MASTS are made of long fir-trees cylindrically rounded: their sides, curving lengthways, form an arch of an ellipsis, resembling the shaft of a column, elevated perpendicularly upon the keelson, to which are attached the yards, sails, and rigging.
Those made of single trees are called pole-masts; those made of several trees joined togethermade-masts.
In masting it is to be observed, that the complete height of a mast is gained by erecting one mast on the top of another.
The one fixed upon the keelson is called the lower or standing mast; the next in height above that the topmast; the next the topgallant-mast; and it is sometimes prolonged by a royal-mast, used in light breezes.
Masts are to extend the sails by means of their yards. When the number of masts is multiplied, the yards must be shortened, or they would entangle each other in working: by this, too, the sails would be narrowed, and would receive too small a portion of wind for the force required. If, on the contrary, there is not a sufficient number of masts, the yards would be unmanageable from their size. Experience has therefore proved, that, in large vessels, three masts and a bowsprit, in smaller vessels, two masts and a bowsprit, and in the smallest, one mast and a bowsprit, are the most advantageous numbers for nautical purposes.
The best position of the masts is that from whence there results an equilibrium between the resistance of the water on the body of the ship, on one part, and of the direction of their effort on the other.
The masts are thus generally placed in the royal navy. The centre of the foremast to be abaft the aftside of the rabbet of the stem, or inside of the plank on the lower deck, one ninth part of the length of the lower deck. The centre of the main-mast to be abaft the aftside the rabbet of the stem on the lower deck, five ninths of its length: and the centre of the mizen-mast to be abaft the aftside of the rabbet of the stem on the lower deck, seventeen twentieths of its length.
|In the merchant-service, they are not so strictly confined respecting the position of the mainmast, though it is generally placed near the midships of the ship; but artificers differ widely in placing the fore and mizen masts.The inclination of the lower masts is governed by the trim of the ship. Experience has proved, that some will sail best with their masts raking forward, others, aft; consequently, no strict rule can be laid down; but in general they rake aft.It is the opinion of many, that short and broad vessels, with one or two masts, should have that mast nearest the centre rake much aft; and in long floored vessels the masts should be upright. When masts touch the partners, they are liable to spring or be carried away.Brigs, or vessels with two masts, have the main-mast placed about two-thirds of their whole length abaft the head of the stem, and the foremast three twentieths of the above length. The main-mast inclines aft at the head, from a perpendicular with the keel, three quarters of an inch in every yard of its length; the foremast a full eighth part of an inch in every yard of its length. For cutters, or yards with one mast, the inclination is one inch and a half to every yard in the length, and their bowsprits lie nearly in an horizontal direction.|
A BOWSPRIT is a large boom or mast, cylindrically rounded, except at the outer end, which is square; it runs out over the stem, and stives or rises so as to make an angle of nearly thirty-six degrees above a horizontal line. Its principal use is to support the foremast by its stays, and carry sail to govern the fore part of the ship.
YARDS are long pieces of fir-timber, hanging to the masts or bowsprits, to expand the sails.
All square yards hang athwart the masts at right angles, except studdingsail-yards, which hang parallel under the extremities of the other yards. Lateen yards hang to the masts obliquely. The yards of a ship are all square, except the mizen.
All yards, except lower and topsail yards, are cylindrically rounded, and taper from the middle to the yard-arms; the others are formed eight square in the middle, and from thence to the ends like the frustum of a cone.
BOOMS are long poles, run out from different masts and yards, to expand the feet of particular sails. Some booms taper from the middle to the ends, like the yards, and others from one third their length to the outer end.
GAFF. A short pole projecting from the mizenmast of ships, except those of the line, to expand the head of the mizen and driver sails; and from the main-masts of brigs and other vessels, to expand the head of all fore and aft mainsails.
EXPLANATION OF TERMS
ADZE, a sharp tool to trim smooth, after an axe or saw.
AFT, the hinder part of the ship, or that nearest the stern.
ARM, each end of a bibb.
AUGER, an instrument to bore holes with.
AXE, a sharp tool to trim off rough wood.
AXIS, a real or supposed line through the centre of a body, about which it may turn.
BATTENS, thin pieces of oak or fir, nailed on to mast-heads and the midship-part of yards.
BAULKS, short fir timber.
BEARDING is diminishing any piece from a given line on its surface to make the thickness less on the edge.
BED, the place of the greatest diameter in bowsprits; and the main piece of barrel-screws, through which the puppets work.
BEES, pieces of elm plank bolted to the outer ends of bowsprits.
BEVELLINGS are angles that differ from right angles, called, by workmen, either under or standing bevellings. By the former is meant an acute, and by the latter an obtuse, angle. Bevellings are taken by an instrument called a bevel, which resembles a square, only the tongue is moveable, and fixes to the angle required. To transfer it, or set it off on the piece, is the same operation as by the square.
BIBBS, or brackets, are made of elm plank, and bolted to the hounds of masts, as supporters to the trestle-trees.
BLOCK, an eight-square or round part below the heeling of main and fore topmasts.
BLOCKS, shells, containing a sheave or sheaves.
BLOCKS, short pieces, laid under a mast, to raise it from the ground.
BOARD, timber sawed to a less thickness than plank, as one inch and under.
BOLSTER, a sort of pillow made of fir, fastened on each side the mast-head, to prevent the shrouds chafing against the trestle-trees.
BOLTS, cylindrical pins of iron. The commonest have small round heads, and are used to unite two or more pieces together. Some have round flat heads, called saucer-heads, with a mortise in the other end, or point, and are used to fasten moveable pieces to fixed ones; others have an eye at one end, for lashing or hooking blocks, &c. and are driven in mast-heads, yards, caps, &c. Some have a square part left at the back of the eye, that they may not be driven on the eye, and endanger splitting.
BOOM-IRONS are rings fastened to the quarters and extremities of yards, for the studdingsail booms to slide through.
BOW, the rounding part of a ship’s side forward.
BRAIL, a rope used to haul up the sail.BUTT, the lower part next the root of a tree, also the lower ends of any part of made-masts, and the ends of coaks, tablings, haunches, &c.
CALLIPERS are compasses with circular legs.CANTING, a term denoting the act of turning any thing over from its former position.CANT-PIECES are used in the angles of the fishes and side-trees, or to supply any part that may prove sappy or rotten.
CAP, a thick block of elm timber, with two holes perpendicularly to its length and breadth, and parallel to its thickness, (the foremost hole being round and the after one square,) used to confine two masts together, when one is erected at the head of the other to lengthen it.
CARLINGS, pieces of oak timber, about eight feet long and eight inches square, or more, used for framing the partners.
CHAMFERING, taking off angles or edges.
CHEEKS are projecting parts on each side the mast, to sustain the frame of the top and topmast.
CHEEKS, head of the, that part above the stops.
CHINSE, to thrust oakum into the seams, with a small iron instrument.
CHOCKS, pieces made to fashion out some part wanting, or to place between the head of a lower mast and heel of a topmast.
CLEATS, pieces of plank or board of various shapes, for different purposes. Those used for stopping of shores are mostly made of Elm, similar to wedges, but only taper from one side: those for stopping of rigging are haunched on the back with a hollow, from one third the length; the thin end is shaped with a duck’s-bill; these are made of oak, but, for mast heads, of elm.
CLEATS, COMB, are straight on the inner edge, and round on the back, with a hollow cavity in the middle.
CLEATS, SHROUD, one part is shaped like a belaying- cleat, with two arms, the other part straight, and grooved on the edge to the convexity of the shroud, to which it is seized, having a score cut towards its extremities for the seizing to lie in.
CLEATS, SLING, of lower yards, are made with one arm; belaying-cleats with two, one on each side the middle. Thumb-cleats are similar to sling-cleats, but smaller, to hang any thing thereon.
CLEATS are nailed wherever wanted, with more or less nails, according to the strain they resist.
CLENCHING. Making fast the point of a bolt or nail on a ring or rove of iron, by battering the point and making it spread.
COAKS are oblong ridges left on the surface of different pieces of made-masts by cutting away the wood round them; the intermediate part is called the plain.
COAKING is uniting two or more pieces together, in the middle, by small tabular pieces, formed from the solid of one piece and sunk exactly the same in the other, the butts of which prevent the pieces drawing asunder lengthways.
There are different methods of coaking, as follow. Coak and plain is when a coak is formed, and a plain surface follows between that and the next. Running coaks are coaks continued the whole length along the middle, but answer the above purpose, as the butts of each coak come one third their breadth within and without each other alternately.
Chain-coaks are formed one at the end of the other on the opposite sides of the middle-line. See Tabling.
COAT, pieces of canvas tarred to put round the masts at the partners.CROSS-TREES, pieces of oak timber athwart the upper ends of the lower masts, set in and bolted to the trestle-trees.
DEALS are of similar thickness to plank, but the term is confined to fir.DOULING. A method of coaking, by letting pieces into the solid; or uniting two pieces together with tenons.DRAWING-KNIFE. A long narrow edge-tool, with a handle in each end.
DRIFT means the difference between the size of a bolt and the hole into which it is to be driven; as, if a bolt be 1-8th of an inch larger than the hole, the bolt is said to have 1-8th drift. And so of a hoop which is to be driven on a mast.
DUBBING, reducing or taking wood away with an adze.
ELM, wood of singular use when continually exposed either to wet or dry; its grain being tough and curly makes it not liable to split. If felled between November and February it has no sap. It is used in mast-making for caps, bibbs, bees, and part of tops.
FACING, letting one piece into another with a rabbet.
FAYING, the joining of one piece to another, that the least opening may not appear; it is performed by moulds, bevellings, or by laying one piece on the other, and setting them as close together as possible; then with compasses take the distance they may be asunder, and set that distance, or spoiling, be set off from the surface or edge of the fairest piece on to the sides of the other, at as many places as may be necessary for lineing. if the pieces coak or table together, the thickness of the coaks or tablings must be added to the former gage or spoiling.
FERRULE, a small iron hoop, fixed on the extremities of the yards, booms, &c.
FILLINGS, pieces used to make a fair curve for the wooldings, between the edges of the front-fish and sides of the mast.
FID, a square bar of iron or wood, used to support the weight of the topmast, &c. when erected at the head of the standing mast.
FIR, in mastmaking, is the most useful wood for length, size, and lightness. It forms the body of the mast, the spindle, side-trees, fishes, cheeks, fillings, and cant-pieces. Masts are also frequently made of Single trees, as are yards, booms, topmasts, &c.
Fir-trees of Riga and Gottenburgh exceed in strength about one tenth those of Norway, and one sixth those of New England: and fir-trees of Scotland exceed in strength those of Norway.
Though the Riga and Gottenburgh trees exceed those of New-England in strength, the latter have the advantage in size; as a large mast may be made of a single tree: but masts made of Gottenburgh, Riga, or Norway, trees, are composed of the most substantial parts of several.
The value of fir-trees and timber fluctuates; but annexed is a table of the prices given in 1792.
FISHES, SIDE, two long pieces of fir, coaked on the opposite sides of a made-mast to give it the diameter required.
FISH, FRONT, or paunch, a long piece of fir, hollowed on the inside to the convexity of the mast, and rounded on the back. It fastens to the foreside of lower masts in the middle, and adds security and strength. Fishes are also used in the middle of masts, yards, bowsprits, &c. sprung, or damaged at sea.
FLAG-STAFFS are light poles, formed by, or erected on, mast-heads; also at the heads and sterns, on which flags are hoisted.FLOORS, the lowest timbers in a ship.FORE AND AFT, from stem to stern, or in that direction.FORELOCKS, small flat wedges of iron, pointed at one end, to drive through mortices in the ends of bolts, to retain their fixed position, and prevent their drawing.
FORELOCKS, SPRING, have heads, and are shouldered underneath, to prevent their going through the mortises; they also have thin tongues at the points, as springs, to keep them from coming out: these are used to bolts that often require shifting.
FORWARD, the foremost part of the ship, or that nearest the head.
GAGE, a measurement taken by a rule or compasses.
