STOWAGE AND SOURCES OF SUPPLY.
THE HOLDS-BUREAUS-NAVY YARDS.
THE plan of the holds of a second-rate, Plate 81, shows the internal arrangement and disposition of the storerooms, &c.
Owing to the great differences in construction of modern vessels it is impossible to lay down fixed rules for their stowage, but certain general principles apply to all ordinary forms of steam vessels, viz.:
1. The weights of engines, boilers, tanks, ballast, &c., which are permanent fixtures for the cruise, must be so distributed according to the form of the hold, that the vessel may be brought down to her supposed best lines; which trim can be afterwards kept in the distribution of the provisions, coal, and other articles.
2. The proper stowage and security of all articles.
3. Economy in space, and a general regard to keeping near at hand certain articles for immediate use.
4. To avoid, as far as possible, taking any article into the hold until it has been properly cleaned.
The first thing to be attended to in stowing a hold is, to prepare the hold itself by having it thoroughly cleansed and white-washed, and the limbers cleared, and then to stow the ballast.
The weight of ballast used in men-of-war is generally small; the engine, boilers, coal, &c., being nearly sufficient in weight for the purpose required, and but little dead weight will be needed to perfect the trim.
Pigs of iron of square or half-round section, and about thirty inches long are used for ballast.
The pigs are generally laid directly on the skin alongside the keelsons, the limber boards being kept clear. They are not unfrequently stowed in the coal bunkers.
In placing the ballast, be careful not to form an uneven floor for the tanks above it, and still place it so compactly that the weight shall bear equally in the body of the hold.
Winging ballast, or spreading it athwartships, tends to make a vessel roll, and building up amidships, to keep her steady. Without venturing on details, it may be remarked,
|that the plan of keeping the ballast in the body of the ship, and clear of the extremities, seems to be most generally approved of; while at the same time care should be taken to keep her on, or parallel to, the line of flotation, designated by the builder. Make a draft of the ballast, indicating the exact number of pigs, the position they occupy, and their weight.After the ballast, are stowed the water-tanks, often on a skeleton floor, or better, iron chocks. The tanks are made to fit the form of the hold, and are put, according to marks, in their proper places. They are slung by placing an iron toggle, Fig. 209, Plate 28, in the man-hole.|
If there be more than one row of tanks, and the manholes are near the corners, place them so as to have four man-holes close together; this gives more room for the storage of gear, and keeps the man-holes clear.
A draft of the tanks, showing their capacity and position, is kept by the navigator.
When stowed, the tanks on top should form an even surface, and be placed compactly. They are then wedged with slips of wood and the seams caulked and pitched so that no dirt can work down between them.
A bilge tank is one that has the corners cut off to fit the side or bilge of the ship.
All ships are now fitted with apparatus for condensing and aerating water. The tanks nearest the boiler are called receiving tanks, and receive the water fresh from the condenser. Other than condensed water should pass through a filtering tank.
The tanks being stowed and filled, the most bulky, wet provisions, are to be stowed next nearest the wings, and so that each kind may be got at. Pork is on the starboard side, beef on the port. The oldest provisions should be used first, restowing, when necessary, to get them uppermost.
Wet provisions are pork, beef, pickles, vinegar and molasses. The last two stowed in the spirit room.”
Dry provisions are flour, sugar, beans, coffee, &c.
If the main hold is too small to hold all the dry provisions, some must be stowed forward. In this case, wet provisions form the ground tier, and dry provisions the top tier.
Where the stowing of wet provisions ends forward, or “in the breakage” of the fore hold, are stowed all the naval stores, as tar and tar oil (in tanks), pitch (in barrels), &c., and all the movable lumber, the forge and anvil, carpenters’ chest and bench (when stowed below), spare buoys and buckets.
Iron racks are fitted under the beams in the hold for the stowage of planks, oars, and other small lumber, spare pieces of iron, and any spare gun gear not triced up under the upper deck. In a vessel with two holds, the after hold.
|would contain spare gun carriages, lower caps, and other articles that will not probably be needed.All wood for the galley should be barked, and all lime slaked before being received on board. Both are stowed in the fore hold.|
Heavy purchases, such as the jeers, top-tackle pendants, and falls, anchor gear, and miscellaneous purchases, are stowed on platforms in the wings, above the provisions, and such platforms are called “cable tiers.”
