PORT DRILLS AND EVOLUTIONS

CHAPTER XX.

PORT DRILLS WITH SAILS AND SPARS, AND MISCELLANEOUS PORT EVOLUTIONS.

The Trumpet.* The preceding chapters contain the prominent features of fitting out a ship for sea. We have now arrived at that part of the course where the young officer may be supposed to take charge of the deck; to conduct the usual port exercises.

The regularity and precision of military movements are not suited to a ship’s decks, nor are the commands to be laid down with the exactness given in works on military tactics; but those officers who give their orders in accordance with the customs of the service, and in a tone and manner which command attention and inspire respect, will, all else being equal, get more work out of a ship’s company than those who coin expressions for the occasion, and issue their orders as if obedience were doubtful or indifferent to them.

Commands. The commands are of three kinds: first, the preparatory command, which indicates what is to be done; as Ready about! Get the starboard stun’-sails ready for setting! &c. Second, the command of caution, which elicits immediate attention, and which is quickly followed by the third-the order of EXECUTION; as Haul well taut! LET GO AND HAUL! in tacking; Set taut! HOIST AWAY! when setting studding-sails, hoisting boats, &c. Stand by! LET FALL! in loosing sail. (The first or cautionary order is printed in italics; the latter, or order of execution, in SMALL CAPITALS.)

When using the trumpet, place it so that the least concave arc of the mouth-piece may rest against the upper lip, while the greater is below and gives room for the play of the lower lip.

The commands of caution, haul taut, and stand by, are absolutely essential when working a number of men (as a watch, or all hands, for instance), for it is not possible with-

* It is customary at sea for the officer of the watch to carry a speaking-trumpet. This is done, not only that he may have an auxiliary, often necessary to the voice, but also that he may be readily distinguished as the one, for the time being, responsible for the safety of the ship.

In port the distinctive mark, sanctioned by a recent order, is a binocular, or the spy-glass.


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out such commands to get them to exert themselves at the same instant, as they should do.The preparatory order, if given deliberately, will be better understood, though it should not be uttered without due energy. The cautionary order should be sharp, quick, and full of energy, while that of execution should be distinct and emphatic.

PORT EXERCISES.

The following forms of port exercises are based upon the idea:

1st. That the drills are carried on under nearly the same conditions as in actual practice at sea;

2d. That “ready men” are superfluous;

3d. That the light yardmen start from the tops in working their yards, sails or topgallant masts. *

The exercises designated as COLOR EVOLUTIONS are those commonly performed at the hoisting or hauling down of colors; such as crossing the light yards or loosing sail in the morning, and sending down masts and yards at sunset.

When exercising in obedience to signal, the squadron orders will show the time allowed between the preparatory signal and signal of execution. That allowance is usually as follows: Crossing or sending down light yards, loosing or furling sail, the preparatory is hoisted six (6) minutes before the moment of execution, and the execution signal three (3) minutes before it is hauled down.

In sending up and down topgallant-masts and yards, the preparatory signal is made ten (10) minutes before, and the signal of execution is hoisted five (5) minutes before the time.

In bending sail the preparatory is hoisted fifteen (15) minutes before the time of execution; left up five (5) minutes and hauled down. The execution signal is hoisted three (3) minutes before the time of hauling down. **

In color evolutions, if not exercising in obedience to signal, give the order of execution at the thirdroll of the drum.

If obeying signals, always give the order of execution the instant the execution signal starts from the truck.

* The practice of sending seamen on the run from the sheer-pole to the cross-trees has frequently resulted in permanent injury to the individual. It is said to induce heart disease. The light yardmen should not only be sent into the tops in advance, but in sufficient time to allow them to regain their wind before going further.-S. B. L.

** In the Training Squadron, it has been customary, after hoisting a preparatory signal, to unbend the signal part and hoist the preparatory pennant, as a signal of execution. This is convenient and saves the bunting.


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That all the squadron may be prepared to cross yards or loose sail at eight, or for any other manoeuvre at the hoisting of the colors, the flagship makes it a rule to designate seven bells (7:30 A.M.) by making a “time” signal at that hour. The squadron then have an opportunity of regulating their time by the flagship, and making such preparations for eight as may be necessary.No exercise aloft is completed while a single straggler remains above the rail; the order to lay down from aloft should therefore not usually be given until all can obey it. There are one or two cases (as in crossing yards and loosing sail) where a certain number of men must remain aloft after the rest. In such instances, these men perform their duty promptly, lay down into the tops and remain there until piped down.

In all port evolutions, as soon as the crew are ordered to their stations, the men who are to go aloft place themselves inboard at the foot of the rigging ladders on their respective sides by watches. Men stationed on the head booms place themselves inboard of the head rail.

When about to lay aloft from the tops, the light yardmen place themselves at the foot of the topmast rigging outside of the tops. If going aloft to send down yards, they carry with them the bending ends of their respective tripping lines. Once bent, these are often left permanently aloft during drills, and lie in a loose coil at the foot of the respective masts.

When the men reach the yards, they should remain at the slings until ordered out. This rule is general.

Substitute signs for verbal orders whenever practicable. Commands can be frequently omitted with good effect. For example, in crossing yards or loosing sails, beating the “call” by the drum (or sounding it by bugle) is a sufficient signal for the men to lay aloft. So also the third roll indicates the moment of letting fall, and dispenses with a certain amount of unnecessary noise.

Should the bugle be used at colors instead of the drum, give the orders “sound the call” and “sound off.”

At the first note of the bugle the light yardmen lay aloft from the tops, or the yards are swayed across, sails let fall, &c., as the case may be.

EXERCISES WITH SAILS.

General Directions. In all routine exercises with sails, as soon as the lower yardmen are on the lower yards, the two out-board men lay out quickly and unclamp the quarter-irons of the topmast stun’-sail booms. The two out-board men on the topsail-yards lay out to stop out the royal and topgallant yard-ropes to the topsail lifts in case


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the light yards are in the rigging. These men should perform their duty promptly, and lay out and in together to the slings of the yards.At the end of an exercise the same men on topsail-yards cast adrift the yard-ropes, and those on the lower yards remain out to clamp the boom-irons after the booms are lowered, then lay in quickly and down from aloft together.

In loosing, furling, bending, &c., the captain of the top, or man in charge at the slings of the yard, raises his right hand, as a signal to his officer on deck, the moment when the sail is ready for letting fall, as the case may be. No hailing from aloft is needed, and none should be tolerated.

If there are midshipmen in charge of the tops they should receive and transmit reports in a similar way, and the officers in charge of the respective masts on deck should also signify their readiness by signal of the hand to the executive officer.

For frequent port drills topsail-sheets may be singled and secured together with the clewlines by means of a short pendant fitted with sister-hooks connecting sheet and clewline to the clew of the sail.

The tacks and sheets may also be singled, or you may reeve one piece of half-worn rope, long enough for both tack and sheet, form a cuckold’s neck in the middle, lead one end aft and the other forward. In the place of the regular clew-garnet reeve a rope through the clew-garnet block, half-hitch it to the cuckold-neck in the tack and sheet, leaving enough to splice in a pair of sister-hooks, which hook into the clew, thus connecting tack, sheet and clew-garnet to the sail.

These single tacks and sheets answer all purposes for drilling, and preserve the regular ones.

Use single ropes’ ends for trysail sheets.

TO LOOSE SAIL TO THE BUNTLINES.
(Color Evolution.)

The preparatory signal being made, direct the boatswain to call:

LOOSE SAIL!

When the men are up:

Man the clew jiggers and buntlines!*

This order shows How the sails are to be loosed. Let go and overhaul leechlines, reef tackles, brails and bowlines; also tacks, sheets, clew-garnets and clewlines, if hooked.

When preparatory signal is hauled down:

* If clew-jiggers are not used the clewlines should be kept fast and the buntlines hauled up square with the yard.


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LOOSERS OF TOPGALLANT SAILS AND ROYALS IN THE TOPSAs execution signal is hoisted:

Beat the call! ALOFT SAIL LOOSERS!

Man the boom tricing-lines!

TRICE UP; LAY OUT; LOOSE

Keep fast topgallant and royal clewlines.

If the light yards are not aloft, the yard-ropes should be overhauled. The light sails are loosed in the rigging.

If ship has fires lighted, cast off forward stops of the covers of the main-sail and main-topsail, so that the sails will drop clear. Sail covers are taken off the fore and aft sails and head sails.

The officers having signalled their readiness: Stand by!

To the drummer: Roll off! At the third roll, or when execution signal leaves the truck:

LET FALL!

LAY IN! LAY DOWN FROM ALOFT!

The clew-jiggers and buntlines are hauled up alike, about two-thirds up the topmast. Topgallant-sails and royals hang down, their clews hauled up snug. The head sails are spread on the booms, heads of fore and aft sails hauled about half-way out.

The booms remain triced up.

Do not allow the leeches to be stopped in along the yards.

When loosing, if the sails are reefed, first let fall, shake out the reefs and then pull up the buntlines or haul out the bowlines, as the case may be.

If boats are to be lowered at colors, give the order in season:

Boat-keepers aft to lower your boats! and lower at the third roll. The falls should be hooked in their beckets and hauled taut, boat stoppers passed inboard and the boats hauled out to the booms, with their colors set, awnings spread, or sails loosed, as may the example of the flagship. In addition to the boat-keepers of the day, their reliefs lay aft to tend the boats’ falls.