GAMMONING, a rope that binds the inner quarter of the bowsprit close down upon the stem.
GIRTH, the circumference.
GUNWALE, a board of elm, nailed to the upper sides of the timbers, at the aft part of a top. The upper flat planks on the sides of a vessel are likewise called the gunwale.
HALIARDS, ropes to hoist or lower the gaff, &c.
HAUNCH, a sudden decrease in size.
HEAD OF THE MAST is the upper part of the mast from the stop of the cheeks.
HEEL, the lower end of a mast; the same as butt.
HEELING, the square part left at the lower end of a topmast and topgallant mast.
HEWING, trimming off the rough from timber, &c. with an axe.
HOOK-BUTT, is the surface raised across higher in one place than another.
HOOPS are strong circles of iron driven on masts and yards.
HOOPS, CLASP, have a hinge in the middle, and fasten together with forelocks through mortises made in the ends.
HOOPS, MOULD, those that deviate from a circle.
HORSE, a thick iron rod, fastened at the ends to the inside of the stern of vessels that carry a fore and aft mainsail, for the main sheet to travel on; and also across the deck before the mast, for the sheet of a foresail.
HOUNDS, the place next under the head of a mast, where it is made more substantial for supporting the trestle-trees and top.
JAWS, or HORNS, to the inner ends of gaffs and booms, are semi-circular, to confine them to the mast by embracing half its circumference.
JURY-MASTS, masts used instead of the proper ones, in cases of necessity or otherwise.
KEEL, the lowest part of a ship, formed by square timbers scarfed together endways.
KEELSON, square pieces of timber fayed to the upper part of the floors over the keel.
LAP, to cover one piece with part of another.
LARBOARD SIDE, when looking forward from the stern, is the left side.
LEATHERING, prepared leather, dressed close round the circular holes of caps, and the sweep of jaws belonging to booms and gaffs, nailed on the upper and under sides.LINEING, is marking the length, breadth, or depth, of any thing, according to design, by a cord, rubbed with white or red chalk, fastened at the extremities, and forcibly pulled up in the middle, or towards one end, then let fall perpendicularly, if meant to be straight, or thrown sideways to form a curve. To perform the latter with exactness requires practice.
MALL, an iron tool to drive bolts with, &c.MALLET, a wooden tool, to drive with.MIDSHIPS, when speaking with regard to the breadth of the vessel, is a supposed line from the stem to the stern-post; but, with regard to the length of the vessel, the broadest part is called the midships, although that is not the middle of its length.
MOULDS are made of board to the shape of some design; or to the shape of such pieces as are wanted for making good deficiencies; others for making of hoops are made to the shape and size of the mast, and nailed together at the corners.
MOULDED, signifies breadth; or the sides of a piece shaped by a mould.
MOUSING, several turns, with a strand, taken round the back of a hook and through an eye in the point, to prevent its unhooking.
NAILS, DUMP, are round, and have long flat points.
NECK, the arms that support the boom-ring are called the neck of the outer boom-iron.
NOCK-EARING, the rope that fastens the nock of the sail.
NUTS, small square pieces of iron, with a screw-hole cut in the middle.
OAK, the most useful timber for strength and durability, when exposed to the weather. It is used, in mastmaking, for trestle-trees, cross-trees, and open tops.
OAKUM, old rope untwisted and picked small.
OUT OF WINDING. See Winding.
OVOLO, a moulding consisting of a round and hollow.
OUTHAULER, a rope that hauls out the tack of the jib, &c.
PARTNERS, the place where the deck intersects the mast, which is there made more substantial for wedging the same. But, in mastmaking, it more generally implies the place of the middle-deck, in three-deck ships, and the place of the upper-deck, in two-deck ships; and at that place the given diameter in the Table of Dimensions is applied. Masts with hoops are made one inch larger than the given diameter, two feet each way of the partners, to give the hoops a quicker drift.
All masts are to keep the same size as the given diameter at each deck.
PIECES, heel, head, or hound, are short pieces to make good some deficiency.
PLAIN, an even surface between the coaks.
PLANE, a tool to make smooth with.
PLANK, broad timber, from four inches to one inch thick.
PLUMB-LINE, a line suspending a lump of lead, which keeps it straight and perpendicular: by it is taken, at the sides of masts, &c. the diametrical dimensions, to correspond with the line or lines struck
on the surface of the upper side, to which it is sawed. When masts are not sawed, the sides are hewed in, at different places, about four feet asunder, until the plumb-line answers with the line struck on the surface; and the rough wood between these divisions is hewed off, to agree with the plumb-line. A mast, or piece to be plumbed, should be placed in such a manner as, when hewed in its direction, may gain the greatest substance clear of sap or rot.PUPPETS, two upright pieces, with a screw cut in the lower ends.
QUARTERS, a term given to some of the divisions on a mast, yard, &c. where the different diameters are set off, for lineing, or marking.
RABBET, a small square channel cut in the edge of one piece to set in another. The depth of the rabbet to be equal to the thickness set in.RACE, to mark, by the edges of moulds, with a racing knife or points of compasses, upon timber, &c.RACING-KNIFE, a small tool to race with.
RAILS are made of wood or iron, and fitted across the aftside of tops, to prevent the men from falling.
RAKE, the inclination of the masts from a perpendicular with the keel.
RAM-LINE, a long line, (thicker than common) used to gain a straight middle-line upon a tree or mast. It is made fast at one end, and hauled upon at the other till it is quite straight, and then made fast.
RIM, a skirting of narrow elm board round the upperside of tops.
RIND-GALL, a damage the tree received when young, so that the bark or rind grows in the inner substance of the tree.
RING, a small circle of iron, used to put over the point of a bolt, between the wood and the forelock, to prevent its chafing or cutting the wood.
ROLLERS, are similar to sheaves, but longer.
ROUNDING. In large masts, the sixteen square is divided into four parts, and lined, and those angles dubbed off. Smaller masts, yards, &c. have the angles of the sixteen-square taken off with a drawing-knife, and then are rounded fair and smooth with planes.
ROVE, a small square piece of iron, with a hole in the middle, whereon is clenched the point of a nail, to prevent its drawing.
SADDLES, semi-circular pieces of wood, shaped and fastened to the upper side of the bowsprit.
SAUCER, a bolt with a flat head.
SCANTLING, the thickness or depth of a piece of timber.
SCARFED, the end of one piece of timber lapped over or set into another, to appear a solid and even surface.
SCORE, a notch cut out of any piece of wood, to admit another projecting in a similar shape.
SCREWS, bed or barrel, for raising the heads of large masts and fixing the trestle-trees, are made of elm, and consist of two puppets, a bed, and a sole: the puppets are four feet nine inches long, have their lower parts round like a cylinder, and are cut with a screw; their upper part, or head, is larger, and is either eight-square or round, with iron hoops driven on, to prevent their splitting; through these heads are holes, on the different sides, through which long iron pins are thrust; which put them in
motion by pressing against them, and acting as levers. The bed is a broad thick piece of elm, three times the diameter of the screw in breadth, once the diameter of the screw in thickness, and about six feet in length; with a hole at each end of the bed, for the screws or puppets to work in. Six bolts are driven through the bed, and clenched on a ring to prevent its splitting; two are in the middle, and two at each end. In the sides and ends, mortises are cut for hand-holes. The sole is the same breadth and length as the bed, and half the thickness, with a hole hollowed out at each end for the puppets to work in. Sometimes the sole is thicker, and, instead of holes, has an iron plate, with a hole set into each end, wherein works an iron sprig, that is driven into the heel of the puppet with a shoulder.SCREWS, hand, a box of elm containing cogged iron wheels, of increasing powers. The outer one, which moves the rest, is put in motion by a winch on the outside, and is called either single or double, according to its increasing force. It is sometimes falslely called a jack.SCUTTLE, a square hole cut through a floor, and furnished with a lid or covering.SEAMS, the openings (in which oakum is driven) between the pieces that compose made-masts, yards, &c.
SET-OFF, a term used for marking down the distance of any dimension or spoiling from a given place.
SETTS, powers made use of, where force is required, to bring or unite two or more pieces together. It is performed by screws, shores, cross-setts, or cleats.
SETTS, cross, are made by two short pieces of spar, about four or six feet in length; one is laid across on the upper side, and the other on the under side, of any two pieces that are to be brought together, and their ends lashed together on each side with several turns of rope, taken round each end alternately; wedges are then driven in between the upper cross-piece, and the side or part of the mast.
SHEAVES, solid cylindrical wheels, fixed in mortises, cut in the masts, yards, booms, caps, or blocks, and moveable about a pin or bolt as an axis.
SHEER-HULK, which is used in the royal navy for masting of vessels, is an old ship of war, cut down to the gun or lower deck, with a mast fixed in midships, about 33 inches diameter, and 108 feet high, strengthened with shores; the upper shore 87 and the lower shore 81 feet long, and each 19 inches diameter. There are shrouds and stays to secure the mast and sheers, which act as the arm of a crane, (supported by a derrick, 100 feet long and 22 inches diameter,) to hoist in or out the lower masts, when conveniently laid alongside.
There are three sheers, each composed of two pieces, 22 inches diameter, scarfed together in the middle, to make 116 feet in height. The heels rest upon the sides of the hulk, and the heads incline outwards from a perpendicular, to hang over the vessel whose masts are to be fixed or displaced. This is performed by large tackles, extending from the head of the mast to the head of the sheers. The tackles by means of two capstans are fixed on the deck.
SHEERS, used for masting vessels in the merchant service, are two hand-masts or large spars, erected on the vessel whose masts are to be fixed or displaced; the lower ends or heels rest, on opposite sides of the deck, upon thick planks sufficiently long to extend over two or three beams shored underneath. The two handmasts cross each other at the upper end, and are securely lashed. A tackle is lashed in the centre, and hangs perpendicularly over the station where the mast is to be fixed.
The sheers are secured by guys, or stays, of proportionable rope, extending fore and aft to the opposite extremities of the vessel.
SHEET, main, a tackle by which the boom of a fore and aft mainsail is shifted from each quarter,
SHORES are made of small spars, cut to suitable lengths, that their heels may rest against a cleat, nailed on the mast or floor, or against a stump driven in the ground, or any thing of greater resistance than the force required: The sett is made by driving wedges between the head or heel of the shore.SHROUDS, large ropes that support the masts.SIDED, the dimensions of any piece contrary to which it is moulded.SIDE-TREES, the lower main pieces of a made-mast.
SLIDING-RULE, a flat useful instrument, one foot long, with a slide, on which various dimensions and proportions are marked.
SLINGS, the middle, or that part of a yard attached to the mast.
SNAPING, reducing the ends of any piece to a less substance.
SPARS, small fir-trees.
SPOILING is taking the greatest distance of the inequalities between any two pieces to be fayed together.
SPINDLE, the upper main piece of a made-mast.
SPRIG, a small eye-bolt, ragged at the point.
SQUARE, an iron or wooden instrument, with a perpendicular and base, used as a guide to set-off by.
SQUARING is making one or more sides from the plumbed sides, which may be performed by a plumb or square, the tongue of which is a perpendicular to its stock or base.
The mast or piece is first lined or marked to its size on one of the sides already plumbed, and so fixed that the sides, when plumbed, shall be square to the upper side. If by the latter, the stock is rested on the given side, and the line thereon transmitted by compasses to the under side from the inside of the tongue, and this repeated at the quarters, and where necessary, for lineing. Pieces that are straight need only a spot squared down at each end. Observe, the under side of the stock of the square should be kept out of winding from one particular place; supposing that place to be near the middle, a batten with a straight edge must be laid across, and there kept fixed against the side of the mast or piece, to which the under side of the square must agree, by seeing the two edges parallel with each other. The same may be performed by two battens. Let one square spot be hewed, to which one batten must be held, and the other batten looked out of winding at such distances as are necessary; and, when the edges of two battens agree, take, with compasses, what the line on the surface is within the edge of the square, or batten, and in the same direction set that gage within the edge of the batten or square on the opposite or under side, and a line is then struck to range through these spots. The more curve there is, the greater number of spots are necessary.
