

We wish to thank United States Naval Academy Museum for letting us photograph an original of the 1794 manuscript. Thank you also to San Francisco Maritime National Historical Park's J. Porter Shaw Library for the access to a reprint of this manual. Finally, we wish to acknowledge Sim Comfort Associates for creating the really nice 1978 reprint.

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SCIENTIA NAVALIS
VENTORUM
MARISQUE DOMINATRIX


THE
ELEMENTS and PRACTICE
OF RIGGING
AND SEAMANSHIP
-
ILLUSTRATED WITH ENGRAVINGS.
-IN TWO VOLUMES. VOL. I.
-LONDON:
PRINTED FOR DAVID STEEL, UNION-ROW, LITTLE TOWER HILL,
M. DCC.XCIV.



PREFACE.

IN Great Britain the naval arts are indigenous, and flourish with a superiority, which is the result of a vast demand for their various labours. But, singular though it is, the British Nation cannot boast of having taught or considerably improved them by the efforts of her press. Whatever may have been the cause of this does not at present much import; although curiosity would excite us to investigate, why these subjects have more engaged the attention of French authors: perhaps it might be ultimately traced to the consciousness of practical superiority, or to the different national characteristic; for the reserve of an Englishman is almost proverbial.

The germe of this work was a small and incomplete treatise on sail making, which some years ago came into the possession of the publisher. In the course of rendering that fit for general use, the reciprocal dependence of the naval arts was discerned; and it was instantly resolved to collect them all together, although public materials were few, and private communications were with difficulty to be obtained. The subject of ship-building seemed capable of being, with propriety, treated as a distinct pursuit; and these considerations, added to the reflection that much was already known upon that subject, produced the present labours upon the arts relative to or connected with the RIGGING OF A SHIP.

When thus far advanced, a seaman rebuked the deficiency, by asking if a ship, completely rigged, was to remain an inert body. Of what use, said he, are these masts, and stays, and braces; these blocks, and sails, and anchors? Pray put your complex machine in motion; send her to sea, and send her thither with directions, to act singly or in fleets. Hence was perceived the necessity of an union between the naval arts and the purposes to which they are applied.

This little history of our progress will perhaps strikingly illustrate their intimate connection. The seaman, who knows what can be and is performed by the naval artist, and who knows the construction and powers of the minutest parts of a ship's rigging, becomes a better judge of how the naval arts may be improved, or how more effectually directed to the purposes of seamanship. While the naval artist, on the other hand, who is acquainted with the objects of a seaman's pursuit, will be better enabled so to direct the arts he professes, as to facilitate the attainment of those objects. Thus each reflects a light upon the other; and, from the study of both, solid improvements in naval science are to be expected. We speak not without foundation; it is from this joint knowledge, that Captain Edward Pakenham produced his excellent inventions concerning masts and rudders.

The vanity of man makes him talk of the difficulties he has surmounted; the greater the difficulties, the more is his vanity gratified. Let it not, however, be attributed to this passion, if we mention a few of those impediments that presented themselves to us; but rather let them be taken as reasons, for our soliciting indulgence towards any errors that may, from that cause, have crept into the work.

Actual workmen in each art were necessarily consulted, and their differing methods required comparison by others, in order that correct principles might be established, and the best practice explained. The disinclination of many to be open in their communications, from the possession of

 

vi
 
supposed secrets, has often opposed the advancement of these volumes, and often chilled the ardour of our perseverance. Nor was the path always smooth, where even liberality was found; for the best practical workman and the best practical seaman were generally inexpert in the use of the pencil; they could describe, but not delineate; and artists were therefore employed, whose task was to elucidate by drawings the most complex figures and operations. Hundreds of the technical phrases were vainly sought for in the common dictionaries, and even in the maritime vocabularies; and thence it became necessary to explain and prefix them to each art. The language of the workman was not sufficiently exact for the public eye, and this was obliged to pass under revision. The publications which at present exist upon the making of masts, ropes, anchors, sails, blocks, and upon rigging, are in the whole extremely few and incorrect: from them, therefore, much assistance could not be derived; making an exception, however, in favour of the Traite du Greement of M. Lescallier, which afforded some hints that corresponded with the practice in the British navy, and which were of course adopted. Thus, from the number of objects and of agents, the tediousness of our progress may be conceived; but there labours will be amply repaid, if our theories are acknowledged to be (what we hope they are) theories demonstrated, and our practice of the different arts, the practice of their best artificers.

Upon the two subjects of SEAMANSHIP and NAVAL TACTICS we owe many obligations to the writers of France. It has been long admitted that M. Bouguer has given the true theory of working ships, and that M. Morogues is the most enlightened author on naval tactics. M. Bouguer is too mathematically abstruse for general use: of more benefit, therefore, is the work of M. Bourde de Villehuet, named Le Manoeuvrier; because this latter gentleman has treated the laws of motion in fluids with regard to ships, and the effects of the different sails and of the rudder, in a manner equally correct and more accessible to general comprehension; and he has furthermore shewn the exact correspondence of practice with theory. From these sources we have drawn much; but not from these alone: we have resorted to writers and seamen of our own country, and gained from them much excellent practice.

