GETTING UNDER WAY UNDER SAIL
GETTING UNDERWAY UNDER SAIL.
Remarks on Casting. When there is plenty of sea-room, and the wind is fair, it is best to cast under the head-sails and to make sail when before the wind.
In casting with the square sails set, ships invariably gather sternway the moment the anchor breaks ground. On this account, and under these circumstances, it is considered a good general rule (in the case of a foul wind) to cast with the head towards the nearest of the neighboring dangers, to make a stern board while the anchor is being catted, then to fill and make sail enough to insure going about in stays when requisite.
When there is not room to admit of going much astern, set the main-sail before starting the anchor, if possible, or as soon after as it will take, and have a purchase all ready to clap on the cable the moment that the anchor promises to give a heavy heave; otherwise the ship may go tripping it astern into shoaler water, and certainly will be unmanageable until it is at the bows.
As a general rule, and one not to be neglected, when weighing one anchor have the other ready for letting go, and as soon as an anchor is weighed get it ready for letting go at once.
Before getting under way, shift the helm over two or three times, to insure the rendering of the wheel ropes, and that the tiller is clear in its sweep.
When you have room, and are pitching, it will be best to get the anchor up before making sail. By so doing you will ease the chain, capstan, &c.
When about to get under way (the ship being tide rode and the wind aft), the comparative strength of wind and tide must be well considered before coming to the decision to make sail and weigh, or to weigh first and to make sail afterwards. For it does not look seamanlike to see a ship under canvas forging ahead over her anchor, tearing the copper off her bottom, and sheering unmanageably about before breaking ground; and it is equally bad management when the anchor is hove up and the ship is drifted by the tide without steerage way.
If the wind were light, it would be necessary to make
|nearly all sail before breaking ground; or if moderate, merely to loose them. If it were blowing strong, the ship might stem the tide without any sail; but in this latter case it would be well to have a head-sail set, so as to prevent the possibility of breaking the sheer while stowing the anchor.|
TO GET UNDER WAY AND STAND OUT ON A WIND.
Having the vessel in readiness for sea. and unmoored, prepare to get under way as under ordinary circumstances, with the wind fair for standing out of the harbor.
Rig the capstan and fish-boom, reeve the cat and fish purchases, ship the gratings, swifter the bars, call:
If there are two capstans, the one on the gun-deck is manned by the port watch.* The principal stations are:
Forecastlemen to clean off chain with hose, stand by with cat, fish, &c.
Mastmen see gear ready for making sail.
Quartermaster and men stationed at the wheel go to their stations; also, leadsmen in both chains or quarter boats.
Gunner’s gang tend chain around capstan, fore and main topmen port watch be ready to bitt or unbitt, tend stoppers, or at controllers, &c. Master-at-arms and servants or berth-deck cooks tend berth-deck compressors; tierers in the chain locker. Man the bars, HEAVE AROUND! and heave in the cable to a short stay.
As soon as “brought to,” the first lieutenant orders the navigator to inform him when the chain is in to a certain scope, say fifteen fathoms chain in five fathoms water, though it depends entirely upon the strength of the wind and sea.** When in to the required scope, the navigator orders, AVAST HEAVING! and reports to the first lieutenant, who then directs the men to be sent up (supposing it a frigate) to make sail.
The cable being in to a short stay, Heave and paul! stopper the cable well, and unship the bars, on the spar deck.
Stations for making sail! LAY ALOFT SAIL LOOSERS! and when the men are aloft and ready, LAY OUT AND LOOSE! Man the topsail sheets and halliards! In the meantime the forecastle men are loosing the head sails, and the afterguard the spanker; when ready, Stand by! LET FALL! SHEET
* The steam capstans adopted for use in the service will modify this arrangement of stations.
