CARRYING OUT ANCHORS
CARRYING OUT ANCHORS BY BOATS.
To Carry out a Kedge or Stream Anchor by a Boat. Hoist the kedge out by the yard and stay, and lower it into the water astern of the boat. The coxswain hangs it there by a piece of three-inch stuff. One end of this is secured to the ring-bolt in the stern, the other end, passed around the shank just under the stock, is belayed for slipping. Settle down the yard tackle and unhook. Bend the hawser and coil it away in the boat. When the kedge is to be let go, heave the remainder of the hawser overboard and slip the stopper.
A small kedge may be made much more effective by lashing pig ballast or other convenient weight to it.
Circumstances will determine whether it is better to take the entire hawser in the boat, drop the kedge and bring the end back, or to pay and go from the ship, as assumed above.
To Carry out a Kedge or Stream Anchor in a Boat. Fig. 463. Hoist it out by the ring; when the crown is below the gunwale, hang it with a rope from the bottom bolt around the arms, and as it is lowered, bear the stock over the opposite gunwale, and bend the cable on under the stock after you have rolled the anchor aft. In this way you can steer and pull the after oars. To let go, unship the rudder, get enough chain out of the boat to reach the bottom, and roll the anchor overboard over the stern.
With a short anchor, place the midship thwart across the stern, lay two capstan bars fore and aft, and land the anchor on this platform fore and aft, with the flukes over the stern, stock on the capstan bars.
Steer in this case with an oar. To let go, raise the inboard ends of the capstan bars simultaneously.
Neither of these methods of carrying an anchor in a boat should be attempted, except by experienced hands.
If both ends of the shank, in the first case, do not roll over the stern simultaneously, or if the capstan bars, in the second case, are not lifted together, there is likely to be trouble.
For transportation only, the method is a good one, with light anchors.
CARRYING OUT A HEAVY ANCHOR WITH ONE BOAT.
First Method. (The quickest way.) Sling empty casks or beef barrels in pairs, marrying their slings and snaking them to prevent them from being shaken off. Bung the casks well and lower them overboard.
Out launch, lower it so that the stern will be supported by the casks, lash these securely to the boat, two on each quarter.
Haul the launch forward with a boat rope from the jib-boom end, steady her if necessary by a whip from the fore-yard braced forward.
Cockbill the anchor and lower it with the stock hanging horizontally across the stern of the launch. Take a stout strap around the shank, reeve one bight through the other, and jam the turn close up under the stock, take the other bight through the stern ring-bolts, and toggle it. In letting go, out toggle, or cut the strap.
With a large launch prepared as above, a good sized_ anchor and cable can be carried out. Fig. 464, Plate 103.
Second Method. Anchor too heavy to hang from launch’s stern. In this case, the flukes must be hove up under the bottom of the boat, the stock being perpendicular. Fig. 466.
Out launch, increase her buoyancy aft as before. Rig the fish-davit. Seize two large thimbles into two straps, which are clapped around the arms of the anchor just inside the flukes, a piece of a stout towline is rove through the thimbles, the tow-line being stopped to the shank to keep it middled. Put a long pair of slings around the shank near the stock, and lash them to its upper end to keep the stock perpendicular. Round the shank also, and stopped to the stock is the end of a stout rope, to be used in securing the ring. Hook the fish to the inner arm from aft forward, hook the cat to the stock slings and ease the anchor down, keeping the shank horizontal and the stock perpendicular until it is about four feet under water; bring the launch’s stern against the stock; haul her side in close to the fish; secure the stock end of the anchor to the stern by the end of rope provided for the purpose, passing the turns through the stern ring-bolts; bring the ends of the towline stuff in on each side through the rowlocks, and secure them through the foremost ring-bolts; ease up and unhook cat and fish; stop a length of chain round the boat outside, and then range as much more chain in the bottom as is intended to be carried out, stopping it in several places, and making the end well fast that it may not fetch away in veering. Fig. 466.