The NAVAL TACTICS will, we trust, be found more complete than any hitherto published; for all that is known of them, from M. Morogues to the Viscount de Grenier, is systematically arranged, and greatly elucidated by numerous engravings.

The foster-parent of this work is none other than the publisher. In the long course of his business, particularly confined to maritime and nautical productions, he became acquainted with the wishes and the wants of the naval world. Sincerely desirous to contribute the efforts of his station to the promotion of maritime science, he has employed years in collecting materials for it; he sought out the most skilful in their arts, and the most judicious in the sciences. And at length, with grateful thanks to many DISTINGUISHED CHARACTERS IN THE BRITISH NAVY who honoured him with their communications, and to those LIBERAL NAVAL ARTISTS who yielded him their assistance, he delivers, to the British nation, THE ELEMENTS AND PRACTICE OF RIGGING AND SEAMANSHIP.

 

v
 

CONTENTS.

THE EXPLANATION OF THE FRONTISPIECE.

The female figure represents Naval Science seated in a marine car. The triton is emblematical of the power of the ocean, as the figure at the back of the car is that of the winds.

Both seem to confess the dominion of Naval Science, by conducting the car in obedience to her commands.

MAST-MAKING.-Vol. I.

Page
Description, use, and position of masts, bowsprits, &c. 1
Explanation of terms used in mast-making 3
THE PRACTICE OF MAST-MAKING 13
Method of converting and lineing, or marking trees, to be sawed or hewed for putting together and completing made-masts, masts of single trees, bowsprits, yards, &c. 14
New method of making yards of two trees 17
Putting together and completing made masts 18
-- trestle trees and cross trees. 24
-- bibs 26
-- bolsters 26
-- caps 26
The making of masts of a single tree 28
-- cutters, sloops, smacks, hoys, and boat's masts 28
Putting together and completing made bowsprits, and bowsprits of a single tree 31
Putting together and completing made yards and yards of a single tree 33
The making of booms 35
-- gaffs 36
-- tops 37
-- davits 38
-- fire booms 38
The method of fixing masts in the royal navy and merchant service 38
Proportions for the height and diameter of masts in the royal navy 39
Proportional lengths and diameters of yards 40
Proportional lengths and diameters of booms 40
Proportional lengths of gaffs 40
Proportioned lengths of staffs 40
Proportional lengths and diameters of masts, yards, &c. of sloops 41
Proportional lengths and diameters of masts, yards, &c. of boats both sloop-fashioned and with lug sails 41
 
Page
Proportional lengths and diameters of masts, yards, &c. of launches and cutters both with lug sails and with settee sails 41
Proportional lengths and diameters of masts, yards, &c. of barges and pinnaces with latteen sails 42
Proportional lengths and diameters of masts, yards, &c. of barges, pinnaces and yawls, with spritsails 42
A fractional table of the proportions that every part of a mast or yard bears towards the given diameter at the partners in the tables of dimensions 42
A table of the value of fir timber in the year 1792 43
Value of workmanship per foot in length, for putting together and completing masts, yards, booms, &c. in the royal navy 44
Diameters of masts, at their respective quarters, heads, heels, &c. as they bear in proportion to the given diameter at the partners 45
Diameters of topmasts, topgallant masts, and royal masts, at their respective quarters, heads, &c. as they bear in proportion to the given diameter at the cap 45
Diameters of bowsprits at their different quarters, &c. as they bear in proportion to the given diameter at the bed 46
Diameters of mizen yards and yards in general at their different quarters, as they bear in proportion to the given diameter at the slings 46
Diameters of booms at their different quarters, as they bear in proportion to the given diameter in the middle - 47
Diameters of gaffs at their different quarters, as they bear in proportion to the given diameter four feet from the end 47
Method of measuring rough trees for masts 47
Duties on masts payable in Great Britain 47
A table of rough trees most suitable for the various parts of masts, bowsprits, and yards 48
Lengths and diameters of masts, bowsprits, yards, booms, &c. in the royal navy, taken at their respective partners, cap, bed, slings, &c. 49
Lengths and diameters of masts, yards, &c. in the merchant service 51


viii
 
ROPE-MAKING.-Vol. I.
Page
An alphabetical description of the tools, and explanation of the terms used in rope-making 53
THE PRACTICE OF ROPE-MAKING 59
The making of cables 60
-- cablets 61
-- stay-ropes 61
-- main and fore tacks 61
-- bolt rope 61
-- tiller rope 62
-- ropes from two inches to the largest used for running-rigging 62
The making of twice-laid cordage 62
Observations on the proportional strength of cable-laid and hawser-laid ropes 62
The making of bolt-rope twine and cod-lines 63
-- cork lines, deep-sea lines, dolphin lines,
 