An eight-square is formed by reducing a four-square nearer to a round, by taking off the angles, which are lined or marked within the edge, or from the middle line on each side. If the former, 7-24ths of the diameter is set within the edge at as many places as may be necessary for lineing: or 5-24ths the diameter on each side the middle line, for the latter, and a line struck to range fair through those spots; and the angles dubbed or sawed away to those lines.
The rule proper for mastmakers has the divisions for the eight-square stamped on the edges, from 1 to 36 inches, or more: those on one edge are marked M. for middle line, and on the other edge E. for those set within the edge. It is necessary to have both these divisions, in case the mast or piece will not work square enough to gain the squares or angles.
A sixteen-square is made by reducing a mast, or any other piece, nearer to a round, by taking the angles off the eight-square, in the following manner: viz. divide the eight-square into four equal parts,
and strike a line to range through the divisions next the edges or angles, which are dubbed off to those lines, similar to the former.STAFFS, short pieces by which the setts are made; also long narrow pieces, with divisions of ten or twenty feet marked thereon, and again divided into halves. They are used to set-off long lengths.STANTIONS, small pillars of wood to support the top-rail.STARBOARD-SIDE, when looking forward from the stem, is the right-side.
STAYS, large ropes to support the masts.
STEM, the curved timber which terminates the ship forward.
STEP, large solid pieces of oak timber, fixed across the keelson, into which the heels of the mast are fixed by the tenon.
STERN is the after or hindmost part of a vessel, above the stern-post.
STERN-POST, the large piece of timber which terminates the vessel below the stern.
STIVING, a term used for elevating any thing so as to make an angle with the horizon.
STOPPERS are ropes the size of the shrouds, two feet in length, with a knot and lanyard to each end.
STOPS, square projections or shoulders, left on the outsides of the cheeks, at the upper part of the hounds of lower masts; also on topmasts and topgallant masts; and at the outer end of jib-booms.
STRIKE, to draw a line or delineate a circle.
TABLING is the uniting of pieces together in a manner similar to the chain-coak, but broader, and comes quite to or very near the edge, from the line in the middle.
TAR, a liquid gum, distilled from pines or other fir-trees, and prepared for use by boiling, &c.
TACKLE, a machine formed by two blocks connected by a rope.
TEAK, a hard and durable Asiatic wood, used abroad for masts and hound-pieces for topmasts.
TENON, the end of a mast, bowsprit, &c. cut smaller to fit into a mortise.
‘THWARTSHIPS, across the ship at angles with the keel’s length.
TIMBERS, a name given to those cross-pieces to which the platforms of close tops are fastened.
TOGGLE, a small wooden pin.
TONGUE, the taper part at the lower end of a spindle, or of a scarf.
TOP, a platform projecting round the lower-mast head: its principal use is to extend the topmast shrouds by a greater angle, and give additional support. In the sides of the top are square mortise holes for the futtock-plates to go through, with dead eyes bound in their upper parts, to unite the topmast shrouds with those of the lower mast.
The top is extremely convenient for extending and managing the small sails, and fixing or repairing the rigging.
Tops of ships of war are, for defence against swivels, musquetry, &c. barricadoed, with a thick fence of corded hammocks, from the foremost topmast shroud round aft along the rail, breast high. The rail is supported by stantions let into the top, with a netting from side to side; the outside is covered with baize or canvas, and furnished with stoppers, to clap on in case a topmast shroud should be carried away by accident.
The frame of the top is either of deals, laid close together, and nailed to elm timbers, or open, like a grating, and made of oak battens. The former is strongest and most convenient, and is adopted by government; the latter is lighter and cheaper, holds less wind, is consequently less exposed to its effects and is used in the merchant-service.
THE TOP-ROPE passes through a block, hooked in an eye-bolt on one side the lower cap, and afterwards through a hole, with a sheave or pully, at the lower end of the topmast; it is then brought upwards on the other side of the mast and made fast to an eye-bolt in the cap opposite the former. At the lower end of the top-rope is a top-tackle, by which the topmast is hoisted parallel to the lower-mast.TOP-ROPE, JIB, a rope by which the jib-boom is hoisted out.TREES, ROUGH, those which are cut down, and only the boughs lopped off.TRESTLE-TREES, two strong bars of oak timber resting on the cheeks of lower-masts, or hounds of topmasts. To lower-masts they are secured by being scored and bolted horizontally on the opposite sides of the mast, fore and aft, and supported by two bibs or brackets, as shoulders under them. Topmast trestle-trees are supported by the hounds.
TRIMMING, working any piece into the form and shape designed by an axe or adze.
TRUCK, an oblate spheroid, made of elm, and fitted on mast-heads.
WEDGES are made of beech or oak to any size required, and taper on each side from the butt or head. There are fir wedges made large enough to confine the mast in the partners of the decks.
WINDING. When the edge or side of a piece of timber or plank is not a direct plain, but twists, it is said to wind; if the contrary, out of winding.
WOOLDING, several close turns of rope, strained right round a mast, yard, or bowsprit.
YARD-ARM, the outer quarter of a yard.
PRACTICE OF MASTMAKING.
THE FIVE PLATES OF MASTS WILL, UPON REFERENCE, BE FOUND MOST CLEARLY TO ELUCIDATE THIS. TREATISE ON MASTMAKING.
MASTS are composed of many united pieces of the soundest part of trees, and are stronger than when made of a single tree, and less liable to spring.
The present practice of putting together made-masts is by a spindle, or upper tree, two side-trees, with their heel-pieces, side fishes, cheeks, front fish, cant-pieces, and fillings.
The spindle, or upper tree, of large masts is made of two pieces (the substantial part of two lesser trees) coaked one into the other in the middle, and bolted together with bolts five feet asunder, and it tapers toward the upper and lower ends. The spindle of some masts is made of a single tree.
The side-trees of large masts are made of two pieces, as above, coaked one into the other in the middle, and bolted together with bolts ten feet asunder. Side trees of smaller masts are made from one tree; and, after they are so made, are coaked into the lower taper or tongue of the spindle, and below that into each other, and bolted through all with bolts five feet asunder.
The heel-pieces are short pieces, scarfed on the lower part of the side-trees, to make good their deficient length. They are often worked short, to gain substance in the middle.
The side fishes are long planks of fir, set in and coaked into the flat surface made by the side-trees and spindle, of sufficient thickness to gain the diameter required fore and aft.
The diameter athwartships is gained by the side-trees and spindle.
The mast, thus far completed, is rounded, and secured by strong iron hoops driven on the outside.
The cheeks are large pieces of fir (formerly oak) coaked or tabled into the upper taper or tongue of the spindle, and sufficiently thick to fashion out the head of the mast, and leave a stop for the support of the trestle-trees: they are bolted together and secured by strong iron hoops on the square part or head.
The front-fish, or paunch, is a long plank of fir, hollowed to the convexity of the mast, and fastened on the foreside of the mast over the iron hoops.
The cant pieces and fillings are various pieces of fir: the former make good the angles occasioned by the side-trees and side-fishes, and the latter form a fair round with the side of the mast and the upper part of the front-fish, for the conveniency of woolding. The whole is then strongly woolded together, between every hoop, with thirteen close turns of rope, each turn secured by woolding-nails, with leather under their heads to prevent their cutting.
Masts of less diameter than the former are constructed of two trees, called the upper and lower tree, which are scarfed and coaked together in the middle; the upper part forming the tongue for the reception of the cheeks; the lower tree, with the addition of a heel-piece to make good the length of the upper tree, gives the diameter the fore and aft way; then, with the addition of two side-fishes, the mast is completed for hooping, and the cheeks are then set on.
In fitting masts particular attention should be paid to place the rounding sides of curved or crooked masts forward.Bowsprits of large ships are made similar to the above; but when made of a single tree, not sufficiently large to obtain the diameter required, it is common to make good such deficiency by a fish or paunch of fir, extending the whole length, and run coaked and fayed close to a surface made on the upper side for that propose, nailed fast to the same, and secured by wooldings as the masts are. This method of strengthening masts, bowsprits, &c. is commonly used at sea, when sprung or otherwise weakened, by fishes made of fir, oak, plank, anchor-stocks, or such materials as can be had.METHOD OF CONVERTING AND LINEING OR MARKING TREES, TO BE SAWED OR HEWED, FOR PUTTING TOGETHER AND COMPLETING MADE-MASTS, MASTS OF SINGLE TREES, BOWSPRITS, YARDS, &c.THE conversion of trees or timber to the best advantage is of great importance, otherwise much unnecessary expence and waste must occur; and the greater number of pieces any mast is composed of the more judgement is required to suit each piece with a tree the nearest to its size. The most approved method is, to delineate the various pieces the mast is to be composed of by a convenient scale of any part of an inch to a foot, upon a smooth board or paper, that the different lengths and thicknesses may be taken, so that the most suitable trees may be provided.
Trees not quite straight, if sufficiently large, may be used; the workmen having always an opportunity of setting them straight, when required.
Every tree appointed to make a mast, yard, bowsprit, or any part thereof, should be examined whether sound and fit; for which purpose a short piece is cut off the butt, or largest end, to see whether the heart of the tree is sound. If it has white pithy veins, is rotten, or shaky at the heart, it is bad: if so, continue taking off more pieces while there remains sufficient length. When the butt is approved of, search along the sides, by dubbing or hewing spots a little distance asunder, and carefully examine every knot, rindgall, &c. If sound and clear of sap, line and measure it to the thickness and length intended.
Trees for spindles of made-masts line in length five-sevenths the length of the whole mast: side them fore and aft two-thirds the whole diameter of the mast, if the trees will admit; if not, three fifths the diameter of the mast, and so continued to the haunch of the side-fishes; and above the butt of the side-fishes to the size of the mast-head. The thickness of the coaks to be allowed, when spindles are composed of two trees.
The size of the spindle athwartships is set off tapering from a middle line to half the given diameter at the stop of the hounds, and is to haunch in, three inches on each side, four feet below the butt of the side-trees; and from thence lines straight to half the given diameter at the second quarter, and then tapers to half the size of the stop at the butt. Above the butt of the side-trees the upper part tapers to five-thirtieths of the given diameter at the head. The thickness of the coaks for faying is to be added.
SIDE-TREES are sided to the size of the spindle, the fore and aft way, and the thickness of the coaks added when a side-tree is composed of two pieces.
The breadth athwartships, from the heel of the mast to the butt of the spindle, is one-half the diameter, adding the thickness of the coaks. It is the same from thence to the second quarter, deducting the substance of the spindle. At the third quarter (spindle included) the breadth is eighteen twenty-fifths of the given diameter, and at the haunch one-fourth of the breadth of the spindle at the stop of the hounds.
Trees not of substance to admit the side-trees working their whole length are made good with heel-pieces, scarfed underneath at their lower ends. The scarf lines in length one-third, or one-half the length of the heel-piece, with a butt at the upper end one-sixth the depth, and at the lower end three-sevenths the substance of the side-tree, and a hook-butt in the middle of one inch or more.SIDE-FISHES are commonly sawed out of one tree, down the middle, and one-fourth the diameter of the mast set off on each side for the thickness: the breadth two-thirds the given diameter, and forty forty-one parts of that breadth at the first quarter; eleven-twelfths at the second, five-sixths at the third, and two-thirds at the upper end, and a parallel breadth from the gun deck to the butt.FRONT-FISH, the same as the side-fishes.CHEEKS line in length, for the main-mast, nine-twentieths; for the fore-mast three-sevenths; and for the mizen-mast two-fifths, the length of their masts: they line straight on the inside from the upper part, and are set back five inches for every yard in the length of the mast, except the mizen-mast; in that only four inches for the length of the head and stop of the hounds, and seven-fifteenths that length for the length of the hounds. Breadth of the cheeks at the head, two-thirds the given diameter of the mast, and three-fourths at the stop and lower part of the hounds. In the middle, between the hounds and the lower end, eleven-twelfths of the breadth at the stop, and at the lower end half the given diameter. Allow the thickness of the coaks, when made of two pieces. The thickness of the cheeks is set off from the inside. The upper part above the stop to be one one-fourth the given diameter, and a stop left to project full half that thickness; the lower part of the hounds one inch more than the thickness of the upper part, or head. From thence line straight to five-ninths of the head at the lower end.