TO FURL SAIL.
(Loosed to the buntlines.)

The preparatory signal being made, direct the boatswain to call:

FURL SAIL!

If the light yards are across, on hauling down the preparatory signal:

TOPGALLANT AND ROYAL YARDMEN IN THE TOPS!

Have hands by the clew-jiggers and buntlines, man the buntwhips, spanker and trysail brails.


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As execution signal is hoisted:ALOFT TOPMEN! Lower yardmen on the sheer pole!

Topgallant and royal yardmen start at this order from the tops.

ALOFT LOWER YARDMEN! LAY OUT! The men all get in their places, the sails not to be handed until the execution signal is hauled down, then:

FURL AWAY!

The leeches are passed in rapidly, the sail gathered up snugly, and the gaskets passed square. When ready, the clew-jiggers and buntlines are eased down and buntwhips hauled up. Haul taut clew-lines and topsail sheets, clew-garnets, bowlines, leech-lines and brails. Put covers on fore and aft sails.

When ready aloft:

LAY IN! Stand by the booms!

DOWN BOOMS! LAY DOWN FROM ALOFT!

And then:

SQUARE YARDS!

Haul taut the rigging, square yards as described further on, clear up the decks and pipe down.

If the light yards are in the rigging, the sails are furled there-the light yardmen laying up in the lower rigging after the men have been sent aloft.

It will be noticed that the time of giving the orders to LAY ALOFT and to FURL differ from the instructions given in the signal book; but the method adopted is the best to insure the working together of other ships with the flagship. This is presumed to be the object of port drills in squadron.

If the drills are to be competitive in their character, an easy method of attaining the object is to hoist a general signal without preceding it by the preparatory.

Remarks on Furling. To furl a sail well, every cloth must be gathered up in handfuls, and each handful stowed. When this is done, let all hands lay hold of the skin; shake the slack canvas into it, and then toss the sail up, bringing the skin as a covering over the upper side of it. The bunt in this way will be low and round. The outside only will be wetted in the event of rain, and will dry without even being loosed.

High and Low Bunts. Low, or rolling bunts, require bunt-gaskets, and are tedious to stow, and secure snugly high. or French bunts require no gaskets, but secure to the topsail-tye by a becket and stop. Being larger, and more open abaft, the slack sail is more easily stowed in them than in low bunts; neither is any time or labor lost about bunt-gaskets, a circumstance not to be overlooked, in competing with other vessels.

The look is a matter of taste; in foreign navies topsail yards are thought neatest, with first or second-reef earings


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hauled partly out, but neither reef-points tied, nor bunt-gaskets on. In our service the reefs are never hauled out for furling and the bunt is peaked up by the bunt-jigger. Bunt-gaskets are used in addition, though objected to by many officers, as superfluous.The proper place for the bunt-whip glut is two-thirds the depth of the first reef.

TO LOOSE SAIL TO A BOWLINE.
(Color Evolution.)

Preparatory signal being made, the boatswain and his mates give the call:

LOOSE SAIL!

The men being up, Lead along and man the bowlines and halliards! This indicates the manner in which the sails are loosed.

As preparatory signal is hauled down:

LOOSERS OF TOPGALLANT SAILS AND ROYALS IN THE TOPS!

Let go and overhaul clew-jiggers, buntlines, leechlines, down-hauls, reef-tackles, brails, and royal and topgallant clew-lines. Lead out and man bowlines, head halliards and sheets and spanker and trysail out-hauls and sheets; but a turn is kept on the pins till the men are ready aloft.

On hoisting of execution signal:

Beat the call! ALOFT SAIL LOOSERS!

Man the boom-tricing lines! TRICE UP!

LAY OUT! LOOSE! Toggle the bowlines!

At this order the men in the bunt toggle the bowlines to the buntline toggles. Unhook tacks and sheets if fitted for exercise, also topsail sheets and clewlines; or, overhaul the latter roundly.

The sails being ready and gear manned:

Stand by!

To the drummer: Roll of!

At the third roll (or when execution signal leaves the truck):

LET FALL! HAUL OUT! HOIST AWAY!

LAY IN! LAY DOWN FROM ALOFT!

The men on deck run away with the bowlines and head halliards. The bowlines are hauled out square, the courses let fall so as to hang square, head sails hoisted, and sheets hauled aft, fore-and-aft sails hauled out, and trysail sheets and spanker out-haul hauled aft.

Overhaul roundly the topgallant and royal clew-lines.

In foreign navies the topgallant and royal sheets are hauled taut-the plan is not generally followed in our own service. The booms remain traced up.

Observe remarks about reefed sails under LOOSING TO THE BUNTLINES.


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TO FURL SAIL FROM A BOWLINE.

The preparatory signal being made, call:

FURL SAIL!

When preparatory signal is hauled down,

TOPGALLANT AND ROYAL YARDMEN IN THE TOPS!

Man the clew-jiggers and buntlines; head down hauls; spanker and trysail brails!

Man the above-named gear, also the leechlines, topgallant and royal clew-lines, and spanker and trysail head down hauls and clew ropes. Tend the head sheets and halliards, trysail and spanker outhauls and top bowlines.

Signal of execution being hoisted:

ALOFT TOPMEN! Lower yardmen on the sheer pole!

ALOFT LOWER YARDMEN!

The topgallant and royal yardmen start from the tops as the topmen start from the deck.

Haul taut! SHORTEN SAIL!

The men on deck let go the gear tended, and haul on the gear manned.

LAY OUT!

The men take their stations on the yards.

As the signal of execution is hauled down

FURL AWAY!

The bunt-jiggers are hauled taut as soon as practicable and bunt roused up, top bowlines untoggled and hitched to the neck of the topsail tye-blocks, bights overhauled down and stopped to the forward part of the top. Unhook clew-jiggers and hook them in the top, hook clew-lines and sheets and tacks, if unhooked before loosing.

The head and fore-and-aft sails are stowed and covers put on.

When ready:

LAY IN!

Stand by the booms! DOWN BOOMS!

LAY DOWN FROM ALOFT!

Then square yards, clear up the decks, and pipe down.

HAVING LOOSED TO A BOWLINE TO SHORTEN SAIL.

If the sails are sufficiently dry, it is usual to furl at seven bells in the forenoon watch; before furling, however, it may become necessary to shorten sail. When a fresh breeze springs up, a ship with so much canvas gets uneasy at her anchor; or, there may be indications of rain. For whatever reason, if it becomes desirable, call

SHORTEN SAIL!

And when the people are up,

ALOFT TOP-GALLANT AND ROYAL YARDMEN!


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Man the clew-jiggers and buntlines, head down-hauls! spanker and trysail brails!Man and tend the gear named under FURLING FROM A BOWLINE.

Haul taut! SHORTEN SAIL!

FURL THE TOPGALLANT SAILS AND ROYALS! STOW THE FLYING JIB!

Furling the light sails before the rest is a common practice, particularly when short handed. It is entirely optional, however, and if preferred to furl all together, the orders relating to them will be omitted. The same applies to them when in the rigging. At the order, SHORTEN SAIL, the bowlines and halliards are let go, the head sails are hauled close down, the square sails are hauled up by the clew-jiggers and buntlines, and the trysails and spanker brailed up.

TO MEND SAIL.

If the sails have been badly furled, or for any other reason require restowing, the preparatory signal will be made. Call:

MEND SAIL!

When the men are up, as the preparatory signal is hauled down:

LOOSERS OF THE TOPGALLANT-SAILS AND ROYALS IN THE TOPS!

On hoisting of execution signal:

ALOFT SAIL LOOSERS!

Man the boom tricing-lines!

TRICE UP! LAY OUT!

On hauling down of execution signal,

MEND THE FURL!

The gaskets are cast off and the sails are restowed, with a fresh skin outside, the gaskets secured afresh.

When completed,

LAY IN! Stand by the booms!

DOWN BOOMS! LAY DOWN FROM ALOFT!

If the sails are very badly furled, send aloft the FURLERS instead of the loosers, and LET FALL! then FURL AWAY!

The clew-jiggers and buntlines are usually run up a few feet while mending the furl, lowering as the bunt is stowed.

BENDING SAIL.

In the chapter on SAILS will be found a description of the method of bending sails made up for stowage, as received from the Navy Yard. In practice, however, square


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sails should be kept on board ship (if the sail-room space permits) ready for bending, made up as furled.Preparations for Bending. All square sails are fitted with gaskets, stitched on the head at equal distances.

Seize the sail straps to the heads of all three of the topsails at the middle eyelet holes; let them always remain there, and when using them, after the sail is rolled up, carry the foremost leg round the after one, and seize its bight to its own parts. Topmen are very apt to cut this seizing too soon; but by having the strap fast to the head, their mistake may be partly remedied by a pull on the sail burton, which is always hooked to the after leg.

Topsails. Haul the head of the topsail along the deck, after side downward; gather all the slack canvas back from the head; lay the second reef-band along the head, and haul this and the head taut fore and aft by the earings. Bring the leeches as far as the reef-tackle cringles along the head; knot the fourth reef-earing into the third reef-cringle, and the third into the second; carry the clews into the quarters about six feet over the head; bring the buntline toggles about a foot over the head between the clews: coil all the remainder of the roping, so as not to ride, leaving the bowline cringles out; face the foot and gather up; then face the head and roll up, pass the gaskets taut; stop the clews up abaft the head, after having passed them over the fore part of the bunt; seize the strap; hook the sail tackle; knot the second reef-earing into the first reef-cringle, the first into the head, unless bull-earings are used on the yards; and secure the head-earings along the top of the sail on each side.