Page
drum lines, drum-fish line, fore-ganger, hambro lines, hammock lines, hand-lead lines, house line, jack line, lead rope, log lines, and mackrel line 64
The making of marline, sash-line, seal twine, seaming or sailmaker's twine, sean lines, sean twine, sean-nets, spunyarn, store twine, whale lines, whipping-twine, whiting lines, worming 65
A table shewing the length of yarn required for cablets, hawsers, &c. 66
The proportional strength which ropes bear to each other 66
A cordage table shewing at one view the number of threads, weight, and length, of every sort of rope and twine 66
Contract for cables and cordage for the royal navy 67
-- cordage for the East-India Company 69
Parliamentary regulations concerning rope making 70
ANCHOR-MAKING.-Vol. I.
General description and use of anchors 77
Description of the tools, and explanation of the terms used in anchor making 77
THE PRACTICE OF ANCHOR MAKING 78
The most approved dimensions and weight of anchors 81
 
The number of anchors allowed each ship in the royal navy, with their weight and value 81
Dimensions of grapnels and creepers 82
Duty on the importation of anchor stocks 82
SAIL-MAKING.-Vol. I.
General description and use of sails 83
Explanation of the technical terms relative to sails, and description of the tools used in sail making 86
Instructions for cutting out sails 91
Instructions for sail making 92
Rules for ascertaining the quantity of canvas contained in the different sails 96
Rules for finding the quantity of canvas in the different gores 97
Particular directions for making a ship's main course 98
-- fore course 99
-- mizen course 100
-- main top-sail 101
-- fore top-sail 102
-- mizen top-sail 103
-- main top gallant sail 104
-- fore top gallant sail 104
-- mizen top gallant sail 104
-- main royal sail 105
-- fore royal sail 105
-- mizen royal sail 105
-- main stay sail 106
-- fore stay sail 106
-- mizen stay sail 107
-- main topmast stay sail 108
-- fore topmast stay sail 109
-- middle stay sail 110
-- mizen topmast stay sail 111
 
Particular directions for making a ship's main top gallant stay sail 112
Particular directions for making a ship's lower main studding sails 113
Particular directions for making a ship's lower fore studding sails 113
Particular directions for making a ship's main top mast studding sails 114
Particular directions for making a ship's fore top mast studding sails 114
Particular directions for making a ship's main top gallant studding sails 115
Particular directions for making a ship's fore top gallant studding sails 115
Particular directions for making a ship's jib 116
-- spritsail course 117
-- spritsail topsail 117
-- driver boomsail 118
-- brig's main sail 119
-- cutter's main sail 120
-- cutter's try sail 121
-- sloop's main sail 122
-- sloop's try sail or storm mainsail 123
Particular directions for making a sloop's square sail or cross jack 124
Particular directions for making a sloop's top sail 125


ix
 
Page
Particular directions for making a sloop's save-all top sail 126
Particular directions for making a sloop's gaff top sail 126
-- sloop's top gallant sail 127
-- sloop's water sail 127
-- sloop's fore sail 128
-- sloop's jib 129
-- sloop's storm jib 130
-- sloop's flying jib 130
-- sloop's ring-tail sail 131
-- smack's main sail 132
-- smack's fore sail 133
-- smack's jib 134
-- ship's sky scrapers 135
-- ship's royal stay sails 135
-- ship's storm mizen 135
-- ship's spritsail top gallant sail 135
-- wing sail for ketches 135
-- boat's settee sail 136
 
Page
Particular directions for making a boat's latteen sail 136
-- boat's latteen sail 136
-- boat's lug sail 137
-- boat's sprit sails 138
-- boat's foresail 138
-- boat's jib 139
-- awnings 140
-- quarter cloths 141
-- mast coats 141
-- rudder coats 142
-- windsail or ventilator 142
Parliamentary regulations relative to sails and sail cloth 143
Table, shewing the length of any gore by its depth 148
The number of reefs, points, ropebands, and gaskets, in fitting the courses and top sails 148
A table of the sizes of all bolt ropes 148*
Dimensions of the different sails belonging to a ship of each class in the royal navy and merchant service 149*
General observations on sail-making 151*

 
BLOCK-MAKING.-Vol. I.