HEEL-PIECES are sided to the same size as the side-trees, and are sawed with a scarf, to fit that left in the side-tree.
MASTS MADE OF TWO TREES.
Both trees line the whole length of the mast, when sufficient; if not, the deficiency is made good by a piece at the head and heel. Both trees are sided athwartships to two-thirds the diameter of the mast, from the heel to the haunch of the side-fishes, and taper above the butt of the side-fishes to one-half the given diameter at the stop of the hounds, and five-thirtieths at the upper part of the head, adding to the latter the thickness of the coaks on each side for laying the cheeks.
Each tree lines straight on the inside, and the diameter of the mast fore and aft is made by the lower tree, holding the greater substance at the heel, and the upper tree on the head, and both one substance at the second quarter: the thickness of the coaks to be added.
Fishes and cheeks the same as for masts made with spindle and side-trees.
MASTS MADE OF A SINGLE TREE.
LOWER MAST. The tree intended for this purpose has a straight line struck along the middle, and the heighths of the decks set up thereon from the butt. The middle deck, in three deck ships, and the upper deck, in two deck ships, are the partners; then from the heel set up the whole length of the mast, and from that length set back five inches in every yard for the head and stop for the hounds, and four inches only in the mizen-mast, and seven-fifteenths that length for the length of the hounds. Then divide the space from the lower part of the head to the partners into four equal parts, and term them quarters; that nearest the partners the first, the next the second, the other the third. Large masts have two quarters between the lower deck and heel.
The different diameters of the lower masts are set off at those places by plumbing down one-half on each side from the line in the middle, beginning at the partners with the given diameter in the Table of
Dimensions, (and many add one inch more, to give the hoops a quicker drift.) At the other decks, the same as the given diameter; at the first quarter sixty sixty-one parts of the given diameter; at the second fourteen-fifteenth parts; at the third six-sevenths; at the lower part of the head three-fourths; and at the upper part five-eighths. Leave a stop of four inches and a half, or three inches and a half, according to the size of the mast, at the lower part of the head on each side athwartships. The diameter of the first quarter, below the lower deck, to be the same as the first quarter above the partners; the next the same as the second, and at the heel to be six-sevenths of the given diameter.Masts that have cheeks differ in this; they line tapering athwartships, from the lower end of the cheeks to five-thirtieths the given diameter at the head, adding the thickness of the coaks for faying the cheeks.Cheeks and front-fish the same as for masts made with spindle and side trees.Cutters and other small vessels have their lower-masts and top-masts all in one; and the topmast above the stops of the lower-mast one-third or one-fourth the whole length; with hounds, stops, and a square head above, similar to ships’ top-masts: sometimes they have a common head, like other lower-masts. with cross-trees, cap, and top-mast, as fancy dictates. The diameters are set off as for other masts.
TOP-MASTS. The tree has a line struck straight along the middle; and from the butt once and a half the given diameter is set up for a block below the heeling, which is twice and a half the diameter from the block; then from the lower part of the heeling set up the place of the lower cap, which is the length of the lower-mast head, also the whole length of the top-mast; and from that length set back, for the length of the head and stop of the hounds, four inches to every yard for the main and fore top-masts, and three inches and a half for mizen top-masts, and three-fifths that length below for the length of the hounds; and divide from the lower part of the head to the cap into four equal parts or quarters; that next the cap is the first quarter. At these places the different diameters are set off as before. At the cap the diameter as in Table of Dimensions; at the first quarter sixty sixty-one parts the diameter of the cap; at the second quarter fourteen-fifteenths; at the third quarter six-sevenths; at the lower part of the hounds thirteen-sixteenths; at the stop nine-tenths; at the lower part of the head nine-thirteenths; and at the upper part six-elevenths.
The stops on the fore and aft sides are to come up to the underside of the cross-trees.
The heeling to be square, and large enough (if the tree will admit) to fill up the trestle-trees at the lower-mast head, and to haunch at the upper part to the diameter of the cap.
The block below the heeling the same diameter as at the cap.
The aftsides of top-masts line straight.
MIZZEN TOP-MAST. The square heeling is set up from the butt, having no block, and sometimes a long pole head, instead of a square head for a topgallant-mast.
After the length is set off, set back three inches and a half in every yard in the length for the stop, and three-fifths that below for the hounds. Then from the stop set up three times that length, and two-thirds more for a long pole-head. The diameter of the upper part of the long pole-head to be two-thirds of the lower part, and line straight the whole length of the pole-head, and all below as the top-mast.
TOPGALLANT-MASTS line similar to the mizen top-mast, and have commonly pole heads, either stump, common, or long. A stump pole-head is the length of a square head; a common pole-head is seven-eighteenths of the length, set up from the stop; and a long pole-head is two-thirds the length to the stop, and is set up as above.
ROYAL MASTS line similar to the stump-head of topgallant-masts, and have a square head. They are seldom used.
BOWSPRITS. Bowsprits made of two trees are lined two-thirds the diameter athwartships, and each tree to one-half the diameters fore and aft, adding the thickness of the coaks.Side-fishes are commonly sawed out of one tree straight down the middle, and one-fourth the diameter set off on each side for the thickness. The length is the whole length of the bowsprit.Bowsprits made of one tree have a straight line struck along the middle, and the bed set up from the butt three-tenths the length of the bowsprit, and six inches added. Then set up the whole length from the butt, and within that length four inches for every yard, for the long square on the upperside, and one-third that for the short square on the underside. Then divide between the bed and outer end into four equal quarters; that next the bed is the first quarter, and set off the diameters as before; at the bed as in the Table of Dimensions; at the first quarter sixty sixty-one parts of the diameter at the bed; at the second quarter eleven-twelfths; at the third quarter four-fifths; at the outer end five-ninths; and at the heel six-sevenths: they are then to be lined to that size with a fair curve.YARDS, made of two trees, have each tree lined long enough to scarf four feet beyond the first quarter next the middle or slings, which is in all five-eighths the length of the yard, adding four feet; then strike a straight middle line, and set up from the butt four feet for the haunch; from thence one-eighth the length of the yard for the middle, and the same on the other side for the length of the scarf; from the middle to the end it is divided into four quarters; that next the middle is the first. The diameters are set off at the slings, as in the Table of Dimensions. At the first quarter on each side thirty thirty-one parts of the diameter in the middle; at the second quarter seven-eighths; at the third quarter seven-tenths; and at the outer ends or arms three-sevenths. They are then lined and sided to that size; then canted, and a middle line struck on one of those sides, and the middle and the quarters squared up thereon from the middle line on the first side, and the same diameters set off as before; then lined and made square to the upperside. The scarfs line straight, from each quarter next the middle, to one-fourth the substance at the quarter next the butt, and three-fourths at the quarter next the middle; and haunches to about three inches at the butt. These are the main and fore-yards of large ships only.
All yards made of one tree line as the former, the scarfs excepted.
NEW METHOD OF MAKING THE ABOVE-MENTIONED YARDS OF TWO TREES.
Yards made of two trees, by scarfing them together, are the strongest. They are made thus. Two trees of the size wanted are scarfed together, holding their diameters beyond the fishes. The deficiency of the diameter is made good by long fishes of fir, from four to six inches thick, as the size of the yard may require, extending two feet in length, at each end, beyond the long square on the aftside, and each of sufficient breadth to form the eight-square on the outside. The inner surfaces of the fishes are coaked and fayed close upon the yards, the coaks extending near the whole length. They are trimmed eight-square, one quarter each way beyond the middle; the remainder is rounded, except the aftside, which is left square two quarters each way, and then rounded, and the ends snaped. Bolts are driven from the fore and after sides alternately, between the hoops, which are stationed as usual.
N.B. The yard would be stronger were the fishes not coaked for some distance from the middle, it having a tendency to weaken the scarfs of the main pieces.
MIZEN-YARDS. Their diameters are set off from a line in the middle, as the former, but differ as follow. They are to be of the given diameter in the Table of Dimensions, at the slings, which is one and one-half the diameter below the middle. At the first quarter, next the slings of the upper arm, thirty thirty-one parts of the diameter at the slings; at the second quarter, seven-eighths; at the third quarter, three-sevenths; and, at the arm, two-fifths. At the first quarter of the lower arm, sixty sixty-one parts; at the second quarter, eleven-fifteenths; at the third quarter, three-fifths; and, at the arm, two-thirds. When timber is scarce, yards are sometimes lengthened at the arm, where the wood is not sufficient to gain the whole length. They only differ from the former by having a tongue at the end, lengthened and tapered to one-eighth the substance from one-third the length of the arm-piece, and a butt on each side, one-sixteenth the diameter. The arm-piece is cut to make good the length of the yard-arm, with jaws in the largest end, to receive the tongue. This method is much used at sea, when the yards are damaged at the arms.Lower-yards of merchant ships commonly have a square place raised at each yard-arm for a sheave hole for the topsail sheets, and sometimes the cleats, or stops, are raised from the solid of the topsail and other yards.Masts bowsprits, and yards, after they are lined, have their sides hewed or sawed perpendicular to the lines on the upper surface. Sawing is best and cheapest, especially for large masts, as the pieces sawed off serve for fillings, cant pieces, &c.Workmen, hewing where much wood is to come off, are apt to wound and weaken the mast, which should be carefully avoided. After a mast or any part thereof is sided, it is canted, and a straight middle-line struck along one of the sides, and the quarters and other divisions squared up from the first middle-line, and the sizes and diameters set off as before from this new middle-line. The sides are then hewed or sawed square to the surface from those lines, and, after that, eight-squared thus, viz. Five twenty-fourths of the diameters are set off on each side the middle-line, on every side, or seven twenty-fourths set in within the edges, and lines struck with fair curves; then the angles or edges are taken off straight to the lines on each side. Here the mastmaker may be readily assisted by his rule, it having the proper divisions.
Lower-masts are lined eight-square from the heel to the lower part of the hounds, except they have cheeks, then to the lower part of the cheeks; and from thence break off, on the fore and after sides, to the breadth of the cheeks at the lower part of the head.
Top-masts, from the upper part of the heeling to the under part of the hounds, are eight-square; as also the block below the heel of main and fore top-masts.
Topgallant-masts and mizen top-masts, with long pole heads, are eight-square from the upper part of the heeling to the under part of the hounds, and above the stop to the upper part of the pole head.
Bowsprits are eight-square from the heel to the square part at the outer end, except those of cutters or vessels that have their bowsprits upon deck: they are left square within the bow one-fourth the length.
Yards in general are eight-square, except those lower ones in the merchant-Service that have square parts left for the sheave-holes and boom irons at their arms or outer ends.
PUTTING TOGETHER AND COMPLETING MASTS, BOWSPRITS, YARDS, &c.