Fig. 373 and Fig. 375, Plate 71, show the mode of passing sail straps. The latter with single legs is preferable for permanent straps, as it is easier to stow away aloft. Each leg should be seized to the head of the sail.

Courses. Place, open out and stretch the heads of the courses taut along the deck well amidships, after sides down; the foresail on the starboard side of the forecastle, port head-earing well forward; the mainsail in the port gangway, bunt abreast the mainmast, starboard head-earing forward; gather the sail back from the head, making a smooth surface; stop the first reef-cringles to those of the head-earing; pass the leeches taut until within six feet of the clews, leaving the leechline cringles out. If the leeches are too short to allow the clews to reach to the bunt by taking the first reef-cringle to the head-earing cringle, a bending cringle must be worked on the leech about a foot under the head-earing cringle; in which case, make the sail up without seizing the first reef-cringle to the head-earing. (The yard-arm jiggers will hook to the bending cringle.) Haul the clews and the remainder of the leeches out clear of


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the head of the sail; carry the foot-rope up to the head, leaving the buntline toggles out clear about the middle of the sail; gather sufficient of the slack sail to make a long low bunt; the men cross over, face the head, roll up taut and pass the gaskets; coil and stop the earings to head of the sail; take the clews over, around and under the sail, and stop them to the head of the sail; place marks on the head of sails, at distances from the middle equal to the distance from the slings to the leechline blocks on the yards, so that the leechlines will haul the sail up fair in bending.In bending courses and topsails together, the topsails are placed fore and aft forward of their respective masts, fore and mizzen on the port side, main on the starboard side. The courses are athwartships under their respective yards.

Gear for Bending Topsails. The sail burton, hooked before the sail leaves the deck; yard-arm jiggers, hooked when sail is aloft.

1st. The sail burton is the top burton of the side on which the topsail is swayed aloft. The upper block is hooked into a strap at the crotch of the topmast-stay; the lower block and fall are sent on deck forward of all. To the hook of the lower block secure a tail-block, through which reeve the fall, leading it thence through a snatch-block hooked to a bolt well forward. This arrangement guys the sail clear as it goes aloft. The fall leads aft for the fore and main, forward for the mizzen. The lower block of the sail burton hooks into the sail strap. Fig. 266, Plate 35, also Figs. 373 and 375, Plate 71.

2d. The yard-arm jiggers-the upper blocks hooked to straps on the pacific-irons of the topsail-yards, the lower blocks hooked at the forward side of the top rim, ready for hooking into the second reef-cringles of the topsail as soon as they are high enough.

The topsail reef-tackles are used for this purpose, if practicable. Should their lead not permit of it, other jiggers must be substituted.

Gear for Bending Courses. Buntlines, leechlines, and yard-arm jiggers; all bent (or hooked) before the sail leaves the deck.

Toggle the buntlines to the sail; pass them abaft, under and up forward around the bunt of the sail, around their standing parts, and stop to their own parts.

Leechlines are clinched to their cringles and stopped to their marks at the head of the sail.

The yard-arm jiggers are the clew-jiggers; upper blocks carried out to straps on the pacific-irons, lower blocks hooking to the first reef-cringle, head-earings hitched to standing parts of the jiggers. If regular reef-tackles are fitted, use them for yardarm-jiggers.

Gear for the Jib. The down-haul and halliards, and a


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strap around the body of the sail to which the halliards are hooked and down-haul bent.Gear for the Spanker. If the gaff is not lowered, a whip from under the top to hook into a strap around the head of the sail. The detail does not differ from the description of bending spanker given under SAILS.

The courses, topsails, jib and spanker are generally bent together. To perform the evolution, at the preparatory signal the boatswain will be ordered to call “BEND SAIL.”

Loosers of topsails and courses, and men stationed at boom tricing-lines, stand by to lay aloft.

The balance of the men in each part of the ship go below and rouse up the sails, or if the hatches open fair to the sail-room, clear these hatches away to rouse up the sails from below with the spare main-top burton, overhauled down abaft the top, or with the trysail vangs.

On hauling down of preparatory:

ALOFT SAIL LOOSERS! Loosers of courses go on the lower yards, overhaul lower blocks of clew-jiggers to the deck, stand by to carry out upper blocks, cast adrift bunt-whips, overhaul buntlines and leechlines to the deck.

Loosers of topsails; shift upper block of sail-burton to strap on stay, send down lower block and fall, forward; hook lower blocks of yardarm-jiggers to top rim, stand by to carry out upper ones, secure back cloths, unless these are sewn on the sail, cast adrift buntlines and bunt-jiggers.

Loosers of jib lay out and bring in jib halliards and end of down-haul, place centipedes.

On deck, let go and lead out sail-burtons, buntlines, leechlines and jib down-haul, lower spanker gaff and prepare sails for going aloft as before directed.

CARRY OUT YARDARM-JIGGERS! The men lay out with the upper blocks and hook them, unclamp the booms, and if the light yards are in the rigging stop their yard-ropes out of the way.

LAY IN ON THE YARDS! The men aloft lay in and stand by to receive the sail!

MAN THE SAIL-BURTONS AND BUNTLINES; JIB-HALLIARDS!

As the signal of execution is hoisted:

Haul taut! SWAY ALOFT! Pull up on the jib-halliards, raising jib well clear of the rail; run away with the sail burtons and jib down-haul. When the bunt of the topsail reaches the lower yard, start up the courses.

The yardarm-jiggers and leechlines should not be touched, the sails hanging up and down the masts by the burtons and buntlines. When high enough, with the second reef cringle of the top-sails above the tops and the bunt of the course abreast of its yard:

A turn with the burtons! The men in the tops slew turns. out of the sails and hook the yardarm-jiggers.


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Stand by to lay aloft! and when ready:ALOFT TOPMEN! Lower yardmen on the sheer pole!

ALOFT LOWER YARDMEN!

Man the boom tricing-lines, yardarm-jiggers and leech-lines!

TRICE UP! HAUL OUT! LAY OUT! AND BRING TO! as the signal starts from the truck.

At the order HAUL OUT:

Top-sails are hauled out taut along the yard by the yardarm-jiggers, the burtons slacked until the middle bending hole is abreast the jackstay.

Courses are hauled out by the yardarm-jiggers and leechlines; jib is swayed out by the down-haul.

At the order “BRING TO:

1st. Secure the midship stop and two robands of a side.*

2d. Pass two turns of the head-earings through their respective eye-bolts and four turns through the thimble of the backer and head-earing cringle.

3d. Secure the balance of the robands.

4th. Cut adrift the buntlines, leechlines and sail-strap, and haul the former up clear.

Let go on deck and cast off the yardarm-jiggers, stand by to carry in their upper blocks, hook the topsail reef-tackles to their proper cringles; hook the reef pendants to the courses; hook and haul taut buntwhips, toggle top-bowlines and topsail buntlines; hook sheets and clew-lines to the clews; shackle tacks and sheets and hook clew-garnets to clews of courses; shift upper block of sail-burton to masthead pendant; round up the burton on deck, shift its lower block and fall abaft the topsail yard to its place.

The jib is swayed out by its down-haul at the order “sway aloft,” tending the halliards; land the tack on the boom, hook the tack, shackle the sheets, shift the down-haul and halliards to their proper places, take off sail-strap, hoist the sail as the hanks are being secured. Then haul down and stow it, and put the cover on, unless sail is to be made.

While the sails are being bent, the signal will probably be made, MAKE SAIL! Order:

Stand by to let fall: Man the topsail sheets and halliards!

* A metallic roband consists of a galvanized iron hook which hooks upon the bending jackstay and which has, on its forward side, a projecting lug, like a button. The head of this button is pierced with a thwartship hole. In bending, the roband eyelet on the sail is put over the head of the lug, and when all the robands have been attached, a piece of ratline stuff is rove through the heads of all the lugs, forward of the sail, as a preventer. The hooks traverse on the jackstay, so that the head of the sail may be stretched at any time by hauling on the head earings without unbending the sail. Fitted to the sails of the Trenton and Galena, and in many merchant ships.


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The sail being bent and loosed:Stand by! LET FALL!

SHEET HOME!

LAY IN! Stand by the booms!

DOWN BOOMS! LAY DOWN FROM ALOFT!

and proceed as in MAKING SAIL.

It is always advisable to proceed as above in bending new sails or preparing for sea, to see if the gear is properly bent and the sail sets well.

Should there be no signal for making sail after bending, then, the sails being bent and the furl “mended,” as necessary, order:

LAY IN! Stand by the booms!

DOWN BOOMS! LAY DOWN FROM ALOFT!

The booms are lowered and clamped, and all the men lay down from aloft, without straggling.

To Bend the Light Sails. The light sails are generally bent immediately after the others, to do which, give the order:

Stand by to bend the light sails! At this the yards are prepared for getting out of the rigging, and the flying-jib for going out, on the port side, owing to the lead of the downhaul; when ready

Man the topgallant and royal-yard ropes! flying jib halliards!