General description and use of Blocks 149
Description of the tools and explanation of the terms used in block-making 150
Particular description and delineation of the patent block mill 151
THE PRACTICE OF BLOCK-MAKING 153
Proportions of blocks 153
Directions for the progressive making of a block 153
-- strapping 154
-- sheaves 154
-- coking or bushing with metal 154
-- plank-coaking 155
-- pins of a block 155
-- made-blocks 155
-- bee-blocks 155
-- cheek blocks or half blocks 155
-- deep-sea-line blocks 156
-- D blocks 156
-- long-tackle block 156
-- main-sheet block 156
-- monkey blocks 156
-- nine-pin blocks 156
-- quarter block 156
-- rack blocks 156
-- shoe blocks 156
-- shoulder block 156
-- sister block 156
 
Directions for the snatch blocks 157
-- strap-bound blocks 157
-- thick-and-thin blocks 157
-- voyol or viol block 157
-- warping block 157
-- dead eyes 158
-- hearts 158
-- bull's eyes 158
-- parrals 158
-- trucks 158
-- uphroes 159
-- cleats 159
-- wedges 159
-- belaying pins 159
-- racks 160
-- toggles 160
-- thimbles 160
-- travellers 160
-- hanks 160
-- iron hooks for tackles 160
-- fids 160
-- marline spike 160
-- mallets 160
-- chock 160
serving board 160
-- shoes for anchors 160

 
RIGGING.-Vol. I.

Explanation of the terms used in rigging 161
THE PRACTICE OF RIGGING 181
Instructions for making of bends 181
-- making a catspaw 181
-- making clinches 181
 
Instructions for crowning 182
-- making a flemish eye 182
-- making foxes 182
-- frapping 182
-- making gaskets 182


x
 
Page
Instructions for making hitches 182
-- making knittles 182
-- making knots 182
-- lashing 183
-- marling 183
-- parcelling 183
-- plaiting 183
-- pointing 183
-- making points 184
-- making ropebands 184
-- seizing 184
-- making a salvagee 184
-- making sennitt 184
-- serving 184
-- making a sheep-shank 184
-- snaking 184
-- splicing 184
-- making a stop 185
-- whipping 185
-- worming 185
A table, shewing the length of the first warp of standing rigging 185*
The several articles and their quantities allowed for preparing the rigging in the house 186
Contract prices paid by government (for labour only) for rigging ships in the river Thames 186
RIGGING PREPARED IN THE HOUSE 186*
-- for the lower masts 186*
-- for the top masts 189
-- for the top gallant masts 190
Rigging prepared in the house for the strapping of blocks 190
Rigging prepared in the house for the necessary ropes 191
PROGRESSIVE METHOD OF RIGGING SHIPS 194
The method of rigging a ship's bow sprit 194
-- jib boom 195
-- spritsail yard 196
-- spritsail topsail yard 197
-- fore, main, and mizen sails 197
-- top masts 199
-- top mast stays 201
-- lower yards 201
-- topsail yards 204
-- top gallant mast 205
-- top gallant yards 206
-- cross-jack yard 207
-- mizen yard 207
-- driver or spanker boom 208
Representation of the standing rigging of a ship, with an explanation of the several parts 208*
Representation of the running rigging of a ship, with an explanation of the several parts 209*
Representation of the fore-and-aft sails of a ship, with an explanation of the several parts 210*
Representation of the square sails and driver of a ship, with an explanation of the several parts 211*
The method of bending a ship's jib 209
-- fore top mast stay sail 209
-- foresail 210
 
The method of bending a ship's mainsail 211
-- fore topsail 212
-- main topsail 212
-- mizen topsail 213
-- fore top gallant sail 213
-- main top gallant sail 213
-- mizen top gallant sail 213
-- royals 214
-- main stay sail 214
-- main top mast stay sail 214
-- middle stay sail 215
-- main top gallant stay sail 215
-- mizen stay sail 215
-- mizen top mast stay sail 216
-- mizen top gallant stay sail 216
-- mizen course 217
-- driver or spanker sail 217
-- lower studding sails 217
-- top mast studding sails 218
-- topgallant studding sails 219
-- spritsail 219
-- spritsail topsail 219
The method of rigging a snow 220
-- an hermaphrodite 220
-- a brig 220
-- bilander 220
-- ketch 220
-- schooner 221
-- lugger 221
-- cutters 222
-- sloops and smacks 227
-- hoys and lighters 227
-- sailing barges 227
-- ships long-boats or launches 229
-- ships pinnaces and rowing barges 229
-- ships cutters or yawls 229
Necessary ropes, and various operations incidental to rigging, performed on board 230
To rig awnings 230
To make bentinck shrouds 230
To prepare boat ropes 231
To rig boomkin shrouds 231
To make dolphins 231
To prepare the flags 231
Frapping a ship 231
To make gripes 231
-- grommets 232
To prepare gun-tackling 232
To lash booms 232
To make mats 232
-- martingal stay 233
-- netting 233
Parbuckling 233
To make preventer shrouds 233
-- port-tackles 233
-- puddening of sails and yards 233
-- relieving tackles 233


xi
 
Page
To make rolling tackles 233
To rig various ropes, such as entering ropes, tiller ropes, &c. 234
-- rudder pendents 234
-- skiatic stay 234
To span booms 234
-- runners 234
To make stern ladders 234
-- stoppers 235
To rig swifters 235
-- top-burton tackles 235
-- travelling backstays 235
-- winding tackle pendent 235
-- yard tackles 235
DESCRIPTION OF FOREIGN VESSELS 236
-- a norwegian cat 236
-- bark 236
-- pink 236
-- polacres 236
-- a polacre-settee 236
-- a xebec 237
-- bomb ketches 237
-- a howker 237
-- a dogger 237
-- koff 238
-- galleys 238
-- half and quarter galleys 238
 