Wash-deck gear, coaling shovels and buckets, are stowed near the fore hatch; a good deal of the wash-deck gear is stowed in the chain chests, if the channels are broad enough to admit such chests.
Kedges, when not kept in the chains, are stowed in the hold; the stream anchor is secured up and down at the forward side of the hatch, crown up, unstocked, ready for hoisting out.
Triatic-stays, and yard and stay-tackles, are usually stowed in the launch.
Hawsers and towlines are kept on reels on the berth deck, the reels being as near the hatch as possible, usually at the foot of the fore hatch. No hawser should be stowed in the hold if it can be avoided, and gun-deck reels. or reels under the topgallant forecastle, may be used in addition to those on the berth deck.
The chain lockers contain the ship’s chain cables.
The shot lockers contain the round shot, unboxed empty shell and grape, if supplied. The latter, when issued, is sometimes stowed around hatches on berth deck.
Canister may be stowed in the wings abreast the hatch.
The yeoman’s store-room, or general store-room, is situated forward, directly abaft the collision bulkhead, if the ship is provided with one. In this store-room are kept all the spare cordage, paints,painting and illuminating oil, hooks, blocks, thimbles, ship’s stationery, spare canvas, spare brooms, squilgees, and other cleaning gear, all hardware articles and tools not put on board for the special use of the engineers’ force, or belonging to ordnance stores. In general terms, all small spare articles furnished for the use of the boatswain, carpenter, or sailmaker, are kept in the yeoman’s store-room.
The oils mentioned above are discharged into the tanks in the fore peak, from the deck next above, by means of a tap and funnel, there being oil tanks fitted in the store-room for the reception of the oil. This is done as a precautionary measure against fire, and to avoid handling barrels of in. flammable substance below.
For a like reason, turpentine and alcohol are stowed in a “turpentine chest” aft, on the upper deck, to be readily thrown overboard in case of fire, if necessary.
The danger from fire through the ignition of fumes from
|volatile oils and the like in close places, is always to be recognized in their stowage. Cotton fabrics, waste, or anything that tends to spontaneous combustion by oil soaking in it, should not be stowed in the fore peak, or in any close place, whether easy of access or not.In vessels having a topgallant forecastle, such as the one shown in the plan, there is usually a lamp-room, situated under the forecastle, where the lamps are cleaned, trimmed, &c., and where a sufficient supply of oil is kept for daily use.|
The navigator’s store-room contains the spare flags, bunting, log and lead lines, boat binnacles, lamps and lanterns, signal halliard stuff, and other articles known as navigator’s stores.
The medical store-room contains the medical stores not in actual use. Surgical instruments, and such medicines as are ready for immediate use, are kept in the dispensary and sick bay.
In the ordnance store-room are stored small spare articles of gun gear, sights, cap-squares, &c., and such gunner’s tools as are not usually kept in the magazine, armory, or torpedo-room.
The sail-rooms contain the spare sails, hammocks, wind-sails, cots, awnings, &c. The sailmaker’s bench is also stowed in the sail-room when not in use.
In a ship having two sail-rooms, one is usually reserved for a complete suit of topsails, mainsail and storm-sails, ready to be passed up promptly in case of emergency.
The bread-rooms contain the supply of biscuit.
The shell-rooms contain the loaded shell and shrapnel. For construction of shell-rooms and magazine see Ordnance Manual.
The boilers and engines occupy the space shown in the plan, with coal bunkers on either side extending to the upper decks in this class of ships.
Bunkers are filled through chutes on the deck above, covered by iron plates when not in use.
The paymaster’s store-rooms contain the dry provisions and the less bulky or more valuable wet provisions. The room selected for the latter is known as the “spirit-room.” Or, one of these rooms may contain portions of the spare clothing and small stores. There is frequently an additional paymaster’s store-room aft for the articles of clothing.
Clothing and bread rooms are lined with tin to exclude vermin.
Casks should be placed fore and aft, bung up, and dunnage (small pieces of wood) used under the chimes to prevent shifting.
The chimes of a cask are the projection of the staves beyond the head.