Haul taut! SWAY OUT OF THE CHAINS! Pull up on the flying-jib halliards, and then haul out the flying-jib by the down-haul at the same time that the yards are swayed inboard. The yards being clear of the hammock nettings-

LOWER AWAY TOGETHER!

The sails are bent and neatly furled, with the clews in; the yard-ropes hooked and manned; the flying-jib being bent at the same time. Then, order:

Man the yard-ropes!

Haul taut! SWAY OUT TOGETHER!

When placed in the rigging the bunts of the light sails should be slewed outboard.

On board large ships, it is convenient to get these yards in and out of the rigging with the lower clew-jiggers.

TO UNBEND SAIL.
(Port Routine-Light Yards in the Rigging.)

At preparatory signal, call:

UNBEND SAIL!

On hoisting of execution signal:

ALOFT SAIL LOOSERS!

The loosers of courses, topsails, jib, flying-jib, spanker and trysails go to their stations.


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Man the boom tricing-lines!TRICE UP! LAY OUT AND UNBEND!

Cast gaskets adrift from the yard and pass them around sail.

On Topsail-Yard. Cast off midship stop, unhook the bunt-whip and secure it to the tye, secure the buntlines around the body of the sail, take the bight of the buntline on the side opposite to the one on which the sail is lowered, and stop this bight snugly to the head-earing cringle. Hitch bowlines to tyes, unhook clews and stop them to the buntlines, unhook reef-tackles and pass the lower blocks into the top; pass slip stops if necessary to hold up the sail, single the head-earings for easing away, cut robands.

Make similar preparations on the lower yards, except that the leechlines are secured to the slings and the reef. pendants stopped along the yard to the jack-stay.

Head Sails. Cast adrift sail covers, secure them with the sails, unshackle sheets, stopping them to the stays, cap or wythe, as the case may be, pass stops around the sails, cast off gaskets, unhook the tacks, hook the halliards and secure the down-haul to a strap around the body of the sail, cut adrift the hanks, or untoggle them.

Trysails, &c. Let the covers fall on deck, hook whip under top and to strap around head of sail, unbend head out-haul and down-haul and throat lashing, cut adrift stops on hoops of gaff and mast, cast off tack lashing.

Man the head halliards, tend buntlines, trysail whips, brails and clew-rope and head down-hauls.

Stand by!

When execution signal is hauled down-

EASE AWAY!

Ease away the earings, let go the slip stops on the yards, run away with the topsail buntline of the opposite side, tricing up the upper earing of the topsail. Run the head sails up by their halliards some ten or twelve feet.

LOWER TOGETHER!

The men aloft see the yards clear of stops and yarns, and if so ordered strip them of reefing beckets and back cloths, unless the latter are stitched to the sail. Ease in the head sails by their down-hauls.

When ready

LAY IN! Stand by the booms!

DOWN BOOMS! LAY DOWN FROM ALOFT!

Then square yards, haul taut the gear and pipe down.

If the light yards are in the rigging, sails bent, the sails may be unbent in the rigging, but it is decidedly more shipshape to sway out of the chains and unbend inboard after the evolution aloft has been performed.

If the light yards are aloft, sails bent, see UNBEND SAIL AND SEND DOWN TOPGALLANT AND ROYAL YARDS.
22


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NOTE. A handsome method for unbending topsails in port is to reeve a light line from deck, through a tail-block on the lift, at the side upon which the topsail is to be lowered, taking the end along the yard and bending it to the opposite head-earing. At order “ease away” keep fast the head-earing on the lowering side, ease away the other earing, hauling on the light line on deck and rousing over one head-earing toward the other.At order “lower away,” lower the buntlines, keep fast the light line and head-earing for a moment, to fully decide the sail’s lowering well clear of the lower stay, top rim, lower braces, &c., then lower rapidly together.

TO MAKE SAIL.

Preparatory signal will be hoisted ten (10) minutes beforehand.

Direct boatswain to call:

MAKE SAIL!

As soon as the signal is made out, get the lower booms alongside and unhook topping-lifts; cast adrift ridge-rope and top up spanker boom. The crew go to their stations as in “loosing sails.” In addition, hook leaders and snatch topsail halliards and lead the halliards and sheets out; lead jib halliards through a leader hooked forward, and close amidships, clear of the topsail halliards; lead out spanker outhaul; lay down on deck, tacks, sheets, buntlines, clew-lines, clew-garnets, leechlines, reef-tackles, down-hauls, brails, braces, lifts and bowlines.

Signal of execution will be hoisted three (3) minutes beforehand.

LOOSERS OF THE TOPGALLANT-SAILS AND ROYALS IN THE TOPS!

Will be given as soon as the signal of execution reaches the truck.

As the signal is hauled down:

ALOFT SAIL LOOSERS!

Man the topsail sheets and halliards; jib halliards and spanker outhaul!

The starboard fore and port main topsail halliards are manned by a few hands, and a good strain is kept upon them, while the topsail yards are being hoisted.

LAY OUT! LOOSE!

Will be given as soon as the men reach the yards. Keep the sails well up on the yards and on the head “booms; overhaul topsail buntlines, fore and main leechlines and bunt whips; the men on deck let go topsail buntlines and reef-tackles; tend bunt whips and topsail clewlines, down-hauls. and brails.

Stand by!


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LET FALL! SHEET HOME! LAY IN! LAY DOWN FROM ALOFT!HOIST THE JIB! HAUL OUT THE SPANKER!

Tend the braces!

HOIST AWAY THE TOPSAILS!

Will be given when all ready aloft and about decks. Make a short pause after the cautionary order “stand by.” The remaining parts of the order save the last, are given in quick succession. The jib is hoisted and the spanker hauled out. The order to “hoist the topsails” is given as soon as the men are off the yards. The loosers, except those stationed aloft to light up gear, rapidly lay down from aloft and in from off the head booms, and clap on their respective topsail halliards. The clewlines are eased down, to prevent accident to the men on the lower yards. The topsail braces are let go and tended. The mizzen topsail is hoisted by the men stationed on the halliards; the men on the fore and main topsail halliards walk respectively aft and forward, cross the deck abaft the engine-room hatch and forecastle, and clap on the main and fore topsail halliards.

WELL THE MIZZEN TOPSAIL! BELAY THE FORE TOPSAIL HALLIARDS! BELAY THE MAIN TOPSAIL HALLIARDS!

Will be given when the leeches of the respective topsails are taut. The topsail halliards are belayed, unsnatched, and coiled down clear for running.

Topgallant sheets and halliards!

Will be given as soon as the topsail halliards are belayed. The gear will be manned, and the topgallant clew-lines, buntlines and braces tended.

SHEET HOME AND HOIST AWAY THE TOPGALLANT SAILS!

The topgallant sheets are hauled home; the sails hoisted to a taut leech; the braces are let go and tended. When the sails are hoisted and the sheets home:

Royal sheets and halliards! Flying jib halliards!

Overhaul down-haul and royal clewlines; tend royal braces.

SHEET HOME, HOIST AWAY! hauling aft the port (starboard) flying jib sheet.

The halliards and sheets are belayed and coiled down clear for running.

Man the port (starboard) head and main, and starboard (port) crossjack braces:

Fore and main tacks and sheets: let go and overhaul the lower lifts: Clear away the bowlines: will be given as soon as the royals and flying jib are set.

Haul taut; BRACE UP: clear away the rigging: HAUL ABOARD.

A short pause is made after the cautionary order. The yards are braced sharp up on the starboard (port) tack, and the courses set as when “by the wind.”


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Haul taut the weather lifts: steady out the bowlines: LAY DOWN FROM ALOFT:Will be given as soon as the previous order has been executed. The lifts and bowlines are hauled well taut: everybody will lay down from aloft. The men on deck will see everything clear for shortening sail.

A common error in this evolution is to man the topsail sheets heavily, and ensure getting the sheets home before attention is paid to hoisting rapidly. This makes heavy work for the sheets, sawing the foot of the sail across the stay. It is better to put all but a few hands on the halliards till the sail is about two-thirds up, then if the sheets are not home, break off hands from the halliards to the sheets as required.

TO SHORTEN SAIL.
(Ship under all plain sail by the wind.)

Preparatory signal will be hoisted ten (10) minutes before clewing up. Direct the boatswain to call:

SHORTEN SAIL!

When the preparatory signal is hauled down, the men stationed in the tops to light up rigging and to lay out on the lower yards to attend at the topsail sheets, are sent aloft: the former will go to the topmast heads and overhaul down the clew-jiggers forward of the topsails, and the latter to the quarters of the lower yards, and stand by to carry out the lower blocks. The men on deck lead out the royal and topgallant braces, clew-lines, topgallant buntlines, flying jib down-haul, and fore and main clew-garnets, buntlines and leechlines.

Signal of execution will be hoisted three (3) minutes before clewing up.

Man the royal and topgallant clewlines: flying jib down-haul: fore and main clew-garnets and buntlines!

Will be given when the signal reaches the truck.

The fore and main clew-garnets, buntlines and leech-lines; royal and topgallant clewlines, weather braces, topgallant buntlines and flying jib downhaul are manned. Have hands by fore and main tacks and sheets, royal and topgallant sheets and halliards, lee braces and flying jib halliards. The men on the lower yards lay out and hook the topsail clew-jiggers.