To let go, cut or slip the stock and fluke fastenings together.
|In either of the above methods the casks are of course dispensed with if unnecessary (Fig. 465); but with the relative sizes of launches and ground-tackle supplied to our ships of war, it is most likely that the additional buoyancy will be needed.A boat will tow more easily by the first method than with the anchor entirely under her bottom.|
Third Method. (Stock horizontal, flukes perpendicular.) This plan was first suggested by a Mr. Cows, of England. The object is to bring the weight of the anchor on that part of the boat most capable of bearing it, and to use a purchase in the boat equal to heaving up any weight she can sustain.
This is done in suspending the anchor by a rope passing through a hole in the bottom of the launch, a tube placed over the hole preventing the water from filling the boat.
Launches are fitted with such a hole, covered by a brass screw-tap, outside of which screws a copper funnel. When preparing for use, screw on the funnel, or trunk as it is sometimes called, unscrew the tap; as soon as the latter is off, the water rises in the trunk till level with the water outside.
Immediately over the trunk, Fig. 468, is placed a windlass, the pins in its ends working in bearings on the gunwale.
Haul the launch forward, cock-bill the anchor; secure to its forward arm the end of the windlass-rope.
To get the other end of the windlass rope through the trunk, drop a lead and line through first, hook the lead-line from outside with a boat-hook, and haul through, marrying the lead-line to the end of the windlass-rope.
Lower the anchor by the cat, with the stock athwart the stern of the launch, man the windlass, and heave the flukes under the boat, keeping the boat clear of the shank. When the anchor is lowered have the usual stopper rove through the ring and taken over the stern roller of the launch. When the stock is close up under the boat secure the stopper through the after ring-bolts, with turns around its own part and around the after-thwart.
Fig. 467 represents a first-rate’s launch, with a bower anchor suspended under the bottom, and a hemp cable coiled away in the boat; c is the buoy-rope; d the rope by which the anchor is hove up;e the line of flotation when the vessel is light; f the line flotation with bower anchor hung in the ordinary way to the stern; g the line of flotation with anchor hung as represented, a cable and twenty men in the boat.
When a ship is on shore forward, unless Cows’ method is used it may be impossible to carry out a large bower with one boat, owing to the shallow water.
TO HAUL OUT A BOAT ENGAGED IN CARRYING A BOWER.
If the steam launch is not available for towing, send out first the stream anchor hung at the stern of the launch, the casks being omitted if the weight is not too great for the boat. Take the stream out in the direction in which the bower is to be planted, and beyond the intended position of the bower. Have a stopper long enough to lower the anchor to the bottom, and a top-block, large enough to take a hawser, hooked in the ring. Lower the anchor to the bottom, the hawser being rove through the top-block, and bring both ends back to the ship, being careful to keep them clear.
Secure one end of the hawser in the bows of the boat which is to be hauled out, and pass the other end in the hawse-hole.
A kedge planted well ahead of the position which the bower is to take, with a single warp led back to the launch and hauled upon there, may be used instead of a double line, as above described.
Weigh the warping anchor or kedge, when the operation of hauling out is completed.
TO CARRY OUT AN ANCHOR BY TWO BOATS.
This may become necessary owing either to the shallowness of the water, or to the lightness of the boats available for transporting the anchor.
First Method. To sling an anchor between two launches in shallow water. (Fig. 469.)-Hook the cat and fish; the cat to the ring and the fish to a strap round the crown. Put a short strap round the crown, one bight being rove through the other, and a thimble seized in for hanging the anchor by. Haul taut the cat and fish, let go the anchor stoppers, and lower the anchor down nearly to the water’s edge. The boats haul up, each having a good stopper for hanging the anchor. The headmost boat secures the stopper to the ring-bolt in the bottom of the boat, passes it over the stern roller, through the ring of the anchor, over the roller in the end of the stern davits, and secures the end to a luff tackle, which is hooked to the bow ring-bolt. Bowse the tackle well taut and secure; ease up and unhook the cat.