Page
-- Description of a Bombay galley 238
-- a settee 238
-- a felucca 238
-- houarios 238
-- a galliot 239
-- French shallop 239
-- Dutch hoys 239
-- Dutch sloops 239
-- a bus 239
-- a bugalet 239
-- fishing barks 239
-- a tartan 239
-- a bean-cod 239
-- chinese junks 240
-- pardos 240
-- champans 240
-- japanese barks 240
-- caracores 240
-- barks of Cracaloa and Straits of Sunda 241
-- a flying prow 241
-- prows of the Mulgrave islands 242
-- periaguas 242
-- Bombay barks, called dingas 242
-- balsas or catamarans 242
Representation of the gun vessels built in the river Thames in the year 1774. 242

 
SEAMANSHIP.-Vol. II.

Explanation of the terms used in seamanship 243*
THE THEORY OF WORKING SHIPS 243
Of the motion which a body communicates, when it strikes a surface 243
Of the action which water or wind have, by their pressure, on surfaces 244
Of the center of gravity 247
Of the center of rotation 249
Of the action of a sail on a ship, when it is not perpendicular to her length 251
Of the most advantageous angle of the sails, with the keel and the wind 253
Remarks on sailing by the wind 255
Of the joint forces which act upon a ship when sailing 256
A table of the situation of the sails, to run with the greatest velocity 258
Of the sails which are before the center of gravity 259
Of the effect of the fore-and-aft sails, which are before the center of gravity 260
Of the effect of the fore-sail, fore-top sail, fore-top gallant sail, and sprit sail, in their different situations 260
Of the sails which are abaft the center of gravity 262
Of the effect of the fore-and-aft sails abaft the center of gravity 262
Of the effect of the square sails of the main mast, and of the mizen topsail, in their different obliquities 263
Of the equilibrium necessary to be kept, in practice, between the sails before and abaft the center of gravity 263
Remarks on the effect of the main sail 266
 
Of the rudder 267
Of the time employed by different vessels to perform the same evolution 272
Of the height of masts 273
Observations on the different inclinations given to the masting of ships, with respect to the water line 276
Of the tension of sails, and their tendency to fix themselves perpendicularly to the direction of the wind 277
General observations on the effect of more or less surface of sails exposed, in various weathers, to the wind 278
Illustration of all the courses which a ship can sail with a given wind 280*
Description of a figure to elucidate the practice of working ships 281*
THE PRACTICE OF WORKING SHIPS 281
Description of head-and-stern moorings 281
-- swinging moorings 282
Of mooring to head-and-stern and swinging moorings 282
Of the ballast and lading 283
Manner of getting on board and stowing the anchors and cables 287
of getting under way from river moorings 289
Preparations necessary to be made for anchoring 289
Of coming to anchor 291
To anchor in fine weather in a place where you will ride head to wind, being close hauled 292
To anchor in fine weather in a place where you will ride head to wind, the wind being large 292


xii
 
Page
To anchor in fine weather in a place where you are to ride head to the stream and wind, the wind being large 293
To anchor in fine weather in a place where you will ride head to the stream, which comes from leeward, the wind being large 293
To come to an anchor with the wind aft 293
To come to an anchor, scudding under a foresail 294
To anchor with a spring, in order to present the vessel's side to a place or ship you wish to cannonade 295
To come to an anchor in roads that are often crowded with ships, and to leave clear births for others 295
To come to an anchor with the wind across the tide 296
To come to an anchor when the wind is right against the tide the ship driving with the strength of the tide against the wind 296
To come to an anchor without tending 296
Description of a floating anchor, to ride a vessel by in a gale of wind 296
Instructions for the management of ships at single anchor 297
Of sheering a ship 297
Of riding at anchor in moderate weather 298
To back a ship 298
Of bracing the yards when riding at anchor 298
Of riding, when in danger of breaking her sheer 298
How to manage a ship when her sheer is broken 298
Of tending to leeward, when the ship must be set a-head 299
When the ship is likely to go to windward with a long service out 299
To manage in a storm when riding at anchor 299
To tend a ship for a weather tide 300
-- with the wind a few points across the tide 300
-- with the wind across the tide 300
General observations on riding at anchor 301
On mooring 302
To moor, with two, three, or more anchors a-head 302
To back an anchor 303
To moor in a tide's way 303
-- with an open hawse to any particular quarter 303
Of keeping a clear hawse 304
How the weakest moorings may be best applied to help a ship to ride out a storm 304
Of clearing the hawse 305
Of getting up or weighing anchor 306
To get up an anchor in ships which have a main and jeer capstern 306
To get up an anchor in ships which have not a jeer capstern 307
To get up a second anchor 307
To get up an anchor in merchant ships 308
To weigh an anchor with the long-boat 308
-- by under-running 308
Of cutting or slipping the cable, to make sail 309
To sweep an anchor 309
To unmoor 309
Of getting under sail 310
To get under sail when the ship is swinging head to wind, and to cast either to starboard or larboard, where there is no current 310
To get under sail when the ship is riding head to wind and tide 311
 