SPINDLES OF MASTS, composed of two pieces, are coaked together in the middle, with a coak and plain four feet long. Half the spindle is raised upon blocks, with the middle surface
upwards, and planed smooth. The blocks are long enough to reach through a little distance on each side, or setting the spindle straight, if required. A ram-line is made fast in the middle of one end, and hauled tight; it is then fastened in the middle of the other end, and, where a spindle deviates from a straight line, a block should be fixed underneath, and a cleat nailed thereon, and the place set straight, by wedges driven between the cleat and the spindle. A middle-line is then struck on the spindle, straight with the ram-line, and squared down at each end. The length of the coaks is then set up from the butt; first, three feet six inches from the butt, and four feet from that for the first coak; and so on by four feet to the upper end, squaring them across from the middle-line, and down on each side. The breadth of the coaks is lined, to have two inches good wood when the side-trees are coaked on and placed in the middle. The coaks are sunk one inch and a quarter to one inch and a half, and are cleared out by a mallet and chisel. Be careful to sink the coaks no deeper than the gage, as the mast is weakened thereby. After the coaks are sunk, and cleared out, the other half of the spindle is canted on, with its middle surface to the other, and set straight and close, with cross-setts where necessary. The butts of the coaks are then squared up, upon each side the upper half, from the sides of the lower one, and the middle-line at each end. The distance between is then taken with compasses, and to that is added the thickness of the coaks, and that gage pricked off from the surface of the lower half to the sides of the upper one, and a line struck on each side to range through the same. The upper half is then canted off upon blocks, and a straight line struck along the middle to that squared up at each end from the lower one. The butts of the coaks are then marked across and lined to their breadths, and sawed across to the line on each side, and the intermediate wood, and that on each side the coaks, dubbed away straight, the coaks only remaining. A score is taken out of the middle of a batten to go over the coaks, and so used to prove it straight. Observe, the coaks are to remain no higher above the surface than the depth of those sunk in the other half. Before the pieces are canted together, set a small chamfer be taken off the edges of the coaks, and both surfaces tarred with soft tar; then cant one on the other into its place, and both must be set close together with cross-setts, and bolted with bolts, from one inch to three quarters diameter, five feet asunder, through holes bored in the middle with an auger one-quarter of an inch less than the size of the bolts. The bolts must not be driven quite through, that the spindle may be reduced where necessary.SIDE-TREES, each composed of two pieces, are coaked together in the middle, similar to the spindle. Each piece of the side-tree is often worked short of the whole length, the deficiency being made good by pieces scarfed to them at the heel, in the following manner, viz. Half the length of the scarf is the length of the coaks, which are three inches broad, and are placed at the end of each other on each side the middle-line; that next the butt is sunk to one inch and three-eighths, and the next raised one inch and three-eighths.The coaks that unite the pieces of a side-tree together in the middle contain an equal part of the side-tree and heel-piece in their breadth along the scarfs, and all above is divided into a coak and plain four feet long, and one-third the thickness of the side-tree broad, and lined nearest the inside edge, to have two inches good wood. When the side-trees are coaked to the spindle, they are fayed and bolted together, through the middle, with bolts one inch to three quarters diameter, ten feet asunder, except in the scarf. There should be two bolts in each scarf, and the first bolt two feet above the heel or butt of the side-trees.After the side-trees are bolted together, their inner surfaces are planed straight and fair, and the haunch, at the butt, at the upper ends, diminished from four feet to two or three inches; a straight line
is then struck along the middle of the surface, squared down at each end, and the coaks set off. From the lower end set up two feet for the butt of the first coak, and set its breadth be one-third the breadth of the side-tree, and placed in the middle, within the haunch at the upper end. The intermediate space is divided into a four-feet coak and plain; the butts of the coaks on one side to come to the ends of those opposite, and all the butts to be squared across from the middle-line and down the sides. The breadth of the coaks to be one-fourth the breadth of the side-tree, and half their breadth from the middle-line on each side, and sunk to one inch and a half, or less, as before. The side-tree thus compleated is canted upon the tongue, or lower part, of the spindle, and set straight and close with cross-setts. Then square down the butts of the coaks, the haunch, and the middle-line at the ends, from the sides of the side-tree to the sides of the spindle; then, with compasses, take the distance they are asunder, and the thickness of the coaks, and set off that gage from the underside of the side-trees to the sides of the spindle, and strike the line.The side-tree is canted off, and a line struck on the middle of the spindle to the spots squared down, the butts of the coaks squared across, and their breadths taken from the middle-line of the side-tree, and set off from that on the spindle; the coaks are then raised as before, chamfered, tarred, and canted again on the spindle into its place, and set close. Thus the spindle and side-tree are canted that the other surface of the spindle may lie upwards, for coaking on the other side-tree. The whole is then bolted together, with bolts from one inch to three-quarters diameter, five feet asunder, and the holes bored through the middle of the coaks. The haunch, being less in substance, is fastened to the spindle with dump nails.The mast is then canted, and hewed to its size athwartships, from a straight line struck along the middle of the fore or aft side. The height of the partners, quarters, &c. are then set up, and the different diameters set off and lined as before directed.The mast is again canted, and a middle-line struck on the athwartship side, it lying upwards, from the heel to the head, and the partners, quarters, &c. squared up from the first middle-line; then line the mast for the eight-square by setting off five twenty-fourths the diameter of each place from both sides the middle-line, from the heel to the lower end of the cheeks, and from thence to line off to nothing at the lower part of the head. Set down the sides below the edge, as much as the line for the eight-square is within the edge, allowing three-eighths of an inch for reconciling. When the fish is on, lines are then struck to those spots, and the wood between them dubbed away straight from line to line. The other ‘thwartship side is then canted up and eight-squared.
The mast is again canted, and one of the fore and aft surfaces laid upwards, for coaking on the side-fish. The butts of the coaks are set up from the heel on the middle-line, and squared across thus; the butt of the lowest coak to be three feet above the heel, and three feet nine inches in length; the next coaks come among the scarfs of the heel-pieces, and are so disposed as to have two coaks in length, in a short scarf, and three in a long one; and the breadth of the coaks to come equally on each piece. Above the scarf to the second quarter to have a coak and plain four feet long, one on each side the middle-line, and the butts on one side to come in the middle of the coaks on the other, and squared across from the middle-line. The coaks to be in breadth one-third the breadth of the fish, and equally placed between the middle-line and edges of the fish. All above the second quarter are single coaks, placed in the middle, of the same length as the lower ones, and to be eight inches broad, the upper one five inches; a line struck from one to the other gives the breadths of the intermediate coaks. Every butt must be squared from the middle-line, and raced across from side to side.
SIDE-FISHES are planed straight and fair on the inside surface and edges, then canted on the masts, and set straight and close to the middle-line; the breadth of the fish is then marked on the mast, and the butts of the coaks squared up from the mast on to the sides of the fish, and the middle-line at the ends. The fish should be sunk in the mast and raced along its sides with compasses, from the surface of the side-trees and the haunch at the upper end. The fish is then canted off, and a middle-line truck on the inside, and the butts of the coaks raced across, that their breadths, taken from the mast, may correspond. The coaks are raised on the mast by taking away the intermediate wood, to the breadth and depth the fish is to be set into the mast, which is one inch and a half to two inches in large masts, and the coaks left above that surface are from one inch and one-eighth to one inch and three-eighths, and are sunk to the same depth in the fish. The whole to be cleared out, and the edges taken off with a chamfer, the surfaces tarred, and the fish again canted on the mast into its place, set close down with cross-setts, and fastened to the mast with dump nails, twice the thickness of the fish in length. The side-fish on the opposite side of the mast is coaked on in the same manner.The mast is now squared to its size, the fore and aft way, by a square or batten; the latter is laid across the fish parallel to the middle-line on each side, and what it exceeds the half diameter of the mast is set below the edge of the batten on each side the fish, and this is repeated at the partners, quarters, &c. then lined with a fair curve to the same, and the wood dubbed off straight to the line on each side. A straight line is then struck along the middle, and the eight-square lined from it as before, and dubbed straight through to the ‘thwartship sides. In the remaining angles, between the surface of the mast and the sides of the fish, are fayed and nailed cant pieces, which are dubbed straight with the eight-square. The mast is then canted twice, for the other side to be squared and finished in the same manner.The mast is then sixteen-squared, rounded, and planed smooth from the heel to the hounds, except the surfaces left for coaking on the cheeks, which are rounded a little at the lower part, one-third their length.The mast, thus far compleated, is hooped, the upper mould hoop is placed in the middle of the hounds, and the others equally spaced between that and the lowest mould hoop, which should be eight inches above the lower end of the cheeks. The other hoops are circular, and divided into two drifts. The upper drives on from the head of the mast, and the lowest hoop comes within two feet of the partners; the rest are equally spaced about four feet asunder. The lower drift drives on from the heel of the mast, and the upper hoop placed within two feet of the partners, and the others about two feet each way clear of the decks. Below the decks the hoops are equally divided, to the heel hoop, which is one foot seven inches above the heel of the mast.
Moulds are made to the upper hoops, that are not circular, as a guide for the smith; they are fayed to the shape of the mast, and nailed together at the corners, one foot below the station of each hoop, and the number of the station marked on the upper side. Circular hoops are made to girths taken round the mast at the stations of the hoops. That they may be tight, one inch is cut off the girth of the first hoop of each drift, after it is fitted to the mast, and gradually increases, cutting off from the other girths to one inch and three-eighths at the girth of the last hoop; the other drift the same. Observe, the first hoop of each drift is the largest. The hoops are made of iron, four to four inches and a half broad, half an inch or five-eighths thick, and the edge that first goes on the mast is chamfered on the inside,
The hoops are heated nearly red, then driven on the mast to their stations by long round bars of iron, called pokers, flatted on the feet. They are swung backwards and forwards, by the working, striking the edge of the hoop on each side the mast, which is well greased with tallow to facilitate the driving the hoop, and prevent the mast from burning. The hoop, when driven to its station, is cooled with water, which shrinks it and increases the tension. The upper drift and mould hoops are driven on from the head, and the lower drift from the heel, of the mast.CHEEKS made of two pieces are coaked together in the middle, and the edges planed straight and square. Then set off the coaks; the butt of the first is to be one foot above the lower end of the cheek, and from thence to the head divided into coaks and plains three feet in length each. The butt of the coak to be nine inches short of the stop, and the breadth of the coak at the upper end one third the thickness, and placed in the middle, and the remainder lined from the inside edge, so as to leave a two or three inch margin on the outer edge, and sunk one inch and an eighth deep. The other half is then canted on and spoiled for faying as before; and when fayed close the pieces are bolted together through the middle with bolts seven-eighths of an inch diameter, the first bolt five feet from the lower end, and the others four feet asunder, and not driven quite through. The breadth of the cheeks is next set off from a straight line struck along the middle, and the edges trimmed square and planed smooth with the inner surface, and then the exact thickness set off from the inside. The outside of the cheek, at the lower part, is rounded from the lower end to the hounds, and two-thirds the thickness of the cheeks is set up from the inside on the foremost edge, and one-third on the after edge, and a line struck. Below the line remains square, and above is divided into two equal parts on each side, and a straight line struck along the back of the cheek, from the lower end to the under part of the hounds, one inch and a half from the middle-line towards the foremost edge, and from thence dubbed or bearded straight to the first line, down on each edge. Then another line is struck in the middle of that bearding on each side, and again bearded from thence to the next line upon the edge. Then divide each of those squares into four equal parts, and strike lines to the divisions next the edges, and dubb the edges off to the line on each side, then round it smooth with planes, and bring the rounded part of the cheek in with a sweep at the lower part of the hounds. Above the hounds to the stop, a large chamfer is taken off the after edge of each cheek. The head of the cheeks above the trestle-trees is bearded on the outsides, from one-third the breadth to three-eighths of an inch down on each edge.The cheeks are then canted, the inner surface to lie upwards, on which a straight line is struck along the middle, and squared down at each end; then, with a staff laid along the mast, set off the stations of the hoops from the lower end of the cheeks; do the same on the middle-line of the cheek; then dispose the coaks thus; set down eighteen inches from the upper end of the cheek for the butt of the first coak, and three feet six inches for its length, which, squared across, makes the first butt of the coak: and from thence to the hoop below the hounds on the opposite side all the coaks are to be the same length, if the upper part of the cheek admits. The other coaks are equally divided in length between the hoops; the whole to be six inches broad, and placed half their breadth on each side the middle-line; the last coak is to be one-third the breadth of the cheek, and placed in the middle at three-fourths the length of the cheek from the head. The cheeks are then canted on the upper part of the mast, and laid straight with the middle-line on the mast, and set close. Then square down all the butts of the coaks upon the mast, and the butt of the hollow, and each side of the hoops to the sides of the cheeks. Then, from the underside of the cheeks, set down upon the mast on each side (with compasses) one inch and a quarter, the depth of the coaks, and strike a line to the same
parallel with the edge of the cheek. The check is then canted off, and the butts of the coaks raced across on the mast, and the edges of the hoops upon the inside of the cheeks, and the breadth of the coaks correspondently taken from the middle-line on the cheek, and set off from the middle-line on the mast; the coaks on the cheeks to be sunk one inch and a quarter deep, and raised the same on the mast, One-fourth the length of the cheek from the lower end is hollowed to the convexity of the mast. The workman, to perform this with exactness, bends a piece of iron hoop round the mast, and hollows the cheek to the same, leaving a margin at each side twice the thickness of the hoops, which are set in the cheek their thickness in the hollow, and the depths of the coaks beside.Cheeks made of one piece sometimes table on to the mast-head thus; eighteen inches is set down from the upper end of the cheek for the first butt, and twenty-two inches from thence for the length of the tables, and that continued as low as the first half of the cheek, and from thence to three-fourths the length of the same, dividing into running coaks three feet in length. The butts of the coaks and tables are all squared across from the middle-line and down the sides, and the breadth of the tables within three inches of each edge from the middle-line, and one table sunk one inch and a quarter deep, the other left alternately on each side the middle. The coaks to be six inches broad, the first next the tabling placed in the middle. The others placed four inches on each side the middle-line alternately, and the remainder of the cheek hollowed as before.The edges of the coaks and tables, after they are sunk and cleared, are chamfered, and the surface of the cheek, and the mast where it fays is paid over with soft tar; the cheek is then canted on the mast into its place, and set close as before. The mast is then canted twice, and the opposite cheek compleated in the same manner.The edges of the cheeks are rounded above the upperside of the trestle-trees to the underside of the cap, nearly.