** The old rule for a short stay was, that the cable should be on a line with the foretopmast stay.
|HOME! LAY IN! LAY DOWN FROM ALOFT! The men all lay down on deck, except a few hands in the tops to light up and overhaul the rigging; at the same time, ease away the topsail clewlines, and haul close home the topsail sheets.* As soon as the men are clear of the yards, Tend the braces! Haul taut! HOIST AWAY THE TOPSAILS! giving also the cautionary order, Light up the rigging aloft! Hoist the topsails to a taut leech, and BELAY THE TOPSAIL HALLIARDS! or High enough the fore! Well the mizzen! Belay the main! &c., &c. Sheet home and hoist the topgallant sails, and then the royals, if the wind is light. Brace up the after yards for the tack on which you wish to cast, and the head yards abox to pay her off. Top up the spanker boom, and bear it over on the side you wish to cast.The following orders are commonly used, sail being made:|
Man the port head braces! Starboard main, port cross-jack braces! -or, the reverse, as you wish to cast (after part generally to after, forward part to head braces).
Let go and overhaul the lifts! Clear away all the bowlines! Tend the lee braces!
It will be observed that the booms are not triced up when loosing to get under way.
The sails being set, Man the bars! ship and swifter them; HEAVE AROUND! at the same time giving her a sheer with the helm. The officer of the forecastle reports when the cable is “up and down,” and also when the anchor is aweigh! at the former report, Man the jib and flying jib halliards! The fore topsail pays her head off, and as soon as the head sails will take the right way, LET GO THE DOWN-HAULS, HOIST AWAY! Put the helm a-lee for sternboard, at the same time, heave the anchor up to the bows; and as soon as it is high enough, Avast heaving! Paul the capstan! stopper the cable; cat and fish the anchor. When she has fallen off sufficiently, RIGHT THE HELM! Brace around the head yards, and set the spanker. Trim the yards and stand out to sea, making sail as required.
As soon as the anchor is catted and fished, the navigator causes the cable to be bitted and cleared for running, and having nothing more to do in that station, repairs to his station to assist in conning the ship, or acting as pilot. Having passed the bar-buoy, and seeing that all the sails are properly set, the anchors and boats secured, and no further necessity for all hands to be on deck, the first
* With a full crew the topsail can be sheeted home and hoisted at the same time; otherwise start the halliards well up before getting the sheets close home. See page 340.
|lieutenant reports the fact to the captain, who directs him to “pipe down.” On the boatswain piping down, the officersleave their stations and the lieutenant of the watch takes the trumpet, receiving the course from the pilot or navigator.|
In some cases, though rarely, the captain gets the ship under way. When he does not, the first lieutenant does it, though the captain is still responsible for the manner in which it is done.
In getting under way in a spacious harbor, where you have sufficient room, if circumstances will admit of it, it is advisable, particularly if blowing fresh, to keep the foretop-sail to the mast until the anchor is catted and fished; to do which set the spanker as soon as, or before, she breaks ground, and keep the head sails down; or flow the jib-sheet.
Should it blow sufficiently fresh, and present appearances of heavy weather outside, it is advisable to reef the topsails while setting them.
When getting under way to stand off on a wind, the spanker may be set, and very often is, when sail is made; guying the boom on the lee quarter, or the side to which you cast, as this catches the vessel should she be inclined to fall off too much.
Making sail to royals should be done rapidly; the sheets got close home, or “home alike,” and the sails hoisted up taut.
There are two ways of making sail: first, order the top-gallant and royal yardmen to “keep fast,” and not let their sails fall till ordered; then, as soon as the topsail yards are mast-headed, LET FALL, SHEET HOME AND HOIST THE TOPGALLANT SAILS! and as soon as they are up, LET FALL, SHEET HOME, AND HOIST THE ROYALS! Second, as most commonly practised, let everything fall together, sheet home and hoist the topsails, and then the topgallant sails and royals in quick succession.
Before breaking ground, be sure the ship has the right sheer, or the jibs may take the wrong way and the ship fail to cast as desired.
If you cannot break ground and are apprehensive that the anchor has hooked under a rock or permanent moorings, clew up and furl, and let go the other anchor; then bring the buoy-rope in through the sheet hawse pipe, and endeavor to weigh it by that means, or get out the launch and let her weigh it. Should the buoy-rope prove unequal to the strain, send a hawser down over the buoy-rope by a
|running bowline, catch it over the upper fluke, and weigh it by that.A steamer can generally break her anchor out by stoppering well the cable and going ahead slowly.|
TO GET UNDER WAY FROM FIXED MOORINGS.