Haul taut: SHORTEN SAIL!

will be given when the signal of execution is hauled down; a short pause is made after the cautionary order. The gear tended is let go, the lee royal and top-gallant braces are let go and belayed at their square marks; run away with the gear manned. The courses are hauled up: the royals and


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topgallant sails are clewed up, the yards clewed down, and the weather-braces rounded in and belayed at their square marks; the flying jib is hauled down. The tacks, sheets and halliards are hauled taut and belayed: the leechlines, buntlines, clew-garnets, clewlines, braces and down-haul are coiled down.Man the topsail clew jiggers and buntlines; jib down-haul: spanker brails!

Tend the topsail sheets, jib halliards, spanker outhaul and top bowlines.

Haul taut! SHORTEN SAIL!

The jib is hauled down and spanker brailed up; the bowlines are let go; the men run away with the topsail clew-jiggers and buntlines, until up to their marks. The clew-jiggers and buntlines are belayed and coiled down.

Man the weather braces! Stand by the topsail halliards! will be given as soon as the topsails are clewed up. The men jump to the weather lower and topsail braces, and lower lifts, and stand by to lower away on the topsail halliards.

The men on the lower yards, unclamp the studding sail booms, and lay in to the slings of the yard.

Settle away the topsail halliards! SQUARE AWAY!

Will be given as soon as the gear is manned. The topsail halliards are lowered roundly, until the topsail yards are down, when haul them taut, belay and coil them down. The braces are hauled in and the lower lifts down and belayed at their square marks, and coiled down.

FURL SAIL!

Will be given when the “signal of execution” for that evolution is hoisted. This order will be repeated by the boatswain and his mates, and executed as per furling sails when loosed to the buntlines. But after “ALOFT LOWER YARDMEN, add: Man the boom tricing lines! TRICE UP!

If the clew-jiggers are already hooked (or not used) the men stationed on the lower yardarms are not sent aloft till execution signal is hoisted.

TO SQUARE YARDS.

The yards are generally squared daily in port at seven bells in the morning watch, and also after any exercise aloft.

Order:

SQUARE YARDS! Call away the _____ cutter!

Mastmen lay down braces and falls of lower lifts. The square yardmen stand by to lay aloft.

The boatswain should first assure himself that the slings of the light yards are down in their places, and also that the masts are properly lined; particularly the lofty spars


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which are apt to get out. Then commencing forward, the boatswain squares the yards by the braces, lining them by the break of the forecastle, coamings of hatches, &c., as may be most convenient.The yards being squared by the braces, and the cutter manned at the port gangway, as the boatswain leaves the side order:

ALOFT SQUARE YARDMEN!

Get the lift-jiggers on!

The square yardmen stand by to come up the racking seizings and tend the lifts. The boatswain pulls ahead of the ship, the chief boatswain’s mate lays out to the flying jibboom end, and repeats such orders as are issued by the boatswain. The boatswain’s mates place themselves at each mast, and carry out the orders received.

When the yards are square by the lifts and braces, the boatswain’s mates go to the sides or poop to repeat such orders as the boatswain may give in pulling around the ship.

The boatswain carries with him a white, a red, and a blue flag, each bent to a short staff, to denote respectively yards on the fore, main, and mizzen masts. He faces the ship. A flag held in the right hand signifies yards to starboard; in the left hand, yards to port.

For lower yards the flag is held depressed at an angle of 45 °.

For topsail yards it is held horizontal.

For topgallant yards it is elevated 45°, and for royal yards held vertically over the head.

Signal for topping up lower booms with empty hand.

The lower yards are squared first, beginning with the fore, then the upper yards. In squaring the topsail-yards by the lifts the laniards are come up to two or three turns, and the jiggers hooked and hauled taut-that when topping up on one the other may be eased by the jigger steadily. When belayis piped clap on a heavy racking of spun-yarn.

In squaring light yards by the lifts, tend the braces, or the yards will get bowed. The boatswain’s mate at the mast must see that in checking a light brace the yard is kept square by the braces. Sometimes a hand must be sell aloft to ride a light yard down.

Having squared the yards, the boatswain pulls around the ship, directing all gear to be hauled taut, and boats and lower booms squared. The stun’-sail booms should be rigged out alike and heels square, gaffs peaked up alike, the head booms properly stayed (usually straight, or with a slightdownward curve-never with an upward curve). Harbor clothes-lines should be on a level from fore to mizzen mast, whips hauled up alike.

See that no ropes’ ends are overboard or hanging from


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the tops; windsails squared; hammocks leveled; clew-lines chock up; and that the tops, chains, &c., look neat.When satisfied, the boatswain returns on board and reports to the officer of the deck:

The yards are square and the rigging hauled taut.

And the decks being cleared up, he is directed to

PIPE DOWN!

At which the square yardmen lay down from aloft together.

HANDLING LIGHT YARDS.

For description of fittings on the yards see RIGGING SHIP.

Tripping Lines. The hauling end reeves through a small tail-block. In port the other end is kept permanently bent to the snorter, and when the yard goes aloft it is toggled at the slings. It serves in this way to guy the yards clear when going aloft.

In sending down the toggle is slipped at the first roll. *

Yard Ropes. The after or hauling part of the yard-rope is kept coiled down in the top, and is paid down on deck and rove through a snatch-block hooked to the deck, abaft the mast, when prepared for use.

When not crossed the yards are kept in the lower rigging, the topgallant yard on one side and the royal yard on the other, their lower ends resting in a becket or stirrup, and the upper end secured to the forward shroud.

The fore and mizzen topgallant yards are kept on the port side, the main on the starboard.

When the light yards are crossed the gear should always be bent and clear for making sail. The “gear” comprehends topgallant and royal sheets and clewlines, topgallant buntline and bunt-whip.

Bull-Rope for topgallant yards. A small bull’s-eye is secured to the forward swifter, at the height of the upper topgallant yard-arm, when the yard is in the rigging.

The bull-rope has a good-sized eye formed in its upper end, and a small whip from the pin-rail tailed on to its lower end; or it may reeve through a leader at the rail, then through the bull’s-eye, with the standing part seized to the swifter.

The eye (or bight) of the bull-rope is overhauled to the lower yard, and there slipped over the upper yard-arm as the yard comes down, in order to trice it into the rigging. When in the rigging the upper yard-arm is secured by a grab lashing and the eye of the bull-rope hove off and brought down to the pin-rail, or the bight hauled taut.

* See these tripping lines coiled down clear when exercising at making sail with light yards aloft.


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Gear Stops are placed on each side of the topmast head, secured at the eyes of the topmast rigging. They are used to stop in the topgallant sheets, topgallant clewline, royal sheet and clewline, and eye of the topgallant lift and brace. Some ships use also checking lines, which are rove through bull’s-eyes on either side of the topmast cross-trees and jack, and led into the tops. They are. toggled around the eyes of the lifts and braces the moment these are clear of the yard-arms, and haul them in snug to their respective mast-heads. Rarely used except in port.Royal Sheets are much more easily handled when snatched in cleats screwed on the after side of the topgallant yard-arms, and fitted with rollers, the cleat taking the place of the sheave in the topgallant yard. This plan is adapted both for port drills and use at sea, and is frequently followed.

Topgallant Stun’-sail Jewel Blocks. The eyes of the jewel-blocks are marled to the eyes of the topgallant lifts and braces.

Sheets and Clewlines of topgallant sails, also of royals, are made fast together, so that they may be bent with one motion.

Quarter Blocks. When unhooked from the yards, the topgallant quarter-blocks hook to the topmast cap, royal quarter-blocks to beckets at the eyes of the topgallant rigging. Topgallant buntline and bunt-whip stop to the forward edge of the topmast cap.

Individual stations, showing number of men aloft:

 

SENDING UP YARDSSENDING DOWN YARDS.
In top-To tend lifts, send down yard ropes and put on topgallant halliards. *In top-To tend lifts and checking lines, send down yard ropes, take off top, gallant halliards.
The captains of tops and two men.
TOPGALLANT YARDS.
On topmast cap-Rig upper yard-arm, tend lizard, pass parrel, bend gearOn topmast cap-Unbend gear, stop out yard rope, cast off parrel, draw toggle of tripping line.
One man.
On topmast crosstrees-Over-haul lower lift and brace down, assist with parrel and gearOn topmast crosstrees-Bear off yard, unbend gear, assist man on cap.
One man.

* Usually put on at cross-trees.


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On topsail yard-Rig lower yard-arm, then in top to lower liftOn topsail yard-To bear off.
One man (from the top).
In topmast rigging-To over-haul down lower lift, then in topIn the top-At checking lines, &c.
One man.
In lower rigging-Clear away the upper yard-arm, then to yard ropeOn lower yard-With eye of bull rope to heave over the upper yard-arm.
One man,
with additional assistance in the chains, as needed.
ROYAL YARDS.
SENDING UP YARDSSENDING DOWN YARDS.
At jack-To rig upper yard-arm, tend lizard, pass parrel, bend gearAt jack-Unbend gear, stop out yard rope,
cast off parrel, draw toggle of tripping line.
One man.
On topmast cross-trees-Rig lower yard-arm, bear off yard, bend gearOn topmast cross-trees-Unbend gear, light up yard rope, bear off yard, &c.
One man.
In lower rigging-Clear away yard, then to yard ropeIn lower rigging-Receive yard and secure it.
One man.