The second boat hauls up bow first, secures her stopper to the ring-bolt in the bottom of the boat, passes it over the bow through the thimble in the strap on the crown, in again over the bow, and secures the end to a luff hooked to the after stern ring-bolt.
|Bowse taut the luff, secure, and ease up the fish,To Let Go. Ease the anchor down clear of the boats with the luff tackles, then slip the ends of the stoppers together.|
Unless fitted with chain slips, there is danger of one stopper slipping before the other; therefore, warn the men in both boats to be careful.
Each boat will carry out a considerable quantity of the cable in the opposite end.
Second Method. Carrying out a bower between two cutters. (Plate 106). The stream having been previously sent out and planted, with the top-block at the ring, hawser rove off, &c., prepare to send out the bower between two cutters, as follows:
Hook the cat to the ring, the fish to a strap around the inner arm of the anchor, ease off the stoppers and lower the anchor into the water, stock athwartships, flukes up and down. Haul up two cutters, one on each side of the purchases. Lash two suitable spars across the boats, one a little forward of the centre of gravity, the other further aft at a distance nearly equal to the length of the shank. The spars rest on the gunwales of both boats, building up if necessary in wake of the inner gunwales to strengthen them.
Clap on the cat and pull up till the stock takes under the keels of the boats. Secure the ring to the forward spar by a lashing long enough to lower the anchor to the bottom on the bight, taking two round turns through the ring and around the spar, and expending the ends in opposite directionsaround the spar.
Now clap on the fish and pull up till the upper pee is nearly level with the after spar. Secure the fluke to the after spar by a lashing similar to the ring lashing, and passed under the shank. The strap for the fish will probably be jammed between the lashing and the upper fluke (hence the reason for using a strap instead of hooking the fish itself to the inner arm), but by bending a small line to the strap it can be recovered after the anchor has been eased down. Clap rackings on the lashing and knot the ends together above each spar until ready for easing away.
Fit a span across the sterns of both boats, and to it secure the end of the hawser used in hauling out.
Lastly, ease off and unhook the cat and fish. The anchor now hangs between the two boats, which are only separated by a distance a little greater than the width of the anchor fluke.
The bower cable, shackled to the anchor, is unshackled at fifteen fathoms and the end carried in another boat, which tows out in rear of the first two.
When ready to let go, the rear boat being close up, ease
|away together on the ends of the lashings, and lower the anchor to the bottom.Half the turns of the lashing on each spar being taken in one direction and half in the opposite way, the spars have no tendency to roll out of position, and any undue strain on their lashings is avoided.|
Cast adrift the spars and send back one boat with the standing part of the hawser. Let her take the end of the chain in her bows with end enough to shackle, hang the bight to her stern and haul out again by the hawser from on board. When the chain begins to drag, the second boat is brought under the bows and a bight hung to her bow and stern in the same manner. On reaching the boat supporting the end of the first fifteen fathoms, the leading cutter receives that end, shackles, and both cutters slip the bights at the same time.
If the state of the sea does not admit of towing out the cutters stern first, we must forego the advantage of supporting the greatest weight of the anchor by the sterns, and haul the boats alongside the purchases, bows aft.
The above method, as described, was adopted recently in laying out anchors at the Training Station. Based upon the plan adopted by Captain Craven in the “Plymouth,” it differs from the latter in the following respects: The anchor in Captain Craven’s method hangs with the stock up and down, and the flukes athwartships, and under the bows of the boats; boats are further apart, and the anchor is cut adrift instead of being lowered. The cable in the “Plymouth’s” evolution had the end buoyed, and was towed out in the wake of the cutters.
By the modified plan it was intended to have the anchor draw less water, and to bring more strain on the boats and less on the spars. Lowering the anchor instead of cutting it adrift, enables the end of the chain to be carried out in a boat instead of buoying it, which is believed to save tithe in the shackling, while the tow is lightened.
The lashings used in lowering the anchor were 5 1/2-inch rope, the depth of water four fathoms, weight of the anchor 5,500 pounds.
NOTES ON CARRYING OUT ANCHORS.
To carry out a heavy anchor and chain is considered a somewhat difficult as well as a dangerous operation. In 1842 a lieutenant and several men lost their lives while attempting it in a launch belonging to the U.S.S. Missouri, then aground in the Potomac River. This accident was due to the chain being stowed in the boat.