Proceed as in the above, bracing the yards as you wish to cast, then slip the moorings and trim the yards to the course, or use a spring from the moorings if circumstances require, taking both ends of the spring inboard that you may let go one end, unreeve and haul it on board.
TO GET UNDER WAY AND STAND OUT BEFORE THE WIND.
In some cases, particularly with the wind directly out of the harbor, vessels are got under way under the jib and spanker alone, thus: having those sails loosed and ready for setting, Man the bars! and heave the anchor right up to the bows, giving her a sheer with the helm whichever way you wish to cast. It is always advisable, if possible, to cast from the anchor; that is, if heaving up the port anchor to cast to starboard; because it is easier thus hove up to the bows after it is atrip, and the cat more readily hooked. As soon as the anchor is aweigh, hoist the jib; and as she pays off, haul out the spanker. Keep her under this sail, until the anchor is catted and fished; then hard up, brail up the spanker, make sail and stand out.
LYING IN AN OPEN ROADSTEAD
Having everything in readiness, “bring to” on the cable, Man the bars! Heave taut! off stoppers, and HEAVE AROUND! When the cable is up and down, Clear away the jib! put the helm to port for sternboard, and continue heaving until the anchor is up to the bows; Paul the capstan! Cat and fish the anchor. As soon as the anchor is aweigh, hoist the jib.
She is now paying off under the jib. As soon as she gathers headway, SHIFT THE HELM!Stations for loosing sail! ALOFT SAIL LOOSERS! LAY OUT AND LOOSE! Man the topsail sheets and halliards! When before the wind, and ready for letting fall, RIGHT THE HELM! LET FALL,
|SHEET HOME! LAY IN! LAY DOWN FROM ALOFT! and HOIST AWAY THE TOPSAILS! Man the topgallant and royal sheets and halliards! SHEET HOME AND HOIST AWAY! Set the foresail; sheet home in quick succession the topgallant sails and royals; remembering to tend the light braces. Haul taut the lower lifts! keeping the lower yards square by the lifts; hook the burtons on the topsail yards, and haul them well taut; haul taut the topgallant lifts, and Stand by to set all the studding-sails!|
RIDING HEAD TO WIND,
The object now is to get the vessel under way without losing anything, either in drift after the anchor is aweigh, or in falling off after casting.
Having hove in to a safe scope, run out a hawser ahead, with a kedge, from the starboard bow; and having let it go, haul the hawser well taut; masthead the topsail and topgallant yards, having the sails loosed, and only confined to the yards by the quarter gaskets; brace the yards sharp up by the port braces, fore and aft; loose the courses, jib and spanker, and have them ready for setting; the starboard jib-sheet aft, and the fore and main tacks and sheets stretched along the deck.
Man the bars and heave around briskly, until the anchor is up, taking in at the same time the slack of the hawser; cat and fish the anchor; and have it ready for letting go as soon as possible.
Man the hawser and warp the vessel ahead, sheering her with the starboard helm. Have the topsail sheets well manned, and as soon as the kedge is short apeak, or comes home, sheet home the topsails, run up the jib, haul out the spanker, with the boom on the port quarter; and as soon as the jib takes, with the wind on the starboard bow, run the kedge up to the bows.
As she falls off, and the moment the topsails take, draw the jib, set the courses and topgallant sails, and right the helm. Should the kedge come home before it is apeak, make sail immediately, hauling in the hawser at the same time.
If she is falling off rapidly when the topsails take, set the spanker and mainsail alone, easing off the jib-sheet; and as she comes to, board the fore tack, haul aft the jib-sheet, and meet her with the helm.