Page
To get under sail when the ship is swinging with her head to the current, and with the wind a point abaft the beam 312
To get under sail, with a spring 312
-- with a leading wind in a tide-way 313
To cast a ship upon the larboard tack, and back her a-stern of danger 314
To cast a ship on the larboard tack, in a tide-way, with the wind two points on the starboard bow 314
To cast a ship on the larboard tack, and shoot her by the wind a-head of danger 315
To cast a ship on the larboard tack, with the wind right a-head, and to veer her short round before the wind in little room 315
To tack a ship in getting to windward as much as possible 316
-- without endeavouring to get to windward 318
-- in a dangerous rough sea when her staying is doubtful 319
--On turning to windward in very narrow channels 320
To veer a ship without losing the wind out of the sails 321
-- that has lost her fore mast 322
-- when lying-to under a main sail 322
-- under bare poles 323
To boxhaul a ship 323
To clubhaul a ship 325
Of lying-to in fair weather 325
To lie-to, to windward of a ship, so as not to drift near her 325
To lie-to under the lee of another ship 326
To bring-to with the fore or maintop sails a-back to the mast or filled 326
To bring-to with the three topsails a-back 326
To fill, when lying-to with the fore topsail to the mast 327
-- main topsail to the mast 327
-- all the sails to the mast 328
of lying-to in a gale of wind 328
-- under a fore sail 329
-- under a main sail 329
-- under the mizen 329
-- under the main staysail 329
-- under the fore, main, and mizen staysails 329
Of sounding in fair weather, whether close-hauled or going large 330
On ships driving 332
To drive to windward when the wind is against the tide 332
-- when the wind is across the tide 333
To bend a course in fair weather 333
-- a topsail in fair weather 333
To set a mainsail in blowing weather 334
-- a foresail in blowing weather 334
-- a topsail in blowing weather 334
To take in a course 334
-- the foresail in the time of veering 334
-- a topsail 335
-- a jib 335
To haul in a lower studding sail 335
-- down a topmast studding sail 335
To brail up and haul down a main topmast staysail 335
-- a mizen 336
To take in a topgallant sail 336
To unbend a course 336


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To unbend a topsail 336
On scudding or bearing away in a storm 336
On a ship overset on her side 337
On chasing 337
To chase a ship which is to windward, and to join her in the shortest method 337
Observations for the ship to windward which is chased 338
To chase a ship which is to leeward 338
 
Page
Observations for the ship to leeward which is chased 339
Of boarding 339
To board to windward or to avoid being boarded 339
To board to leeward, when close to the wind, or to avoid being boarded 341
To board with the wind large 342
Boarding at an anchor 343

 
NAVAL TACTICS.-Vol. II.

Introduction 347
Of fleets 348
The starboard and larboard lines of bearing 348
Manoeuvre in succession 349
The line a-breast 349
The bow-and-quarter line 349
The orders of sailing 349
The first order of sailing 349
The second order of sailing 350
The third order of sailing 350
The fourth order of sailing 350
The fifth order of sailing 350
A principle for regulating the distance of the columns 351
To find the length of a column 352
To find the distance between the columns 352
The order of battle 352
The order of retreat 353
To form the fifth order of sailing 353
To veer the columns in succession 354
To tack the columns together 354
To ply to windward in column 355
To interchange the center and weather columns 355
-- weather and lee columns 355
-- centre and lee columns 356
The weather column to pass to leeward 356
The lee column to pass to windward 356
Practical methods of keeping ships in their respective stations in the fifth order of sailing 356
To form the line of battle 357
Being in line of battle, to form the line on the other tack without tacking in succession 358
The line to tack in succession 358
-- veer in succession 358
-- tack and retack together 359
-- bear away together, preserving their bearings for the line 359
To ply to windward in line of battle 359
To interchange the centre and van squadrons 359
-- the centre and rear squadrons 360
-- the van and rear squadrons 360
The van to pass and form the rear 360
The rear to pass and form the van 361
To form the order of retreat 361
To CHANGE from the first order of sailing, (the ships being close-hauled) to the line of battle on the other tack 361
 