A long range of chain should never be carried in the boat with the anchor. Even when small anchors and hawsers
|are being carried out, heave overboard enough of the hawserand plenty to spare before letting go the anchor, to allow it to reach the bottom. If not, the anchor on being let go, will take the boat with it. A bight of chain is usually stopped around the boat ready for dropping, and if this is not enough, more must be paid out. Put check-stoppers on the chain while it is being stowed in the boat, securing them to a thwart or ring-bolt; this will decrease the danger of the cable’s taking charge when paid out.When about to let go the anchor, make sure by a cast of the lead that you have cable enough outside the boat to reach the bottom, and hang it well to the stern that no more may run out. If there be a greater quantity of chain in the boat than can be ranged in one layer, there will be damage done unless you disconnect at the first shackle and bring it to the last one, which will be the upper one of the range paid down.|
Let go the anchor with the ring toward the vessel.
In veering chain, lash a capstan bar athwart the stern; lay the cable over it and veer away cautiously fathom by fathom. If the end of another cable is brought to you, join it; hang the joining shackle outside your boat, and throw the bight out, letting both parts hang from the stern over the bar-that is to say, have no cable now remaining in the boat, and when all is clear, slip the bight.
This proceeding will suggest the necessity of always taking punches, shackle-pins, and hammers in a boat, when setting out on an anchor expedition.
After letting go an anchor, if the cable remaining in the boat gets away from you, direct the men to jump overboard and hang on to the gunwale till the cable is out.
When using a buoy on a bower that is laid out, stop the buoy-rope to one pee of the anchor and stopper it short of the depth of water; this insures canting the anchor for biting.
Warping out against wind and sea, lay out the cable on your return if before it, pay as you go.
When likely to weigh a stream or heavier anchor by boat, put a block on the crown and reeve a double buoy-rope through it.
In lowering a waist anchor by the tackles to be carried out, hook the main yard-tackle on the inner arm, and the fore yard-tackle in the ring to ease it down with the stock athwartships. A bill-tackle on the inner arm will keep the anchor from canting too quickly.
Sweeping for Anchors or Cables. Having lost an anchor and chain, attempt first to catch the chain; failing in that, the anchor itself. The position of the anchor is known by the cross-bearings taken when the ship anchored, also the direction of the chain.
|First: To catch the chain. Send out boats to pull at right angles to its direction, each dragging a grapnel after her.In addition to ordinary grapnels, use for this purpose two fish-hooks (hooks used in fishing the anchor), joined at the eyes and kept apart with their hooks in the same direction by a few small battens lashed across their backs. This is dragged by the eyes, the bills of the hooks are kept down with a back-rope, which should always be used in grappling, to clear rocks and other obstructions.|
When the chain is grappled, send out the launch and weigh it; hang the bight and drop the creeper down again, and so work till the end is reached, carry this to the ship, heave in, and heave up the anchor.
Second: To sweep for the anchor. Weight the bight of a line for some distance each side the middle, and putting an end in each of two boats, let them pull across the position of the anchor. A small chain is the best to sweep with.
The boats must be well apart, and the line dragging on the bottom. Sweep in the direction from ring to crown.
When the anchor is caught, cross the boats and haul up over it; drop the bight of a hawser down over the line so as to catch over the upper flukes, slip an anchor shackle down over both parts to confine it, warp the ship up, take one end of the hawser to the capstan, clap a deck-tackle on the other and weigh the anchor.
A running bowline may be slipped over the upper fluke.
To Weigh a Bower by a Launch Pitted with a Trunk. Having caught the upper fluke as described above, pass the ends of the hawser through the trunk, bring to on the windlass and heave up.
The crown being up, pass the end of the after-stopper from one quarter around the bow and aft the other side, let go the bight forward, and it will catch the shank of the anchor, hook on the luffs, and heave up the stock; catch the chain in the same way and heave it up to another boat.
The boat might be warped alongside as soon as the crown is up; then sweep a strap under its bottom, crossing the parts with a round turn around the shank of the anchor. Hook the fish tackle in the ends, walk up the anchor crown first until the ring is high enough to hook the cat.