The cheeks are farther secured to the upper part of the spindle by hoops, bolts, and nails, as follow. Six hoops on the head of large made-masts, and four or five on smaller. The upper hoop to be its breadth below the underside of the cap, the others equally spaced on the head of the mast, and to have one hoop its breadth below the stops; moulds are made to the hoops as before. There are to be two bolts between every hoop on the mast-head, driven through the cheeks athwartships, one at one edge, the other at opposite angles, except at the upper and lower hoop, which are to have one bolt at each edge clear of the trestle-trees, and six bolts in the hounds, two next the hoop at the upper part, two in the middle, and two through the lower end above the sweep, and three or four bolts below the hounds, all to be driven through alternately, one from the starboard, and the next from the larboard side, and clenched on a ring; and, in size, from seven-eighths to one inch: the auger to be one quarter less. The lower part of the cheeks is fastened with dump nails, twice as long as the cheeks are thick, and three between each hoop. The cheeks are then planed fair and smooth, and the lower ends haunched away with a snape, resembling the bill of a duck.
Lastly, the mast is canted, the foreside to lie upwards, and the oak chock between the trestle-trees is to be fayed, and bolted through the mast. The chock to be in length the width of the lower part of the mast-head; in breadth, the depth of the trestle-trees; in thickness, the same as the wood between the two holes in the lower cap, with three-eighths of an inch added for the leather, and to be bolted with two small bolts, one in each opposite corner. Next the chock is a front-fish, hollowed and fayed to the foreside of the mast thus. The inner surface is first planed straight, and the edges squared and hollowed to the convexity of the mast, the same as the lower part of the cheeks, leaving a margin on the inner surface at each edge twice the thickness of the hoops, and rounded on the back
to half the thickness on the sides; then cant it on the mast, the middle of the fish to lie straight with the middle-line on the mast, and the upper end close against the chock. Then square the hoops up to the sides of the fish, and with compasses race their thickness. Then cant off the fish, and race the hoops across, and take out the scores to their thickness; tar over the inside of the fish, and cant it again into its place on the mast, and nail it with nails twice its thickness in length.FILLINGS are pieces fayed to the side of the mast, edges of the front-fish, and cheeks, and make a fair surface for the wooldings. They are sometimes made the whole length of the front-fish, but often no longer than sufficient for the breadth of the woolding, and their ends snaped and nailed close to the mast. They are fayed by moulds to the shape of the mast and fish, and marked on the ends of the fillings at each place, and the filling trimmed thereto; the long fillings add security to the mast, and prevent the lodgment of water.Short fillings are remedied by snaping their ends, and the long fillings are fayed by moulds at the ends and middle; the middle moulds undergo a second operation, being first fayed to the mast, the edge of the fish, and the cheek, with a straight back, to keep them out of winding, and then reversed by another mould, to be applied in the same manner on the filling. The fillings when fayed are paid over with tar on the inside, and nailed to the mast, then rounded on the back, to form a fair curve with the upperside of the fish, cheeks, and sides, of the mast. The lower end of the long filling snapes as the lower end of the cheeks. At the lower end of the fish is driven on a hoop, called a fish-hoop, which is beat close to the sides of the mast. In seventy-four gun ships and upwards is another hoop put on over the fish and fillings, called a clasp-hoop. It has a hinge in the middle, and keys together at the ends through mortises made long enough to admit two forelocks, that drive through contrarywise, which encrease the tension of the hoop, and are nailed to the mast.A square tenon is made at the head of the mast for fixing on the cap; it is made tapering from the lower part or depth of the cap, thus; the tenon is two inches less than the mast-head in large ships, and one inch and a half in small ones, and half that is set on each side the middle-line athwartships, at the upper part, and one quarter of an inch more at the lower part, and taken square through and parallel to each other fore and aft. The tenon is to strengthen from the aftside, to prevent the cap drooping below a level, by tapering the foreside of the mast-head from the lowerside of the cap to as much as the sides are less than the mast-head at the upper part, and the aftside of the mast-head half as much. A square tenon is likewise made for fixing the heel of the mast in the step, and is two-thirds the given diameter athwartships, and one-half fore and aft at the upper part, and tapers one inch and a half in the depth, (which is one-third the given diameter,) in large, and three-sevenths in small, ships.
TRESTLE-TREES are sawed or hewed to their sizes thus. In length, they are one-fourth the length of the top-mast; in depth, half the given diameter of the mast; and in thickness, two-thirds of the depth. The insides are trimmed straight, and out of winding, and the thickness set off parallel thereto. The uppersides line straight and square, and the depth parallel. The undersides are snaped at each end, and the edges chamfered the length of the snape. One end to be once and a half the depth, the other end once the depth only, within the ends, and the snapes are lined to half the depth of the trestle-tree, and rounded to a sweep at the ends; the lower outer edge is chamfered along the whole length, and the inside only to the cross-trees.
The longest snapes to be at the foremost ends of the main trestle-trees, and the after ends of the foremast trestle-trees.
Cross-trees are hewed or sawed to their sizes thus. In length, they are one-third the length of the topmast, deducting six inches; the breadth as much as the trestle-trees are thick, and the depth two-thirds the breadth. The undersides are trimmed straight and out of winding, and the depth parallel thereto. Their insides are lined straight and square from the underside, and the breadth parallel to it, and are tapered at each end on the undersides one-fourth the length of the cross-trees, from the end to half the depth, and the ends rounded off with a sweep, and the edges chamfered on the undersides and round the ends the length of the snapes.FRAMING OF THE TRESTLE AND CROSS-TREES. The trestle-trees are kept asunder parallel to each other the breadth of the mast-head athwartships at the stops, except what the trestle-trees face on the sides of the mast, and square with each other at the ends, and are confined in a temporary manner by pieces of spar, one towards each end, scored in between, and lapped on each trestle-tree, and the lap nailed thereto, to prevent its flipping.The cross-trees are next laid across the undersides of the trestle-trees at right angles, or square with their lengths, and the middle of the cross-trees kept in the center between the trestle-trees; and the aftside of the foremost cross-tree the depth of the mast-head fore and aft, from the middle of the trees-trees; and the middle of the trees-trees kept well with the foreside of the mast-head; and the foreside of the after cross-tree twice the depth of the mast-head, abaft the middle of the trestle-trees. The breadth of the cross-trees is then raced upon the undersides of the trees-trees by compasses, and squared down the sides. The thickness of the trees-trees is likewise raced on the under-sides of the cross-trees, and squared up their sides; the cross-trees are then removed, and scores cut in the trestle-trees to set them down within one inch (or three-quarters, in smaller ships) of their depth, except the facing on the outsides, which is taken in square to the whole of their depth; a score is likewise taken out of the undersides of the cross-trees to the breadth and depth of the facing on the trestle-trees; but the latter is performed with more exactness when the trees-trees are got in their places on the mast. On each side the scores in the trees-trees is driven a small bolt, through from the underside, to secure the short wood, and clenched on a ring.An iron plate, three-quarters of an inch thick, three-fourths the square hole long, and two-fifths the thickness of the trestle-tree broad, is set in on each side, to keep the fid from rubbing the trestle-tree.
The trees-trees are next got into their places, and face on the ‘thwartship sides of the mast as follow. First, the head of the mast must be elevated, by barrel or other screws, more than half the length of the trestle-trees, or else got over a hole or cellar, as are in some mast-houses, conveniently fitted with scuttles, or launched an end over a wharf, and a stage made under the head. The mast should be fixed perpendicular to its diameter.
The trestle-trees are next got up into their places with a tackle, and fixed by shores on the ‘thwartship sides of the mast. Their lower sides rest upon the stops, their middle is kept well with the foreside of the mast, and their insides perpendicular and parallel. The foremast ends are to drop as much below a square with the middle-line on the mast as the mast is designed to rake aft in the length, that they may be level when the mast is in its place. In this position they are made to bed firm on the stops, being square athwart from the middle-line. One inch and an eighth of the trees-trees to be set into the mast, and marked with compasses on the underside of the chock, and lowerside of the mast from their insides; and from the sides of the mast on the undersides of the trestle-trees. Then race by the upperside of the chock and underside of the mast upon the insides of the trees-trees, and the uppersides of the trees-trees down the sides of the mast. The trees-trees are then lowered
down, and one inch set down from the upperside of the mast at the middle of the chock on each side, and one inch and a half at the upperside of the trestle-trees, and that wood taken away to the race upon the upper and fore side of the chock, then set up one inch and a half from the underside of the mast at the stop, and one inch at the upperside of the trestle-tree; strike a line, and cut away the wood square to the race underneath. The same is set off on the insides of the trestle-trees, and the intermediate wood cut away to the depth of the race on the upperside, so that what it is faced in on the mast remains on the trestle-trees.The trestle-trees are then got into their places, set close, and bolted to the mast-head, with three bolts, one inch to one inch and a quarter diameter, one through the underside next the stop, one through the upperside next the upperside of the trestle-tree, and one through the middle of the chock; the holes to be bored through three times their diameter from the edge. The bolts in the trestle-trees are driven from contrary sides, and are clenched on a ring. It is best not to bolt trestle-trees but when the mast is for present use.The cross-trees are now faced on to the trestle-trees, as before described.BIBS are brackets, made of elm plank, from three to five inches thick, and nine-elevenths the length of the hounds in length, and in breadth six-fifteenths their length. The after edge is first lined straight, and the upper part square from that, and the fore part tapered by a moulding to four or six inches broad at the lower ends. The after edge is fayed on the cheeks, and the upper part against the underside of the trestle-tees on the foreside of the mast viz. In the middle of the after edge, set up one inch and a half, and line straight from that to nothing at the lower end, which makes a butt in the middle; then place the bibs on the mast, their thickness within the sides of the cheeks, and their upper parts to the outside of the trestle-trees; then set one inch and a half be raced by the lower edge of the bibs upon the cheeks, and the wood taken out to that depth, and the thickness of the bibs, that they may bed firm therein; they are then bolted edgeways through the cheeks with four bolts driven from the foreside and clenched on a ring on the aftside. The bolts to be in diameter from one inch to seven-eighths or three quarters in small ships masts, and only three in number. The lower end of the bib is rounded off to the surface of the cheek, and the edges chamfered.
BOLSTERS are pieces of fir fayed upon the upperside of the trestle-trees, and against the ‘thwartship sides of the mast-head. They must be sufficiently long to clear the fid-hole and after cross-tree, and broad enough to project one inch and a half, or more, without the trestle-trees, and the same in depth, and rounded from the upper to the lower edge on the outside, and nailed to the trestle-trees at each end. They are to prevent the shrouds chafing by the motion of the masts.