To CHANGE from the fiat order of sailing, (the ships running large) to the line of battle on the same tack 362
To CHANGE from the first order of sailing, (the ships being in bearing for one tack and running close-hauled on the other) to the line of battle without changing the tack 362
To CHANGE from the second order of sailing (the ships running large or before the wind) to the line of battle 362
To CHANGE from the third order of sailing (the ships running large or before the wind) to the line of battle 362
To CHANGE from the fifth order of sailing to the line of battle on the same tack, the weather column forming the van, and the lee column the rear 362
To CHANGE from the fifth order of sailing to the line of battle on the same tack, the center and lee columns interchanging 363
To CHANGE from the fifth order of sailing to the line of battle on the same tack, the weather and center columns interchanging 363
To CHANGE from the fifth order of sailing to the line of battle on the same tack, the weather column passing to the rear 363
To CHANGE from the fifth order of sailing to the line of battle on the same tack, the weather and lee columns interchanging 364
To CHANGE from the fifth order of sailing to the line of battle on the same tack, the lee column passing to the van 364
To CHANGE from the fifth order of sailing to the line of battle on the other tack 364
To CHANGE from the fifth order of sailing to the line of battle on the other tack, the center and lee columns interchanging 364
To CHANGE from the fifth order of sailing to the line of battle on the other tack, the weather and center columns interchanging 365
To CHANGE from the fifth order of sailing to the line of battle on the other tack, the weather column passing to the rear 365
To CHANGE from the fifth order of sailing, to the line of battle on the other tack, the weather and lee columns interchanging 365
To CHANGE from the fifth order of sailing to the line of battle on the other tack, the lee column falling to the van 365
Of manoeuvring in the fifth order of sailing in six or nine columns 366
To CHANGE from the line of battle to the first order of sailing, close-hauled on the other tack 366


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To CHANGE from the line of battle to the first order of sailing, running large on the same tack 367
To CHANGE from the line of battle to the first order of sailing, in bearing for the line on the other tack 367
To CHANGE from the line of battle to the second order of sailing, running before the wind 367
To CHANGE from the line of battle to the third order of sailing, so as to reform the line upon either tack 367
To CHANGE from the line of battle to the fifth order of sailing on the same tack 368
To CHANGE from the line of battle to the fifth order of sailing on the same tack, the center squadron forming to leeward, and the rear forming the center column 368
To CHANGE from the line of battle to the fifth order of sailing on the same tack, the center forming the weather column, and the van squadron becoming the center 368
To CHANGE from the line of battle to the fifth order of sailing on the same tack, the van column passing to leeward 368
To CHANGE from the line of battle to the fifth order as sailing, on the same tack, the van forming the lee column, and the rear the weather column 369
To CHANGE from the line of battle to the fifth order of sailing on the same tack; the rear forming the weather column, the van the center, and the center forming the lee column 369
To CHANGE from the line of battle to the fifth order of sailing on the other tack, without changing the disposition of the squadrons 369
To CHANGE from the line of battle to the first order of sailing on the other tack, the center squadron forming the lee column and the rear the center 369
To CHANGE from the line of battle to the fifth order of sailing on the other tack, the center squadron forming to windward, and the van in the center 370
To CHANGE from the line of battle to the fifth order of sailing on the other tack, the van squadron forming to leeward, the center to windward, and the rear in the center 370
To CHANGE from the line of battle to the fifth order of sailing on the other tack, the van squadron forming to leeward, and the rear to windward 370
To CHANGE from the line of battle to the fifth order of sailing on the other tack, the rear squadron forming to windward, the van squadron as center column, and the center squadron to leeward 371
To CHANGE from the line of battle to the order of retreat 371
To CHANGE from the order of retreat to the sixth order of sailing 371
To CHANGE from the order of retreat to the line of battle 371
To CHANGE from the fifth order of sailing to the line of battle, when the wind shifts forward 372
To CHANGE from the sixth order of sailing to the line of battle, when the wind comes aft 373
To CHANGE from the line of battle to the order of retreat, the wind coming forward 373
To CHANGE from the line of battle to the order of retreat, the wind coming aft 374
To re-form the fifth order of sailing, the wind coming forward 374
To re-form the fifth order of sailing, the wind coming aft 375
To re-form the line of battle, the wind coming forward 376
 