The bilge of a cask is its largest circumference.
|The bung of a cask is always to be found between the rivets of any two opposite hoops.The stores received on board at a navy-yard, or purchased abroad, are supplied under the cognizance of the different bureaus of the Navy Department.|
Bureaus of the Navy Department. The bureaus above referred to are divisions of the Navy Department for administrative purposes. They are eight in number.
The Bureau of Equipment and Recruiting has charge of all that relates to the recruiting, discharging and pay of enlisted persons. It establishes the complements of vessels, and controls the rendezvous and receiving ships. It has charge of the equipment of vessels with rigging, ground tackle, sails, and the greater part of the yeoman’s stores, and fuel for all purposes.
The Bureau of Ordnance has charge of all that relates to the offensive and defensive armament of vessels. It, fixes the nature and place of armaments, and prescribes the kind and positions of armor, and dimensions of gun turrets within the carrying capacity of the ship, as determined by the Bureau of Construction. In conjunction with the latter bureau, it determines the location of armories and ammunition rooms, and determines itself the method of construction of such rooms. It prescribes the armament, handiness and speed of all torpedo boats, and all additional details of torpedo boats of less than eighty (80) tons displacement.
The Bureau of Navigation has charge of all that relates to the Naval Observatory, Nautical Almanac, Hydrographic Office, Department Library, and Office of Intelligence.
It furnishes navigation supplies and stores of all kinds. Bills for pilotage are rendered to this bureau, and the Office of Detail is attached to it.
Bureau of Yards and Docks. The duties of this bureau comprise all that relates to the construction and maintenance of docks, wharves, and buildings of all kinds within the limits of navy-yards, and of the Naval Asylum, but not of exterior hospitals or magazines, nor of buildings for which it does not estimate. It repairs and furnishes all buildings and offices in the navy-yards. It supplies water, gas and fuel required for yard purposes. It controls all improvements, fire apparatus, railways and railway tracks maintained for the benefit of the yards, and provides for watchmen and the protection of public property. It furnishes the oxen and teams required for all purposes in the yards.,
The Bureau of Construction and Repair. The duties of this bureau comprise all that relates. to designing, building and repairing the hulls of vessels,
|boats, spars, capstans, steering-gear,* tanks, blocks, lumber, and furniture for ship’s use of the kind made in joiner shops, also the turrets and armor-plating of vessels after the dimensions have been determined by the Bureau of Ordnance. It designs and (after their completion) controls all ship-houses, building slips and dry docks.The Bureau of Steam Engineering has charge of all that relates to designing, building and repairing the steam machinery and its appurtenances used in the propulsion of vessels, also steam-pumps, heaters, &c., and the steam machinery necessary for turning the turrets. It supplies what are known as engineers’ stores, comprising tools, oil, metal of various kinds, and other articles required for maintenance and repair in the Engineers’ Department.|
The Bureau of Provisions and Clothing has charge of all that relates to supplying the Navy with provisions, clothing, small stores, water and contingent stores in the Paymaster’s Department.
The Bureau of Medicine and Surgery controls all that relates to laboratories, naval hospitals and dispensaries, and furnishes all surgical instruments and medicines.
The bureaus design the buildings erected in navy-yards for their purposes, so far as their interior arrangements are concerned, and after their completion (by the Bureau of Yards and Docks) control the same. They each control the pay organization and mustering of the labor connected with them, and contract for and superintend work done under their cognizance. Each bureau estimates for and pays from its own funds the cost necessary to carry out its duties as outlined above.
Where bureaus control buildings outside of navy-yard limits, they erect, furnish and maintain the same, or any other buildings for which they have estimated, and (subject to the provisions of the law) they are charged with the purchase, sale, and transfer of all such outside lands or buildings, and with the preservation of any public property under their control.
The Navy Regulations define more fully the relations of the bureaus to each other, and this subject need not be dwelt upon here, where the bureau organization is only outlined to show under whose cognizance the outfit of a vessel is completed.
The Chiefs of Bureaus of Equipment, Ordnance, Navigation and Yard and Docks are line officers selected from the Navy list not below the rank of commander. The chiefs of the remaining bureaus are known as the Chief Constructor, Engineer-in-Chief, Paymaster General and Surgeon General, and are selected from their respective corps.