If, when the kedge is aweigh, she should fall off to starboard, and bring the wind on the port bow, let go the anchor and bring her up. By this process you have warped
|considerably ahead of the anchorage, and by counter bracing the head yards you may get under way, as under ordinary circumstances, or you may run out the kedge again, and make a second trial.If, while warping ahead, the kedge comes home, or the hawser parts, proceed at once to make sail or let go the anchor.|
ANCHORED ON A LEE SHORE,
When close to a lee shore, with too much wind or sea to get the anchor easily, or when you cannot afford to go astern, the ship must be cast with a spring, and the anchor abandoned. Thus, supposing that the ship is riding by the starboard anchor, and that it is determined to cast to port, brace the yards up on the starboard tack, have the sails ready for setting, with the number of reefs in that may be necessary; hoist the topsail yards sufficiently high for setting the topsails, and cast as many gaskets off as can be spared. Pass one end of a buoy-rope in through the riding cable hawse-hole, and make it fast to that cable forward of the bitts, stopping it along to the cable at intervals to prevent fouling, put a buoy on the outer end, and hang it outside all to the bumpkin. If riding with nearly a whole cable out, prepare to disconnect its end from the slip in the locker, drive the shackle-pins out and see the cable clear for running. If riding with only part of a cable out, you may be able to disconnect further up, and thereby save so much chain; but it would not be prudent to unshackle until the ship is sure of going the right way, for a flaw of wind might bring her to, after having gone off to port a certain number of points. and it would then be necessary to hold on for another trial. In such case, unusual strain would be brought on the cable fastenings, and if they carried away or rendered, and the cable were unshackled, you would be adrift; but were it still connected, it would bring you up.
Pass the end of a hawser from the starboard quarter outside all, and make it fast for a spring to the riding cable at the hawse-hole; haul it taut, make fast and have an axe ready for cutting it. Haul the head sheets aft on the starboard side. Be all ready to loose and make sail and veer cable. Put the helm a starboard, and when the ship’s head is sheering to port, hoist the head sails, veer away cable, and put the helm amidships; when the head sails have taken well and the ship is evidently swinging from her quarter by the spring, disconnect the cable, warning the people to stand clear of the end, and let go the buoy. Set the courses and then the topsails, if not able to set all at
|once; and when the wind is well on the starboard beam (and not sooner, otherwise the ship will fly into the wind before she has steerage way enough to keep her out of it), cut the spring, trim the head sails, and when you have good way on, bring her gradually to the wind.|
GETTING UNDER WAY IN A TIDEWAY.
In the foregoing examples, we have had nothing to consider, in getting under way, but the effect of the sails and helm on the vessel; but in a tideway, we have also the force of the current to guard against, or profit by, during the operation.
Definition of Tides. A windward tide, is when the wind and tide are contrary.
A leeward tide, is when the wind and tide are together. A windward ebb, is when the tide is setting out, and the wind blowing in.
A windward flood, is when the tide is setting in, and the wind blowing out.
A leeward ebb, is when the tide and wind are both setting out.
A leeward flood, is when the wind and tide are both setting in.
A spring tide is the highest tide, and occurs just subsequent to the full and change of the moon.
A neap tide is the lowest tide, occurring when the moon is near the first and third quarters.
Lying at anchor in a tideway, a vessel will ride to the wind or tide whichever is the stronger; and whatever influence the rudder has upon her movements, caused by the resistance which either side of it presents to the force of the water against it (which will act upon the stern of the vessel until checked by the cable, in proportion to the velocity of the current), that effect will evidently be the same, whether she is forced through the water by the sails or by other means; or being stationary, if the water rushes past her.
RIDING HEAD TO WIND AND TIDE,
Heave short, keeping the helm a-starboard, which (the tide acting on the port side of the rudder), will bring the wind a little on the starboard bow. Set the topsails; brace the after yards up by the port, and the head yards by the starboard braces; have the jib and spanker ready for setting; man the bars and heave the anchor up to the bows. The moment the anchor is aweigh, hoist the jib; and the moment she has paid off sufficiently (which she will) to
|port, brace around the head yards. If she gathers stern-way before the head yards fill, shift the helm; and then proceed as in former evolutions.|
TO BACK ASTERN. (CASE 7, PLATE 109.)