Page
To re-form the line of battle, the wind coming aft 377
To re-form the order of retreat, the wind changing 378
In what the force of a fleet consists 379
Advantages and disadvantages of fleets to windward and to leeward 380
To dispute the weather-gage with the enemy 381
To avoid coming to action when to windward 383
-- when to leeward 383
To force the enemy to action when you are to leeward 384
To bear down on the enemy and force him to action 384
To double the enemy when superior to him, and to leeward of him 386
To double the enemy when to windward of him 388
To force or traverse the enemy's line 389
To prevent the line being forced 389
To bring a fleet to an anchor 390
To get a fleet under way 390
To put a fleet in a position of defence in a road-stead 391
The exercise of the great guns 391
Epitome of a general engagement 394
NAVAL TACTICS, PART THE SECOND.-The system of M. Bourde de Villehuet 397
The order of convoy 397
To form the order of convoy in one line 397
-- in three columns 398
To CHANGE from the order of convoy in one line to the order of battle on the same tack 398
To CHANGE from the order of convoy in one line to the order of battle on the other tack 398
To CHANGE from the order of convoy in three columns to the order of battle on the same tack 399
To CHANGE from the order of convoy in three columns to the order of battle on the other tack 399
To CHANGE from the order of convoy to that of retreat 399
-- battle to the order of convoy in one line on the same tack 400
To CHANGE from the order of battle to the order of convoy in one line on the other tack 400
To CHANGE from the order of battle to the order of convoy in three columns on the same tack. 400
To CHANGE from the order of battle to the order of convoy in one line on the other tack 400
To CHANGE from the order of retreat to the order of convoy in one line 401
To CHANGE from the order of retreat to the order of convoy in three columns 401
To restore the order of convoy in one line when the wind comes a-head more than close-hauled 401
To restore the order of convoy in three columns, when disturbed by a sudden shift of wind right a-head 402
Of the convoy of merchant ships under the protection of men of war 403
NAVAL TACTICS, PART THE THIRD.-The system of the Viscount de Grenier 404
Preliminary reflections and description of a new order of battle 404
Explanation of the horizon and of its parts, under a new denomination as applicable to this system of tactic 408


xv
 
Page
Observations on the different orders necessary for the different situations of a fleet 410
The first order of sailing 411
The second order of sailing 411
The third order of sailing 412
The order of battle 413
 
Page
The order of chasing 417
The order of retreat 418
The order of convoy 419
The order of circumvallation 420
Of evolutions 420

 
MISCELLANEOUS.-Vol. II.

Captain Edward Pakenham's invention for saving a rudder when beaten off In the chapter of miscellanies which follows the subject of naval tactics.
-- substitute for a rudder when lost
-- method of restoring masts, when wounded
The upper deck of a seventy-four gun ship, delineating an arrangement of the hammock's for the crew
Mr. Hill's invention for stopping leaks occasioned by gun shot holes will be found in the plate of ballasting facing 286

TABLES OF THE QUANTITIES AND DIMENSIONS OF THE STANDING AND RUNNING RIGGING.-Vol. II.

Commencing a new Series of Pages, after the Chapter of MISCELLANIES.
 

Standing and running rigging to ships of 110 and 100 guns 1
-- 98 and 90 guns 11
-- 80 guns 21
-- 74 guns 31
-- 64 guns 41
-- 50 and 44 guns 51
-- 38 guns 61
-- 36 guns 71
-- 32 guns 81
 
Standing and running rigging to ships of 28 guns 91
-- 24 guns 101
-- 22 and 20 guns 111
-- sloops of 16 and 14 guns 121
-- brigs of 160 tons 131
-- cutters of 200 tons 141
-- sloops of 130 tons 143
-- ketches of 150 tons 145

THE READER WILL PLEASE TO ATTEND TO THE FOLLOWING CORRECTIONS, FOR THE TABLES OF STANDING AND RUNNING RIGGING, WHICH ARE AT THE END OF THE SECOND VOLUME.

ERROR in the Tonnage of 98 and 90 Gun Ships: 2290 and 2164 Tons respectively should be 1931 and 1827 Tons respectively.

In the Table for a Cutter of 200 Tons, add, after Outer Tye, 6 in.| 19 1/2 fathoms| as the circumference and length of the rope necessary for the outer Tye.

When a Cutter has a Topmast with Cross-trees, it has two pair of topmast shrouds and one pair of backstays, or else three pair of topmast shrouds only.

In the Table for a Ketch of 150 Tons, page 147, Length, &c. should be Length of the first warp of the Main Shrouds.

By a recent Order of the Navy Board, the Main and Fore Sails of all Ships in the Royal Navy are to have double tacks; for which the allowed quantity is twice the length of the single tacks, but the rope is to be of the same size as that used for the sheets.

For Tarred Lines three-quarter rope is commonly used; the length of each of these lines is generally 108 Feet; and, therefore, whenever it directs one, two, or three, tarred lines, it is meant that there should be once, twice, or thrice, that length.

Sheets and Buntlines for Top Gallant Sails are omitted in three Tables, because they are always taken out of the Stores allowed for Sea.

To each set of Main and Fore Topmast Shrouds, a sister block is allowed.

No Seizings are allowed but for such blocks as require rope: all other blocks are to be seized with marline or spunyarn, allowed for fitting the rigging in the house.

All running rigging had better be got out in the coil, and cut to proper lengths when reeved on-board.


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