* Steam capstans and steering-gear, supplied by steam engineering.
|Navy-Yard Organization. The commanding officer (usually a captain or flag officer) is known as the commandant of the yard. All communications relating to work from the different bureaus go to him, and he is responsible for the execution of such orders.The captain of the yard is the next line officer in rank, the executive of the station, and acts for the commandant in his absence. He has charge of the general administration of the yard, watchmen, police force, tugs, fire-brigade, and the mooring and unmooring of vessels.|
There are also attached to a yard, officers in charge of the storehouses and stores of each bureau, the civil engineer of the yard representing the Bureau of Yards and Docks.
Stores are furnished from a navy-yard on requisitions made through the proper channels, and by order of the commandant of the yard, from the storehouses of the different bureaus.
The following lists give a general idea of the articles supplied under each bureau:
Equipment and Recruiting. All ground tackle and cordage; thimbles, hooks and boatswain’s stores; sails, canvas, and sailmaker’s stores; galley and cooking utensils; coal and wood for steaming or cooking; chairs and other furniture (not joiner work) for officers’ quarters; water for steaming purposes: deck and bright-work cleaning-gear; coaling-gear; hose, fire-extinguishers; tar; life-preservers; seines; aerator, filters and condensers, for water.
These stores are mostly to be found in the following buildings, &c., of the navy-yard, in charge of the equipment officer, viz.: the sail and rigging lofts, rope-walk (Boston), anchor park, coal shed, and equipment store-house.
On board ship the boatswain, carpenter, and sail-maker have special charge of the equipment-stores in their departments, under the direction of the first lieutenant, who is the equipment-officer of the ship.
Construction Outfit and Stores.-
|Construction stores at a navy-yard will be chiefly found in the following buildings, &c.: spar-shed, boat-sheds, timber-basin, paint, joiner, blacksmith and blockmakers’ shops and construction store-house.The docking of vessels is done by Construction.|
On board ship the carpenter has general charge of the construction stores under the direction of the first lieutenant, who makes out all requisitions for articles under construction.
Ordnance Outfit and Stores. All guns, small arms, or other weapons, and their appurtenances powder, shot, and every kind of ammunition, and tools for handling the same; belts and equipments for the guns’ crews; torpedoes and their gear (except torpedo spars furnished by Construction), targets and electric apparatus supplied for military purposes.
The gunner is the warrant officer in immediate charge of the ordnance stores; the navigator is the ordnance officer of the ship, and makes out ordnance requisitions.
Ordnance stores are drawn from the store-house, armory and gun-park in the yard, and from the magazine, which is invariably situated outside of the navy-yard limits.
Navigation Outfit, and Stores. Compasses and binnacles; barometers and thermometers; sounding apparatus, flags, bunting, and signalling apparatus for either day or night signals; charts, sailing directions and instructions, drawing, musical, surveying and navigating instruments; lamps and their appurtenances, lamp-oil (except for engineer’s department); chronometers and time-pieces, log-lines, reels and glasses; spy-glasses; fog-horns, library books, printing-press and materials, and electrical apparatus for ship’s use, for bells and lights.
These articles are in charge of the navigator. The chronometers are generally received on board from the Naval Observatory; other navigation articles from the store-house in the yard.
Steam Engineering. Engines and boilers, together with their appurtenances, and tools, stores, lamps, &c., used in the engine and fire room.
The coal and water for steaming purposes come under equipment, as stated above.
Engineer’s stores are supplied on requisitions made by the chief engineer of the vessel, and are expended under his direction.
The outfit under the
These stores are in charge of the paymaster.
|Medical Stores include the medicines, surgical instruments, and other appliances for the use of the surgeon, as well as provisions for the sick and wounded; this outfit is in charge of the senior medical officer of the ship.Medical stores on the Atlantic seaboard are drawn directly from the Naval Laboratory at New York, and are taken on board as soon as possible after the vessel has been put in commission.|
The engineer’s yeoman, pay yeoman and apothecary are the petty officers who act as store-keepers in their respective departments on board ship.
The Equipment, or ship‘s, yeoman, has charge of the articles in the general store-room.