NOTE.-The stations given above are those adopted in the Navy Station bill. But a common practice is to put on both royal lifts at the jack, the upper topgallant lift, &c., at the cap and the lower one at, or just below, the cross-trees. In each case the upper lift and brace is put on first, the yard then swayed chock up, and the lower lift put on. This avoids overhauling down the lower lifts and braces. Checking lines must be rove accordingly, if used.

Lizard. In lieu of the lizard described in RIGGING SHIP, a hook traveling on the yard rope, has been used on board many ships. Fig. 473.

TO CROSS TOPGALLANT AND ROYAL YARDS.
(Color evolution.)

Preparatory signal being made, give the order to call:

UP TOPGALLANT AND ROYAL YARDS!


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The crew having gained their stations, when the preparatory is hauled down,TOPGALLANT AND ROYAL YARDMEN IN THE TOPS!

Send down the yard ropes!

Lead them out and man them. When execution signal is hoisted:

Beat the call!

This is the signal for the light yardmen to lay aloft from the tops. (If not at colors substitute the order ALOFT TOP-GALLANT AND ROYAL YARDMEN!)

Set taut! SWAY OUT OF THE CHAINS!

At this order, the upper topgallant yard-arm is carried clear of the top rim, the royal yard clear of the cross-trees.

When the yards are steady, and the men shortened in on their holds

SWAY ALOFT! When high enough for rigging the yardarms, the order is given

High enough! And when rigged-

SWAY HIGHER!

When ready for crossing-

Tend the lifts and braces!

Stand by!

To drummer: Roll off! and at the third roll, or as signal is hauled down:

SWAY ACROSS!! BEND THE GEAR!

The yards are squared by lifts and braces.

HAUL UP THE YARD ROPES!*

When they are hauled up and neatly coiled away in the tops. Then:

LAY DOWN FROM ALOFT!

When topgallant yards are across, the jack must be hoisted and hauled down with the colors.

If a yard has been crossed with a lift and brace foul, stop out the yard rope for a preventer lift lay out-take off the lift and brace and clear it, then cast off the stop and haul taut the yard rope.

TO SEND DOWN TOPGALLANT AND ROYAL YARDS.
(Color evolution.)

At five (5) minutes of sundown preparatory signal will be made. Order the boatswain to call:

DOWN TOPGALLANT AND ROYAL YARDS! when preparatory is hauled down,

TOPGALLANT AND ROYAL YARDMEN IN THE TOPS

Send down the yard-ropes!

* Not usually given, if drills are to be continued.


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At the hoisting of the execution signal three (3) minutes before sundown:Beat the call! The light yardmen lay aloft from the tops. (If not at colors, substitute the order: ALOFT TOP-GALLANT AND ROYAL YARDMEN!)

Snatch and lead along the yard ropes, man them (but not too strongly), take them near a cavil ready to catch a turn for lowering, which should be done by a careful hand. The tail blocks of the tripping lines are secured to eye-bolts well forward of the mast and at the side. Yard ropes and tripping lines are toggled in to the slings of the yards by a toggle to be drawn at the first roll.

Man the yard-ropes and tripping lines! Tend the lifts and braces! Stand by!

Be careful to start nothing till the execution signal is hauled down, then:

SWAY!

Sway at the third roll if not working by signal.

Pause, till all the lifts and braces are clear, then

LOWER AWAY TOGETHER!

Keeping a good strain on the tripping lines.

The checking lines being hauled in and everything secure aloft:

LAY DOWN FROM ALOFT!

When the yards are crossed in the morning, the yard-rope is left stopped out to the quarter strap, and the bight overhauled down and stopped in to the slings; then at the first roll at sunset, the stop may be cut or broken; or toggle it with the tripping-line toggle.

TO CROSS TOPGALLANT AND ROYAL YARDS AND LOOSE SAIL TO A BOWLINE.
(Color evolution.)

When the preparatory signal is hoisted, call:

LOOSE SAIL! UP TOPGALLANT AND ROYAL YARDS!

Lead along the bowlines and halliards. (Indicates manner of loosing.)

On hauling down the preparatory:

TOPGALLANT AND ROYAL YARDMEN IN THE TOPS!

Send down the yard ropes!

At signal of execution: Beat the call!

ALOFT SAIL LOOSERS! Set taut! SWAY OUT OF THE CHAINS

Man the boom tricing lines!

SWAY ALOFT! TRICE UP! LAY OUT AND LOOSE!

Man the bowlines, halliards, and head outhauls!

As soon as the yards are high enough for crossing, the men on the topmast cap and jack cast adrift the gaskets of the light sails, keeping fast the lower bunt gasket, and hold the sails up.


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When ready:Roll off!

At the third roll (or when execution signal is hauled down),

SWAY ACROSS! LET FALL!

LAY IN! LAY DOWN FROM ALOFT!

At which order the men run away with the halliards and bowlines, and head outhauls.

BEND THE GEAR OF THE LIGHT SAILS!

The light yardmen lay down into the tops when they have bent the gear, and will lay down on deck at the order-

PIPE DOWN!

The evolution of fidding topgallant-masts, crossing yards and loosing sail is also frequently performed with a well-drilled crew, and is similar to the above, the masts being fidded first, and the sail loosers sent aloft when the yards are swayed out of the chains.

TO SEND DOWN TOPGALLANT AND ROYAL YARDS
AND UNBEND SAIL.

(Sails loosed to a bowline.)

Preparatory signal being made, call:

FURL AND UNBEND SAIL!

When preparatory is hauled down:

TOPGALLANT AND ROYAL YARDMEN IN THE TOPS!

Send down the yard ropes!

Man and tend the gear as in furling sail from a bowline. When execution signal is hoisted:

ALOFT TOPMEN! Lower yardmen on the sheer pole!

ALOFT LOWER YARDMEN! Haul taut! SHORTEN SAIL.

NOTE. If short-handed, it may be necessary to shorten sail before the topmen are sent aloft, in which case, SHORTEN SAIL! as execution signal is hoisted.

Man the boom tricing lines! TRICE UP!

LAY OUT! FURL AND UNBEND!

Get the light yards ready for coming down!

In addition to the gear named and manned in UNBENDING SAIL, man the yard-ropes and tripping-lines.

Tend the lifts and braces! Stand by!

As the signal of execution is hauled down:

SWAY! EASE AWAY!

Sway the yards, ease away the head-earings.

LOWER AWAY TOGETHER!

Lower the light yards on deck; unbend their sails.

LAY IN! Stand by the booms!

DOWN BOOMS!

LAY DOWN FROM ALOFT!


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When the light sails are unbent-Man the topgallant and royal yard ropes!

SWAY OUT IN THE CHAINS!

Square yards; clear up the decks and pipe down.

If in this instance the topgallant-masts are also to be sent down, take the strain off the fids* by swaying up on the mast-ropes before sending the men aloft.

After the yards are swayed, and the royal yardmen off the jack, the fid is drawn by the man on the cross-trees.

The order MAN THE MAST-ROPES would come in after SEND DOWN THE YARD-ROPES.

The yard-ropes in this instance reeve through jack-blocks, as explained further on.

SENDING UP AND DOWN TOPGALLANT-MASTS.

The Mast-rope reeves from aft forward through the topgallant top-block, at the topmast cap, then through the thimble of a lizard and the sheave in the heel of the mast. The end is hitched to a cap bolt on the opposite side.

The Lizard is long enough to pass through the royal sheave-hole, around the standing part of the mast-rope, and to secure with two half-hitches to its own part close to the thimble.

The Heel-rope is fitted with a tail-block, like a tripping-line. When in use its upper end is hitched to the link in the heel of the topgallant-mast; lower end and block paid down on deck.

Preventer Fid. If used, each mast is bored parallel to and about sixteen inches above the regular fid, to take a. preventer fid of iron, about an inch in diameter, with an eye in the end. To this eye is secured a laniard made fast to the eyes of the topmast rigging.

The reeving line has a tail-block which secures to the after topgallant shroud. Both ends of the whip are sent on deck, and one end secured to the mast-rope, previously rove through its top-block and lizard. When swayed aloft, hook the top-block, cast off the reeving line, and reeve the mast-rope.

The flying jib heel-rope reeves through a tail-block which secures to the jib-stay. Hitch the end of the heel-rope through the score in the heel. The flying jib down-haul is bent to the heel of the boom to assist in rousing in.

The flying jib, if bent, is roused in with the boom and secured alongside the jib-boom.

The flying jib-boom is not usually rigged in when exercising topgallant-masts.

Topgallant and royal yard-ropes. In port, when

* This does not mean to draw them, as topmen are likely to do, if not cautioned.


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top-gallant-masts are to be frequently sent up and down, the mast-ropes are kept aloft ready for use, and the yard-ropes rove off through the jack-blocks at the eyes of the topgallant and royal rigging.The topgallant-masts when down are landed up and down and forward of their respective masts. The flying jib-boom is rigged in alongside of the jib-boom, its end pointing through the wythe.

When the topgallant-mast is up and down, put a stop around the royal pole, securing it to lower stays. If there is any danger of the ship’s rolling, secure the heel also, or land the mast on deck.

In swaying aloft to fid, when short-handed, the standing part of the mast-rope may lead through a second top-block, hooked to the eye-bolt where the end is usually hitched. The top burton of the side (led down on deck) is then hooked into a thimble clinched in the end of the mast-rope. After swaying the mast aloft as high as possible with the mast-rope, cross the deck and clap on the burton.