If you have not room to cast, either to port or starboard, from your anchorage-suppose a vessel on each quarter-weigh the anchor, and drift down between the vessels before you cast, thus:
Heave short; set the topsails and spanker; brace all the yards about halfway up by the port braces; then heave in on the cable, and as soon as the anchor is aweigh, put the helm to port; the tide acting against the starboard side of the rudder, casts the stern to port; the sails being aback, she will soon gather sternboard, when the effect of the tide upon the rudder will be lost; but the resistance by stern-board on the port side of the rudder and the effect of the spanker will counteract the tendency of the fore topsail to pay her off. In this manner let her drift down with the tide, between the two vessels. Should she pay off too much you may bear the spanker boom well over to windward, and brace the mizzen topsail sharp up. Should she, in sternboard, be in danger of fouling the one vessel, she will increase the distance from the other, when you may brail up the spanker, shiver the after yards, hoist the jib, and let her go around before the wind, righting the helm as she gathers headway.
In like manner a vessel may be backed astern where there is no tide.
But this manoeuvre should not be attempted except with a smart working ship, as a sluggish vessel or one that takes a rank sheer, will be likely to foul one of the two dangers before any change in the disposition of canvas will affect her movements. Therefore, with an ordinary cruising vessel, getting under way under sail, proceed as follows:
Heave short; set the topsails, reefed if necessary, and keep the yards square; the helm amidships. Heave in again, and when she breaks ground and starts astern, paul the capstan and stopper the cable. You may thus club down, and when clear of danger heave up briskly, wear and make sail as requisite.
For instances of CLUBBING, see Appendix I.
WIND-RODE, WITH A WEATHER TIDE,
Heave short; set the topsails and loose the jib; brace the head yards sharp up by the port braces; and leave the
|after yards square; man the bars and heave around; the moment the anchor is away put the helm to starboard; as soon as the jib will take hoist it, heaving the anchor up at the same time; as soon as the after yards take, square the head yards; and, as she gathers headway, shift the helm; when before the wind, right the helm, cat and fish the anchor, and make sail on your course.By the above arrangement of sail, the ship will get a rank sternboard, particularly if blowing fresh, and cut a broad sheer before gathering headway. This may be avoided as follows: brace the after yards about halfway up by the starboard braces, taking care to have the port after braces manned, so that they may be squared in again as she pays off; when, proceed as before. It is necessary to the perfect success of this evolution that the main and mizzen topsail should be kept shivering until the yards are square.|
The latter method is only necessary when getting under way from a close berth. If blowing very fresh and no room to spare, the yards may be mast-headed and the fore-topsail alone sheeted home; which, with the jibs, will pay her off with little sternboard; when before the wind, make sail.
TIDE-RODE, WIND TWO POINTS ON STARBOARD BOW,
Heave short, keeping the helm to port, which, from the effect of the tide upon the starboard side of the rudder, will bring her head to wind. Set the topsails, bracing up the after yards by the starboard and the head yards by the port braces; set the spanker and bear the boom well over on the starboard quarter; have the jib loosed and ready for setting, with the port sheet aft. In this position, the vessel will not remain steady, but will come up and fall off; man the bars, and heave up-and-down; and, as she comes head to wind, weigh the anchor and hoist the jib, still keeping the helm to port; the head sails, and the effect of the tide upon the rudder before she gathers sternboard, will pay her head off to starboard. The moment she gathers sternboard, shift the helm; as she falls off, having the wind on the port bow, shift over the head sheets, brail up the spanker, if necessary, and proceed as before directed in filling away and making sail.
Should she not pay off to starboard the moment the anchor is aweigh, owing to her not being head to wind; or should she, by the force of the tide on the port quarter, and wind on the after sails, be kept from falling off sufficiently to fill the head yards, it will be necessary to veer cable and
|bring her up, when the evolution may be performed with a spring from the port quarter.See also Club-hauling, Chapter XXIV.|
RIDING TO AN EBB TIDE,
Set the topsails when the anchor is at a short stay, leaving the head yards square, and bracing the after yards up by the starboard braces. The moment the anchor is aweigh, put the helm hard a-starboard. The fore topsail being full will give her headway, which may be increased by letting fall the foresail, and hauling it aboard; and the starboard helm will pay her head around to port, hauling out the spanker as it will take; which, with the after yards, will bring her to the wind, bracing up the head yards as she comes to, and meeting her with the helm.