CAPS are next sawn and trimmed and firmly fixed on the mast-head thus. The main and foremast caps of large ships are of elm, and made of two pieces, coaked or douled together in the middle; and others are of one solid piece.
Main cap, in length, to be four times the diameter of the topmast, adding three inches. The breadth to be twice the diameter and two inches added, and the depth four-ninths the breadth.
Fore cap, in length, to be four times the diameter of its topmast, adding two inches. The breadth to be twice the diameter, adding one inch, and the depth four-ninths the breadth.
Mizen cap, in length, to be four times the diameter of its topmast, adding one inch. The breadth to be twice the diameter, and the depth four-ninths the breadth.
The caps of yachts and similar vessels have a sheave-hole on each side for the jeers of the lower yards.
Caps are trimmed or sawed to their dimensions, and their upper and under sides made straight and out of winding, and the ends and sides made square. If the cap is made of two pieces, to one piece is added the thickness of the coak. The coak is raised from this half, about one inch and a quarter on the middle surface, extending the whole length, and is broader on the surface than at bottom, resembling the tail of a dove, and is termed a dovetail. The bottom is one-third the thickness of the cap, placed exactly in the middle, and three-eighths of an inch wider on the surface on each side the middle-line; the thickness of the coak is lined down on each side parallel with the surface, and squared across at each end, the wood is then taken away on each side to form the coak. A coak is then sunk in the other half to fit the former, and driven together by malls, or by a carling slung. The two pieces are then bolted through with six bolts, one inch diameter, two at each end and two in the middle, which are driven from each side alternately and clenched on a ring.The holes are set off from the centre of the underside of the cap at equal distances; the substance left between the holes to be two-fifths the diameter of the round hole, and half the tapering of the mast-head in its length. The round hole is the foremost one, and is swept round with compasses three quarters of an inch larger than the diameter of its topmast, (to allow for leathering,) and is square from the underside to the cap’s length and breadth, and parallel to its thickness. The square hole is set of a little less than the lower part of the tenon on the mast-head, and tapered from a square to the size of the upper part of the tenon upon the upperside of the cap, to fix on tight. The boundaries of the holes are notched, and a hole bored through with an auger, at the opposite corners of a square hole, and one only in the side of the round hole, to saw them out to their sizes. Four large eye-bolts are then driven through the cap from the underside, one inch and seven-eighths to one inch and three-quarters in diameter, for hooking the top-block, &c. and, as the weight of the topmast and yards depends thereon, the iron should be the best, and the eyes free from flaws. One of the bolts is placed on each side the square hole near the edge of the cap on the underside, and one on each side the round hole, at the forepart, perpendicular or square to the length and breadth. These bolts are well clenched upon an iron plate set into the upperside of the cap.Caps douled together in the middle have three square mortises sunk in the joining surfaces of each piece, one in the middle and one in each end lengthways, of equal sizes, and placed in the middle of the cap’s thickness, about four inches square, and four inches deep. Oak tenons are then fitted tight into the mortises to fix into the mortises of the other piece, and bolted similar to the former.The round holes of all caps are leathered and nailed on the upper and lower sides.
In letting on caps, to allow for their shrinking, the size of the tenon is taken one inch and a half above the stops, and that set off on the underside of the cap. The same attention is paid in cutting out the mortise in the steps, for the tenons at the heel. The caps are also to be raised above a level from the middle-line on the mast one-quarter of an inch to a foot in length, to allow for their drooping.
Lastly. On the edges of the mast-head are fayed battens, set in over the hoops and fastened, and the edges are rounded, for the rigging to slide down easy.
Masts composed of more or less trees, are coaked together. Those made of two trees are coaked together in the middle, as side-trees, with a coak and plain four feet long. The heel-piece first coaks on to the heel of the lower tree, and the head-piece to the upper tree, as they scarf under the main pieces.
Masts, made of single trees, and cheeked, are rounded below the cheeks, and tapered at the upper part as made-mast, with the same number of hoops on the head, but few or none on the body. The cheeks below the hounds are either woolded or hooped with clasp-hoops, and then finished as other masts; but oftener hooped than woolded, in the East India and merchant service.Masts that head themselves (that is, those which have not separate pieces to form their head) are rounded to the lower part of the hounds, and the head square to the given fractions. (See Tab. Dimensions.) The hounds are raised by the bibs, and are twice the breadth of the mast at their upper parts, and form a bracket on the fore part to the breadth of the mast at the lower part, or hounds; they are from three to four inches thick, made of elm plank, and a bolt, three-quarters or seven-eighths of an inch diameter, is driven through edgeways parallel to the upper end, to prevent their splitting; they are then fayed to the sides of the mast athwartships at the hounds, with a coak in the middle. Their upper parts make the stops for the trestle-trees, and are bolted with three bolts, seven-eighths of an inch diameter, and clenched on a ring. The lower ends are rounded-to a semi-circle, thinned with a duck’s-bill snape, and nailed to the mast.The aftside of mizen-masts, in ships, and main-masts, in brigs, to be coppered in the wear of the gaff and boom.Cutter’s masts are oftentimes left eight-square four or five feet above the deck, and from thence rounded to the hounds, as other masts, and fitted with bolsters or cross-trees like a top-mast. When they have cross-trees, the heads are square, and fitted with a cap, similar to ships top-masts. Bolsters are only fastened to the mast when the mast and topmast are made in one, and the topmast above the stops rounded, and the head above the hounds left square. An iron hoop is driven on the stop of the topmast hounds, with a ring at the fore part, and another hoop set on its breadth at the upper part of the head, with a round ring on the fore part, through which slides the topgallant-mast, and is retained at the heel by a bolt through the lower ring: a sheave-hole is cut fore and aft through the topmast hounds, and commonly four large eye-bolts with shoulders are driven from the aftside through the mast-head, upon iron plates set in the mast, and clenched upon plates set in the foreside. The bolts are one inch and a quarter to one inch and a half diameter; the lower one is driven through the middle of the lower hounds, the shoulder downwards; the other three are equally spaced between the stop of the lower hounds and the lower part of the topmast hounds; the two lower ones are driven with the shoulder on the larboard, and the upper on the starboard, side. The aftside of the mast to be coppered in the wear of the gaff and boom.
SLOOPS, SMACKS, HOYS, AND BOATS, MASTS, from a middle-line are trimmed thus. The heighth of the partners is two-thirds the diameter, taking feet for inches, set up from the butt or heel, and there set off the given diameter as before. In the middle between the partners and the stop of the shrouds, thirty thirty-one parts of the given diameter; at the under part of the hounds seven-eighths; at the upper part, seven-tenths; and to have stops of one inch and a half, or two inches, on each side athwartships in proportion to the size of the mast. Topmast, in the middle between the stops, two-thirds of the given diameter; at the upper part, three-fifths; and the square head above the topmast three-sevenths; and compleated as the former.
Boats masts, not sloop-fashion, are trimmed round from heel to head thus: strike a straight line along the middle, and set up the partners from the heel, which is the depth of the boat, and there set off the given diameter; then set up the whole length, and line it to two-thirds the diameter of the partners; with a sheave-hole its length clear of the stop for the haliards.
TOPMASTS, main and fore, after being sawed or hewed to the foregoing directions, are compleated thus: the block below the heel is left eight-square, and a hoop, two inches less in diameter, is driven on the lower end. The heeling is to be square, and the edges chamfered; and, if not sufficient to fill the hole in the trestle-trees, fillings are fayed and nailed thereto, to make good such deficiency. From the lower cap it is trimmed sixteen-square, and rounded to the under part of the hounds, which are nearly eight-squared, to admit them through the round hole in the lower cap.Sometimes ships in the East Indies, &c. have hound-pieces made of elm, teak, or harder wood than fir, fayed to their topmast-heads, and fastened as bibs on lower-masts that head themselves.The head is left square above the stops, and the edges chamfered between the underside of the cross-trees and underside of the cap. The whole topmast is then planed fair and smooth, and a sheave-hole cut through the block, in the middle of the after square of the larboard side to the foremost square on the starboard side. The length the same as the depth. The breadth two inches for every foot in length, and so in proportion for all sheave-holes. A groove is made on each angle of the heeling in the direction of the lower sheave-hole, large enough to contain the top-rope, when passing through the square hole in the trees-trees.In the middle of the heeling, a square hole is cut through athwartships for the fid; its lower part to be the depth of the trees-trees above the block. Iron fids are once and a half the given diameter of their lower mast in length, one-third the given diameter of their topmast in depth, and two-thirds their depth in thickness. Wooden fids differ from the former in depth, being made one-half the diameter of the topmast. Fids are made square, to the given dimensions, and one end rounded, the other snaped from the underside, and a hole for a lanyard in both ends.
The upper sheave-hole for the top-rope to be four inches above the heeling, cut through transversely to the lower one, by boring four or more holes through with an auger the breadth of the sheave-hole, and then cleared straight through with chissels: all other sheave-holes in the same manner.
Eighteen-gun sloops, and vessels under that size, in the Royal Navy, and most ships in the Merchant-service, have a sheave-hole for the topsail-tye cut through the middle of the hounds fore and aft; but, as it weakens the mast, it is better avoided.
Topmast trestle and cross trees are differently fitted from the lower ones. The length of the trestle-trees is three inches and a half to every yard their topmasts are in length; and each cross-tree one-third longer than the trestle-trees. Depth of the trestle-trees, one inch and an eighth to every foot in the length. Breadth, two-thirds the depth, Depth of the cross-trees, seven-eighths of the depth of the trestle-trees. Breadth, one-fourth more than the breadth of the trestle-trees. The trestle-trees are trimmed similar to the lower ones, and a sheave-hole cut through the foremost end of each main-topmast trestle-tree, not exactly fore and aft, but at angles with the length: the foremost ends to be without the middle of the trestle-tree, to teach fair with the fore topgallant braces; there are to be, likewise, two sheave-holes in the after ends of the fore-topmast trees-trees. The cross-trees are trimmed (mostly sawed) straight on their under sides, but mould straight only one-third the length in the middle, and round aft from thence on each side with a curve one-third the diameter of the topmast, and one-half their breadth; they hold a parallel depth in the middle three-sevenths the length, and taper from thence to half the depth at the ends, which are rounded, and a hole bored four inches within for the topgallant shrouds.
The cross-trees are set into the trestle-trees, with scores, as the lower ones, to half the depth of the cross-tree, and face on half an inch. The middle of the trees-trees is kept well with the
topmast head at the foreside, and the middle cross-tree let in between that and the topgallant-mast heel, the foreside of the after cross-tree to the exact size of the topmast-head, and the aftside of the fore-cross-tree about one inch less in the clear, and both fastened to the trestle-trees with bolts seven-eighths to five-eighths of an inch diameter, driven through the middle from the upperside with a saucer-head, and secured underneath with a forelock turned upon a ring. They are then got over the topmast-head, and fixed firm on the stop of the hounds. Bolsters are fayed upon the trestle-trees on each side of the mast-head, like the lower ones.The cap is trimmed and fitted as the lower cap, and differs little but in size, except in the eyebolts, which are driven the same distance on each side the round hole, and are, in diameter, one inch and an eighth, to seven-eighths of an inch; the other bolts in proportion. Length, four times the given diameter of the topgallant-mast, and one inch added. Breadth, twice that diameter. And depth, seven-fifteenths the breadth.Close up under the cap on each side athwartships are cheek-blocks, tenoned into the topmast-head. The length, twice and a half the depth of the head, and six inches added for the three tenons. Half the depth of the head in thickness, and two-thirds the depth in breadth; made of elm; and the whole thickness divided to make the tenons, sheave-holes, and back. Viz. The depth of the tenons and the thickness of the back are each three-eighths of the whole thickness, and the remainder for the sheave-hole. The tenons to be two inches square, one in the middle, and one at each end; and the sheave-holes the thickness of the rope longer than the breadth. The back of the block is divided into three parts, and one-third on each side bearded down to one-third the thickness of the back at each edge.They are then set in to the topmast-head with mortises, and holes are bored through the centre of the sheave-holes, that the sheaves may work on the bolts which fasten them to the mast-head. The bolts are saucer-headed, and forelocked on a ring. The blocks are not fastened until the topmast is in its place through the hole of the lower cap.