In unfidding, belay the mast-rope, pull up on the burton, out fid, belay burton, and lower with the mast-rope.

An iron traveler is substituted in many ships for the lizard, and is fitted as follows, Fig. 472, Plate 107.

The traveler is an iron hoop which goes around the mast and both parts of the mast-rope. It is leathered and fitted with a projecting eye on each side. Into these eyes are spliced the ends of two short spans.

One span, pointing downwards, has spliced to its centre a distance line, equal in length to the distance from the royal sheave hole to the bolt in the heel of the topgallant-mast. The other end of the distance line is permanently secured to this bolt.

The other span points upward, and has secured to its centre a checking line, which reeves through a small leader on the forward part of the topmast cap, thence to the deck.

In unfidding, when the mast is lowered the checking line is tended so as to keep a constant strain upon it. The iron ring travels up the mast the length of the distance line, and remains in place abreast of the royal sheave-hole, acting as a grommet or lizard.

In fidding, take through the slack of the checking line as the mast goes up, so as to keep the traveler in position. When the mast is pointed, let go the checking line, and the traveler falls to its usual place between the doubling’s of the topmast and topgallant mast.

TO SEND DOWN TOPGALLANT-MASTS.
(Port Routine.)

Light yards on deck, using lizards. Preparatory signals being made, call-

Plate 107, Fig 472. Rigging the raising of a topgallant.

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DOWN TOPGALLANT-MASTS!On hauling down preparatory signal:

TOPGALLANT AND ROYAL YARDMEN IN THE TOPS!

Send down heel-ropes and reeving lines!

On deck. Get up the mast-ropes, and bend on the reeving lines ready to sway aloft. Let go all gear holding the mast; lifts, braces, and topgallant studding-sail halliards. Stand by to come up royal and topgallant back-stays.

In tops. Pay down reeving line abaft and heel-rope forward.

On hoisting of execution signal:

ALOFT TOPGALLANT AND ROYAL YARDMEN!

On deck, slack up topgallant and royal back-stays, stays and flying-jib guys; sway aloft the mast-ropes and topgallant top-blocks; lead out the mast-ropes.

Aloft. Slack up topgallant and royal shrouds and stays; hook topsail clew-jiggers to the crane lines on the back-stays, and haul them taut; unhook block (if any) at the heel of the topgallant-mast, shift to strap on collar of topmast stay, bend the heel-rope, secure the block of the reeving whip to the after topgallant shroud, and when mast-rope and block are swayed aloft, hook the block and reeve the mast-rope; cast off laniards of Jacob’s ladder, and light up all the gear and topgallant shrouds.

On Flying jib-boom and bowsprit cap. Secure tail-block of heel-rope, pass the heel-rope, bend the flying jib down-haul to the heel of the boom; render the flying jib and royal stays through their scores, and cast off belly lashing, if used. Let go flying-jib halliards.

MAN THE TOPGALLANT MAST-ROPES!

Haul taut! SWAY AND UNFID!

Haul out the regular fid, stand by to haul out the preventer.

On bowsprit cap, unclamp the heel of the flying jib-boom. Take turns for lowering fore and aft (or for easing in).

Stand by! Men aloft draw preventer fid.

As signal of execution is hauled down:

LOWER AWAY TOGETHER! RIG IN!

Lower roundly till the topgallant-mast head is clear, then handsomely till the lizard is passed through the royal sheave-hole: haul on the heel-rope to keep the heel clear, and land the masts up and down with their heels on chocks. Ease in the flying jib-boom, hauling in on the down-haul; secure the spar alongside the jib-boom. In the chains and head stop in the bights of all topgallant and royal stays and back-stays.

Aloft. Open the gate when the topgallant-mast head is abreast of the cap; pass the lizard; secure the topgallant and royal funnels to the cap, and make everything snug about the cross-trees and in the tops.


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As soon as the work is done;LAY DOWN FROM ALOFT

TO SEND UP TOPGALLANT-MASTS.
(Port Routine.)

The mast-ropes being rove off.

Preparatory signal being made, call:

UP TOPGALLANT-MASTS

When preparatory signal is hauled down:

TOPGALLANT AND ROYAL YARDMEN IN THE TOPS

On deck. Lead out mast-ropes and heel-rope of flying jib-boom; have straps and jiggers ready for setting up topgallant and royal stays, back-stays and flying jib guys; let go royal and topgallant gear, lifts, braces, clewlines, buntlines, &c., and topgallant studding-sail halliards.

Send down the reeving lines and heel-ropes! If the former are to be used, and the latter are not already on deck.

MAN THE TOPGALLANT MAST-ROPES

At the same time man the flying jib heel-rope.

Signal of execution being hoisted:

ALOFT TOPGALLANT AND ROYAL YARDMEN!

At cross-trees. Cut stops on royal and topgallant stays.

At the cap. Place the truck and funnels fair for receiving the topgallant-mast; see signal halliards and royal braces clear.

In the tops. Cut the stops on the topgallant and royal shrouds; thence to the topsail-yard to keep mast on the right slue.

Forward. Cast off lashings that secure flying jib-boom; have clamp ready for heel.

At hauling down of execution signal:

SWAY ALOFT!

Men on the topsail-yard keep the mast on the right slue for fidding, using a heaver through the heel.

At the cross-trees. The lizard is cast off and mast-head pointed; clamp the gate when the heel is above the topsail-yard; light up rigging: stand by with preventer, then with regular fid.

On the cap. Place the truck and funnels.

The flying jib-boom is roused out by its heel-rope, bearing down on the heel if necessary.

When the sheave of the topgallant-mast arrives above the cap, shorten in on the mast-rope.

As execution signal is hauled down:

SWAY AND FID!

At the topmast cap keep the Jacob’s ladder


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from fouling;* give timely warning if any gear holds the mast; prepare reeving line to send down mast-rope, if desired.At cross-trees shove in preventer, and then regular fid as soon as possible. When fid is in, sing out “Launch!

Cast off the mast-rope, send it down with the top-block, by the reeving line, if desired, then carry, the latter into the top. Unhook clew-jiggers from crane lines.

Set up all topgallant and royal shrouds, stays and back-stays; haul taut on deck all topgallant and royal gear; stow away mast-ropes, luffs, and jiggers.

When ready aloft:

LAY DOWN FROM ALOFT!

If these exercises are to be continued the mast-ropes remain rove off in port.

TO SEND DOWN TOPGALLANT AND ROYAL YARDS AND TOPGALLANT MASTS.
(Color evolution.)

Mast ropes rove off.

The preparatory signal being made, call:

DOWN TOPGALLANT AND ROYAL YARDS AND TOPGALLANT MASTS!

Men go to their stations for sending down the light yards excepting those who can be spared to prepare for coming up the topgallant and royal back-stays, &c.

On hauling down of preparatory signal:

TOPGALLANT AND ROYAL YARDMEN IN THE TOPS! Send down the yard-ropes and heel-ropes!

The execution signal being hoisted:

Beat the call, or

ALOFT TOPGALLANT AND ROYAL YARDMEN!

Man the yard ropes and tripping lines!

Tend the lifts and braces! Stand by!

As execution signal is hauled down,

Roll off! At third roll:

SWAY! LOWER AWAY!

The men on the jack lay down to the cross-trees as soon as the yards are swayed.

MAN THE MAST-ROPES! SWAY AND UNFID

When ready: LOWER AWAY TOGETHER! RIG IN!

And when everything is secure aloft:

LAY DOWN FROM ALOFT

* A small quarter-round chock on after part of topmast-head will accomplish this purpose. Similarly a scored wedge forward on the under side of the cap is wised to prevent the hounds from catching.
23


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TO SEND UP TOPGALLANT MASTS AND TOPGALLANT AND ROYAL YARDS.
(Color evolution.)

Masts up and down.

The preparatory signal being made, call:

UP TOPGALLANT MASTS AND TOPGALLANT AND ROYAL. YARDS!

Men go their stations for sending up topgallant masts. When preparatory signal is hauled down:

TOPGALLANT AND ROYAL YARDMEN IN THE TOPS!

Man the topgallant mast ropes!

At the same time man the flying jib heel rope.

When the signal of execution is hoisted,

ALOFT TOPGALLANT AND ROYAL YARDMEN! SWAY ALOFT AND FID!

When fidded, “Launch” (the fore, main, or mizzen). Then go to stations for crossing light yards.

MAN THE YARD ROPES! Beat the call! SWAY OUT OF THE CHAINS!

When the yards are up and down:

SWAY ALOFT!

Proceed as in sending up topgallant and royal yards. When ready for crossing:

Tend the lifts and braces!

Stand by! As signal is hauled down, Roll off! At the third roll:

SWAY ACROSS! BEND THE GEAR!

And when ready:

LAY DOWN FROM ALOFT!

For quick work the topgallant mast ropes and topgallant yard ropes should be on the same side, the men turning from one to the other.

PORT ROUTINE-MISCELLANEOUS.

To Rig Out and In Lower Booms. Having the booms rigged for port and ready, order: Man the boom topping-lifts! Forward guys! This gear is manned, both sides equally, if by the watch, first part starboard side, second part port side, and have a hand to tend the after-guy.

Haul taut! TOP UP!