RIDING TO A WINDWARD TIDE, WIND AFT.
Make every preparation for weighing, heave in, loose the jib, heave up the anchor, run up the jib; cat and fish the anchor and make all sail.
If in a crowded harbor, narrow channel, or where it would be necessary to have the ship under immediate command, proceed as follows: Suppose the ship to be riding by the port cable, heave short, loose and make sail, sheer her with the port helm and bring the wind on the starboard quarter; brace the yards up by the starboard braces and keep them shivering by the helm. Heave up, fill the after and square the head yards; haul aft the starboard jib sheet; cat and fish the anchor; up helm; fill the head and shiver the after yards, getting the ship before the wind, when make sail.
RIDING TO A WINDWARD TIDE, WIND AFT.
Make the usual preparations and commence heaving in; loose the jib and spanker; (riding by the port cable as before and wishing to cast on the starboard tack) top up
|and bear the spanker boom on the port quarter and put the helm aport; heave up and haul out the spanker as soon as it will take. When the wind gets abeam, run up the jib and meet her with the helm; cat and fish the anchor; loose, sheet home and hoist the topsails, brace up, bring by, and make sail.|
EBB TIDE-WIND ATHWART. (CASE 13, PLATE 109.)
Heave short, loose sail, and set the topsails; fill the fore and mizzen and leave the main square. Then heave up; cat and fish the anchor, keeping the ship hove to, and either tack or wear. Tacking or wearing will, however, depend on circumstances, and the amount of room to windward or to leeward.
If to tack-hoist the jib, fill away the main topsail, haul out the spanker, and set topgallant sails, &c.
If to wear-hoist the jib, up helm, shiver the after sails, &c.
If she does not lie steady with the main yard square, brace it sharp aback, as in the figure.
WEIGHING FROM A LEE SHORE,
A vessel has rode out a gale on a lee shore; it is desirable to weigh and stand off; but a strong current sets along the land, and the wind blows in on the off-shore bow, as indicated by the arrows in the cut. Under these circumstances there may be two methods of getting under way.
Case 14 a represents the position of the ship riding by the starboard cable. Make the accustomed preparations, and heave in to a short scope without tripping. Bend a spring from the port quarter to the cable; haul it taut and secure it well. Have a slip-rope around the spring from the port bow to insure its not being carried under the forefoot by the weight of the chain. Make sail to topsails, mainsail and spanker-bracing the after yards sharp up by the starboard braces, and the head yards abox, or rather pointed to the wind. Put the helm hard aport; stream the buoy; slip the cable; the spring will bring the chain on the other how, and cast the ship to starboard. When it will take, hoist the jib, right the helm, slip the spring, and trim the head yards, as necessary.
Case 14 b, in which the position of the ship is again illustrated. Here, in lieu of slipping and using the spring, the anchor is hove up, and the ship backed off, by putting the helm to starboard, instead of port, as in the previous case, while the head yards are braced sharp abox, and the after
|ones kept nearly square. In this case, the mainsail is not used, and the foresail set to help the ship’s head pay off to port. When sternway commences, the helm is shifted to port, the after yards trimmed sharp by the starboard braces, spanker and mainsail set, when they will take, &c., &c.|
RIDING TO LEE TIDE.
Heave short without tripping, loose sail, and set the fore-topsail and fore-topgallant sail; lead along the halliards of all the head sails, as also the fore tack and sheet, and brace the head yards sharp up by the port braces.
Mast-head the after yards, keeping them square, and stopping the sails up with rope-yarns. Put the helm hard aport, heave up briskly, trip the anchor, let fall the foresail, hoist the jib, with the sheets to windward, and wear short round on the ship’s heel, shifting the helm when necessary. When before the wind, check the port head braces, make after-sail, and stand out with the wind on the quarter.
NOTE. Have an, anchor ready to let go in case the ship should cast the wrong way; and observe to give her a rank sheer with the port helm, before the anchor breaks ground, hoisting the head sails as soon as the vessel’s head passes the direction of the wind.