To get the anchor up, ring first, sweep the steam cable under the boat (so as to catch between the stock and flukes), form a running clinch with the end around the other part, heave in on the stream, ease off the hawser, haul the boat clear, hook the cat when the ring is high enough. Should a portion of the cable be attached to the anchor, sweep under. it, take the end through the hawse-hole and heave in.
|Use the buoy-rope instead of the hawser in heaving up, if it is strong enough.A Jury Windlass, in a launch, may be rigged by having a round spar secured athwart the boat, and working it with straps and heavers, having the hawser, buoy-rope or cable, led over a roller at the stern.|
TO WEIGH THE STREAM ANCHOR BY THE LAUNCH.
Ship the davit or roller in the stern, pass in the boat a. couple of good luffs, straps, spun-yarn, and stuff for stoppers. Bring the cable over the roller, and clap on a luff, single block to ring-bolt in the bows. Clap luff upon tuff if necessary to break ground. If the anchor holds hard, heave to a short stay, getting the stern well down, and belay; then let all hands go forward and try to jump the anchor out. When aweigh, clap the luffs on alternately, faking the cable in the boat.
When the anchor is up, hang it to the stern of the boat and pull on board.
TO CALCULATE FLOATING POWERS.
In using casks, tanks or spars for carrying out anchors or other heavy weights, the floating powers may be estimated by the following rules:
To Calculate the Capacity of a Cask. Multiply half the sum of the areas of the two interior circles (viz.: at the head and bung), by the interior length, for the contents in cubic inches; dividing the product by 231, the number of cubic inches in a gallon, reduces the result to that measure.
To find the Number of Casks required to give a certain Floating Power. Multiply the cubic capacity in gallons by 8.4, the weight of a gallon of water; the result gives the floating capacity in pounds. The weight of the cask need not be considered.
To Calculate the Floating Power of Spars, for the Same Purpose. Say the three topmasts; the main being sixty-four feet long (exclusive of mast-head), diam. 22 in.; fore, 57 ft., diam. 22 in.; mizzen, 45 1/2 ft., diam. 17 in. The weight that they will sustain, is the difference between their own weight and that of the water they displace.
To ascertain the weight of a spar: Multiply the square of the diameter by .7854 (the area of a circle whose diameter is one inch), to find the area; multiply the area by the length, to obtain the cubic contents; and the product by the weight of a cubic foot of the material, ascertained by experiment.
|Main topmast.-The greatest diameter being twenty-two inches, the proportion of diameter at first quarter is 60/61; second quarter, 20/21; third quarter, 8/9; equal to 22 in., 21.6 in., 20.9 in., and 19.5 in., respectively; consequently twenty-one inches is the mean diameter.64 ft. = 768 in., and 212 x .7854 x 768 / 1728 (the number of cubic inches in a foot) = 154 cubic feet.|
Fore topmast.-57 ft., in like manner gives 137 cubic feet; and
Mizzen topmast.-45.5 ft., with a mean diameter of 16.2 in., is equal to 65 cubic feet.
Total 356 cubic feet.
DECREASE IN WEIGHT OF IMMERSED BODIES.
If these calculations are made with a view to carrying out an anchor, &c., it must be remembered that the weight of that anchor, in water, is less than when it is out of water, by the weight of water it displaces. The specific gravity of wrought iron is 7.788, and of salt water 1.026, therefore the specific gravity of iron in relation to salt water is 7.788/1.026 = 7.59.
The “Trenton’s” bower weighs 7,000 pounds. Divided by 7.59, gives a decrease in weight when the anchor is submerged of 922 pounds.
Or the decrease of weight consequent on immersion of a body may be found by calculating its cubic contents, and then ascertaining the weight of its equivalent bulk of water.
7,000 pounds = 112,000 oz., which divided by 7788 (specific gravity of iron), gives a quotient of 14.367 nearly, being the cubic contents of the anchor in feet. A cubic foot of salt water weighs 64.2 pounds; therefore 14.367 cubic feet weigh 922 pounds; decrease of weight being same as by previous rule.