Walk away with the topping lifts until the blocks are down to the mark. When, RIG OUT! ease away the after-guys and square the booms.

To get them alongside-Man the after-guys! Tend the topping-lift and forward guy! Set taut!HAUL AFT!


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To Spread Awnings. Place the awning stanchions and ridge ropes, get the awnings up out of the sail room and fore-and-aft in their respective parts of the ship. (If awnings are up and on a stretch they must be slacked down together to loose). Call:SPREAD AWNINGS!

Loose the awnings, haul out on the fore-and-aft tackles, reeve and man the earings. When ready,

HAUL OUT! and when the earings are out,

LAY UP AND BRING TO!

The men all lay out together, haul out the side stops, expending the ends. Pass the lacings connecting the different awnings. When finished, LAY IN!

Let go crow-foot halliards before hauling out earings and stops, and haul taut again after these are passed.

To Furl Awnings. Call:

FURL AWNINGS!

Men being up:

LAY UP AND CAST OFF SIDE STOPS!

At the same time cast adrift the lacings. When ready,

EASE AWAY! LAY IN!

The earings are eased away together; the men lay in, roll up the awnings neatly, hook the fore-and-aft tackles, and HAUL OUT! together.

Hammock Girtlines and Harbor Clothes-lines are fitted double. In the bight of the line is seized a hook and thimble; the hook secures to a bolt in the stern. The two lines leading forward pass through thimbles in rope jackstays that hang up and down each mast. Forward, the ends of the lines are spliced together around the after-sheave of a, fiddle-block. Through the forward sheave is rove a whip, one end spliced into a block hooked at the bowsprit cap, the other rove through the fiddle-block, and thence through the block on the cap and inboard.

The rope jackstay at each mast has an eye in its upper end for the mast-whip and a tail at the lower end to use as a down-haul.

These lines are prepared beforehand, and triced up at the third roll at sunset, at which time boats are also hoisted.

To Lower Wash Clothes with the Awnings Spread; after the men are on deck:

Stand by to lay out! When ready, LAY OUT! Cast off side tops-EASE AWAY! LAY IN!

Easing away the earings and slacking the lacings, then:

PIPE DOWN! the clothes; and when the lines are triced up again, or unhooked for sending below, haul out the earings; Stand by to lay out! &c., as in spreading awnings.

Have the master-at-arms and ship’s corporals on deck to


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look out for clothing of men away in boats. See the lines weeded of rope-yarns before tricing up again or stowing below, but it is still better to enforce the use of regular clothes stops, which are secured to the clothing and cast adrift, not cut.In firing a salute, with scrubbed hammocks or clothes on the lines, man the down-hauls and lower and haul down before the first gun, tricing up again after the last gun.

Dressing Ship. Ships are either dressed rainbow or yard-arm fashion.

In the first case an arch of flags extends from the water’s edge to the jib-boom,* thence to the topgallant mastheads, spanker gaff and boom, and to the water’s edge astern.

By the second method the flags are bent on to the signal halliards, which are rove through the topgallant stun’-sail halliard blocks, and sent down forward of all. When the flags are triced up the halliards are hauled out to all the yardarms and lower boom ends, hanging to the water’s edge.

The best way is to combine both methods, if there be flags enough, or use the rainbow, and in addition, dress the main, yard-arm fashion.

In any case, the ensign of the nation in whose honor the display is made is hoisted at the fore, the American ensign being hoisted at the main and mizzen. No other national flags are used in dressing ship.

To perform the evolution properly, there should be fitted dressing lines of small rope to which the numbers are stitched, each dressing line having a down-haul bent on in the centre.

The forward one goes from the jib-boom end to the fore-topgallant masthead, and is hoisted by the flying jib halliards or other whip.

The dressing lines between the masts are hoisted by the royal yard-ropes, previously unrove from their sheaves and taken through blocks at the topgallant mastheads.

At the main and mizzen reeve off additional whips abaft the masts. The whip abaft the mizzen mast trices up the dressing line that leads from the mizzen topgallant masthead to the gaff (where it is hauled out by one set of the peak ensign halliards), and thence to the spanker-boom end.

The ends of the dressing lines forward and aft drop from the jib-boom and spanker boom ends to the water’s edge.

They are decorated with the boat numbers and other small bunting, and steadied by hand leads at the ends.

Care and taste are necessary in placing the flags. They should be equidistant. Use the square flags between the mastheads and the pennants forward and aft, or alternate flags and pennants throughout.

Topgallant-yards are generally not sent down on the

Vide Navy Signal Book.


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evening previous to dressing ship; but, should they be, cross them in the morning in good season.The royal halliards and other whips are prepared aloft, overhauled down and bent to the dressing lines.

When the call is beaten, round up the masthead ensigns made up, and send aloft the captain of each top and two hands, one of whom, going to the masthead, stops the tack in when broke; the other, remaining in the top, clears the flags should they foul.

Man the whips! And at colors.*

Break stops! TRICE TIP!

The principal beauty of the manoeuvre is to have everything so prepared that the masthead flags are displayed and the others triced up so as to reach their places readily. If yard-arm fashion, hands previously sent aloft lay out together at the same time to each yard-arm, stopping out the flag halliards, and then, at the word, laying in together.

On a shift of wind, or at the turn of the tide, if lying in a tideway, send hands aloft together to clear the flags.

At sunset, haul the flags down just before sending down the topgallant yards.

Manning Yards. Men for manning yards will be selected from the furlers and men stationed in tops at furling, as far as practicable, except those for the cross-jack yard, who will be taken from the afterguard not stationed on the main-yard.

Before the time to man yards, the men selected for the several yards will be assembled by watches on their respective sides, facing forward, as follows: Those for the head yards, on the forecastle: for the main yards, in the gangways; and for the yards on the mizzen, on the quarterdeck; lower yardmen inside of the topsail and topgallant yardmen.

The several captains, petty officers, and leading men will tell off their men from forward, in the order of their numbers on the yards, and size them, placing the tallest men in the bunt and the shortest at the yard-arms.

Prepare to man in a similar way the head booms and spanker boom; also the lower booms, unless the men there would interfere with the firing of salutes. On the head booms the tallest man is inboard; on the spanker boom the tallest man is forward.

The prevailing practice at present is to leave the royal yards in the rigging, and instead of manning topgallant yards (especially in small vessels), to station four hands on the cross-trees and two on the jack.

As soon as the selection for each yard is told off and sized, four men for each lower and topsail yard, and two

* It is usual to dress ship at sunrise, in which case the colors should be hoisted at that time.


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for each topgallant yard, with two men for the tops, will be ordered aloft to attach the life-lines, laying down afterwards into the tops or on deck.The life-lines will be rove through tail-blocks, made fast to the slings, tyes, and yard-ropes (those to the latter being steadied by a turn around the masts), the other ends hitched or seized to the lifts at points which will bring the lines breast high when hauled taut, the ends sent on deck. If the yards are not to be manned immediately, the men preparing the life-lines, before laying down, will stop them along the lifts down to the yards and in the slings, with cut or split rope-yarns, and lay down from aloft.

When the evolution is to be performed, the men are sent aloft. When in the slings the order will be given to “Stand by!” The stops will be broken and the life-lines hauled taut on deck and. secured. At the order “LAY OUT,” the men will lay out as sized.

The yard-arm men extend their outside arms straight, holding on by the lift, while they clap their inner arms over the life-lines, holding it fast under the arm-pit; the next man in the same way extends his outer arm, and grapples the shoulder of the yard-arm man; then passes his inner arm over the life-line, clasping it under his arm-pit, and so on to the bunt.

The appearance of the boat, at whatever distance it may be, is the customary signal for manning yards; yet it is preferable to judge of the distance, and act so that the men may not be more than ten minutes aloft.

The men on the yards ought to face the boat; that is, when the boat is abaft the beam, they ought to face aft: when before the beam, forward; but in a ship, when the person saluted ascends the side, the hands on the cross-jack and mizzen topsail yards ought to face forward-all others as before, aft.

When directed to “LAY IN,” the outer men will cast off the life-lines from the lifts, and the inner men the tail-blocks in the slings, and will stand by to lay down from aloft when ordered.

Men are not usually assigned by watch numbers on a station bill for manning yards, in consequence of the necessity for sizing and the liability of absence from various causes.

Cockbilling Yards-Mourning. The most appropriate time for cockbilling yards is daylight, and dark the proper time for squaring them again.*

At the hour selected, hoist the colors half-mast, sway up the topgallant yards, slip the lizard, parrel the yards, and cockbill them with the others previously reversed.

* In half-masting colors, first hoist them to the peak, then lower. Similarly in hauling down half-masted colors, hoist first to the peak.


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In topping up the lower yards a burton is required to assist the lift in topping.To allow the topsail yards to top up properly, they must be hoisted two feet off the caps, the parrels and braces must be slacked. Trysail and spanker gaff should be lowered well down, and swinging booms dropped into the water.

The way of topping the yards ought to be governed by the side on which the topgallant yards are sent up; for instance, as the main topgallant yard is sent up on the starboard side, the main and main topsail yards should be topped to port. Getting them in line, when topped, should be done with reference to lower yards; which, in the first place, are topped as high as the top rims will allow; then being squared by the braces, the topsail and topgallant yards have only to be parallel.

The lower yards top up better by the burtons alone.

For painting ship, scraping spars, &c., see Appendix H.