WIND AND TIDE CONTRARY.
If to get before the wind, square the after and brace abox the head yards. Heave up the anchor, and when the fore-topsail shivers, square the head yards.
If to make sail by the wind, brace sharp up the after yards, square the head ones-heave up the anchor, and when the ship comes to, brace up forward.
STRONG WIND AND LEE TIDE.
With regard to the manner of executing this manoeuvre, there seems to be a difference of opinion among seamen; it is, however, generally conceded, that the following method is the most certain and secure:
Heave in to a short scope, and make sail to single-reefed topsails; lead along the tacks and sheets, jib-halliards, and
|spanker out-haul, and brace the yards up as sharp as possible by the port braces, and put the helm hard a-starboard. As soon as the anchor is aweigh, let fall the courses, set the spanker, meet the ship with the helm, and hoist the jib.NOTE. This supposes the case of casting to port. If to starboard, reverse the yards, and put the helm the contrary way.|
TO STAND OUT WITH A FREE WIND,
The usual preparations having been made, the topsail yards mast-headed and sails stopped up, heave in to a short stay and let go the stream anchor, the hawser coming in, through the after chain pipe or warping chock; heave up the bower and let the ship wind round and ride by the stream. Heave up the stream, sheet home the topsails, drop the foresail, &c., &c.
This may also be done in a narrow channel, when, by the usual method, there is risk of backing ashore; or a steamer may be thus winded and pointed fair for going out of a small harbor.
MAKING SAIL FROM A SPRING LAID OUT BY ANOTHER VESSEL.
On one occasion, in 1831, in order to save a French merchant brig from being wrecked, Capt. Harding ventured to anchor the Jaseur in the narrow and dangerous pass of Tamatave (Madagascar), in very squally and unsettled weather. We* dropped anchor in the brig’s hawse about a cable and a half to windward, and immediately veered about seventy or eighty fathoms of cable; at the same time, we ran the end of the stream cable out to her, and a lieutenant was sent with all the boats to her assistance.
On getting on board, he found, from the short and broken sea then running, that it would be impossible to heave the vessel ahead without great risk to both vessels; under these circumstances he took the following method: He made a spring of the Jaseur’s stream cable on the port side, all the yards were braced up for the port tack, the pinnace was made fast to the stream cable, a sufficient number of men sent aloft to have the topsails and courses ready to let fall at a moment’s notice; when everything was quite ready for cutting the cable and spring, and making sail at the same time, the spring was then tautened, so as to bring the wind well on the port bow; the moment she had sheered sufficiently
* Captain Liardet, R. N.
|for the sails to stand well, all sail was set together, and as soon as she felt her canvas, the cable and spring were cut at the same instant. As she was cast to seaward, the press of canvas she was under appeared to bury her in the very surf, but she was lifted, gathered way, and just grazed clear of the reef.For handling a vessel under sail in a tideway, see Appendix I.|
Remarks on Weighing. It must be remembered, that a ship which has to wear in getting under way, will seldom readily pay off until the anchor is close up to the bow. Therefore, under such circumstances, heave up as briskly as possible.
If a ship has a leading wind and is anchored in a narrow channel. or in the midst of a number of vessels, she would be got under way before the weather tide is done, as it would be extremely difficult to cast her upon the lee tide.
Should it blow fresh upon the windward tide, so as to force her “end on” over her cable, it would be impossible to heave it in without sheering her over from side to side, and heaving in briskly as the ship slacks her cable; but as this would be attended with considerable danger by the sudden bringing up of the ship upon each sheer, it would be prudent to heave apeak upon the first setting of the windward tide, and before the ship swings, to bring the wind aft.
The Kedge and Toggle. When using a spring the weighing of the kedge may be much facilitated by bending the hawser to the crown of the anchor, and securing it to the ring by means of a squilgee toggle. If the anchor has been carried out by a boat let her hang on to the buoy, and at a signal from the ship pull out the toggle, when the kedge may be run up to the quarter, and when the ship finds room she will heave to and pick up the boat.