The sheave-holes are coppered, to prevent the blocks chafing with the rope. Most sheave-holes in yards, &c. are the same, or sometimes guarded on the edges by a thick wire driven into the solid.
Mizen-topmasts are trimmed as the former in proportion, but differ thus: viz. They have no block below the heel, only a square heeling at the butt, and a sheave-hole cut fore and aft through the hounds, one-third its length below the stops, for the topsail tye, in all ships.
If a long pole-head, it is rounded above the stops, and a sheave-hole cut through, fore and aft, once and a half its length above the stops, for the staysail haliards, and another sheave-hole, half its length below the head, for the mizen topgallant tye. Lastly, a square tenon is made on the upper part, as large as the head will admit, for the truck, which has a mortise the size of the tenon cut out in the middle, and driven on tight to its thickness.
Topgallant-masts trim as the mizen-topmast with a pole-head, except when royal-masts are used, and then like a mizen-topmast with a square head.
Royal-masts are trimmed similar to topgallant masts or flagstaffs.
Trysail-masts step upon deck close abaft the mainmast of snows, and their heads fix underneath the aftside of the top. At the head they are trimmed round to three-fourths the diameter at the heel.
Boats masts as before described.
BOWSPRITS. Bowsprits made of two trees, are coaked together in the middle, and bolted as masts, and lined to the size the fore and aft way from a middle-line on the ‘thwartship side, and hewed plumb: then canted up, and a middle-line struck along the upperside, and the eight-square set off. The same on the opposite side, and trimmed as the mast. Then canted down, and the fishes coaked on to the ‘thwartship sides, fastened and lined to the bigness athwartships, then eight-squared, sixteen-squared, and rounded, except the square at the outer end, which haunches from thence into the round. Then station the hoops thus: five to be in the lower drift of a first rate ship, and four in a second and third, from the heel to the bed, and nine in the upper drift of the first rate, and eight in the second and third, from the bed to the square at the outer end, and two mould-hoops on the squares of each rate. The hoops are then driven on to their stations as before. Place the hoops clear of the tenon at the heel, the bed, the gammoning, and tenon at the outer end.Bowsprits made of single trees are sixteen-squared and rounded to the square at the outer end as before. Those left square within the bow are sixteen-squared, and rounded from thence to the outer end, and planed smooth and fair. The former have two or three hoops driven on the heel; the latter only one, let into the heel.The bowsprit cap is next trimmed, and let on the outer end with a tenon. The length of the cap is five times the diameter of the jib-boom; the breadth, twice the diameter of the jib-boom, and half the diameter of the jack-staff; and the thickness four-ninths the breadth.Set off what the bowsprit stives in the thickness of the cap before the length.
The fore and aftsides of the cap are trimmed or sawed straight and out of winding, and are of a parallel thickness. The ‘thwartship sides are cut square and parallel to the breadth. The ends are cut square athwart, and fore and aft to the stive of the bowsprit. Then a line is struck lengthways on the fore and aft side the cap near the middle, leaving half the diameter of the jack-staff on the starboard side. Then set off, parallel from the upper part of the cap, once its thickness, for the upperside of the hole that the jib-boom slides through. Then set off the diameter of the jib-boom on each side square from the upperside of the hole and parallel, and race it across on the fore and after sides. Then set off half the diameter of the jib-boom on each side the middle-line on the cap; and sweep the hole to an oval. In setting off the hole, three-quarters of an inch is to be added for leathering.
From the under part of this hole, set down two-sevenths the diameter of the bowsprit, and square it across, for the upper part of the hole, which fits the tenon made on the outer end of the bowsprit thus; three-fourths the diameter is set off from the middle-line athwartships, and seven-eighths fore and aft from the upperside at the thickness of the cap within the end, and half the remaining bigness of the bowsprit is set down from the upperside at the outer end, and tapers half an inch in the length each way.
Six bolts, one inch and an eighth to seven-eighths of an inch diameter, are driven through the cap, from the ‘thwartship sides, and parallel to the breadth; the four upper ones to be eye-bolts, and the two lower ones straight: the upper eye-bolt to be driven in the after hole from the starboard side, and the others from each side alternately, and clenched on a ring; another eye-bolt is driven through the middle of the cap, from the aftside, between the round hole and the upper part; the eye to stand up and down. Another eye-bolt is driven from the foreside at the lower edge, after the cap is fixed on the bowsprit, and belays with a forelock in the middle of the square part on the aftside, and a straight bolt is driven athwartships, in the middle of the square hole parallel to the aftside, through the tenon, and clenches on a ring. A groove is made, for the jack-staff, from the
upperside of the cap to the middle of the square hole on the starboard side; the groove to be the diameter of the staff in breadth, and half in depth. The staff is confined, near the upper part of the groove, by an iron strap, made with a semi-circle in the middle, to embrace the staff, and a hole in one end for a staple, and a mortise in the other, that goes over a toggle-bolt, and is there retained by an iron pin. The heel of the staff rests in a hole made in the starboard bee.BEES are made of elm plank. The length, twice and a quarter the given diameter of the bowsprit; the breadth, two-thirds the diameter; and the thickness, one-fourth the outer diameter of the bowsprit at the inner edge, and tapering from thence to four-fifths that thickness at the outer edge, on the underside. The outer ends are left square; the projection of the cap and the inner ends, one-third the breadth; and then turned off with a hollow and round. About one-fourth within the ends are bored holes, large enough to reeve the fore topmast and preventer-stays. The hole at the outer end of the starboard bee is made long enough to answer with the sheave-hole in the block underneath, and with the hole at the inner end of the larboard bee. The other holes are used when wanted. Seamen say the stays would lead clearer, if the sheave-holes in the bee-blocks were at the contrary ends. In the outer end of the starboard bee is cut a semi-circle, to answer the groove in the cap, for the heel of the jack-staff.The bees are set into the outer ends of the bowsprit, one-third their thickness, and one on each side; their foremost ends are fayed close against the aftside of the cap, the upperside well with the upperside of the bowsprit, and their outer edges raised above a level, three inches in every foot in the breadth; then bolted through the head of the bowsprit with four bolts, one inch diameter, in large ships; and with three bolts, seven-eighths of an inch diameter, in smaller ships. The holes are bored parallel to the upperside in the middle of the outer edge, and the bolts clenched on a ring on the opposite sides of the bowsprit, one at each end, clear of the holes. The others bolt in the middle between the holes.Bee-blocks are of elm, seven-ninths the length of the bee; the depth, two inches for every foot in the length, and the thickness, seven-eighths the depth. They are fitted with a sheave in the fore-most end of one and after end of the other. The sheave-hole, two-sevenths the length of the block, and half the length within the end, and one-fourth the length in breadth. In the other end of the block is cut a square mortise, under the other hole in the bee. The blocks are fayed to the sides of the bowsprit and underside of the bees, and bolted with two bolts, one through each sheave-hole, and belay on a ring with a forelock. The bolts serve as an axis for the sheaves.
The tenon at the heel is similar to that at the head, and is seven-twelfths the given diameter athwartships, and two-thirds up and down, and tapers one inch in the length, which is one-third the given diameter.
SADDLES. The saddle for the jib-boom is one-sixth the given diameter in thickness, and one-half in length, and fayed upon the bowsprit, one-third of the boom within the outer end, and a seat made upon the upper part, for the heel of the boom to lie on, clear of the saddle for the spritsail slings, and is nailed to the bowsprit, after the bowsprit and jib-boom are rigged.
The saddle for the spritsail slings is one-eighth the given diameter in thickness, and fays upon the bowsprit, before the boom-saddle, and is made of a parallel breadth to its thickness, and chamfered on the aftside at the upper part, and nails upon the bowsprit about one-fifth the length within the outer end, and leaded on the foreside one-half the circumference of the bowsprit upon the same.
The saddle for the running-rigging is similar to the above, and nails on the bowsprit just without the gammoning, but not till the bowsprit is rigged. It has several holes bored through fore and aft, through which the rigging is led clear into the bow.CLEATS are made for stops against the collars and gammoning, and are nailed on when rigging. The cleats against the collars to be in length one-half the given diameter; and one-fourth the length thick and broad. The cleats against the gammoning to be two inches shorter than the collar cleats, and the same in proportion. The ends are cut bevelling to the direction of the rope.Lastly, a woolding, the same as on the mast, is fixed just within the square at the outer end.The bowsprits of small vessels, as cutters, &c. commonly have an iron hoop set on, which nails to the outer end; with an eye on each side, and one in the middle, on the upperside, and a sheave-hole cut through the inner and outer ends.
YARDS. After yards are sawed as directed, they are completed thus: those that scarf together in the middle have the scarf and haunches trimmed straight, and out of winding, on the inside, and a line struck along the middle, and a chain-coak set off, two feet four or two feet six inches long, and one-third the diameter broad; and the butts squared across and down the sides. The coaks are raised one inch and a quarter at the butt, and sunk to the same on the other side the middle towards the arm: the other half is then canted thereon, set straight and out of winding, and fayed as the masts, and bolted together fore and aft through the middle, in the butt of every coak; the heads are driven from the thinnest part of the scarf and clenched on a ring, and the haunches nailed.
The yard is then sixteen-squared, and rounded from one quarter on each side the slings to the outer ends, except on the aftside, which must remain square two quarters on each side the middle. The whole is then planed fair and smooth, and the scarfs caulked their length and hooped, one hoop over the butt of each scarf, one in the middle of each haunch, and one between every bolt: then a fish of fir, two inches thick, and the same length and breadth as the square on the aftside, is fayed and nailed close over all the hoops.
Yards lengthened at the quarters have their scarfs trimmed straight and out of winding. The scarf on the arm-piece is to fit the tongue on the yard, then to be driven on, set close, and bolted with three bolts, five-eighths to three-quarters of an inch diameter, and the ends of the scarf nailed. The yard is then rounded and planed smooth, and four hoops driven over the scarf, one over each butt and two equally between.
Main and fore yards, made of single trees, are sixteen-squared, and rounded as the former. In merchant-ships, they have sheave-holes in their arms for the topsail-sheets, and are left square the length of the sheave-hole: but this method weakens the yard, and should not be adopted. Observe, should the tree be crooked, to place the rounding side uppermost.
Topsail-yards, being trimmed sixteen-square, are rounded, and planed smooth and fair from the first quarter on each side the middle to their outer ends, and a sheave-hole cut from the upperside, its length within each outer end, for the reef-tackles. In some merchant-ships, holes are cut within the cleats, for the topgallant-sheets, but it is better avoided, as it weakens the yard-arms.
Topgallant-yards, royal-yards, cross-jack-yards, mizen-yards, sprit and sprit-topsail yards, studding-sail and driver yards, are trimmed eight-square, sixteen-square, and then rounded, and planed fair and smooth from end to end throughout the length.
BATTENING YARDS. Main and fore yards, main, fore, and mizen, topsail yards, have oak battens nailed on their squares, nearly the same length and breadth, and one inch to three-quarters
of an inch thick; their ends rounded, and snaped with a duck’s bill, and the edges chamfered. The foresides have no battens.CLEATING OF YARDS. The sling-cleats, nailed on the foreside of main and fore yards, are once and a quarter the diameter of the yard in length, with a shoulder one-third its length. The breadth one-fourth the length. The thickness two-thirds the breadth, and nailed once the diameter on each side the slings. They are made of elm.Stop-cleats nail within the arms, on the fore and after sides, one inch and a half to every yard in the length, and are half the diameter of the yard in length. The breadth one-fourth the length; the thickness two-thirds the breadth. Merchants yards have their cleats sometimes raised from the solid; some are made of oak, others of elm.Topsail-yards have stop-cleats nailed on the foreside of the yard, once the diameter on each side the slings. Those within the arms, on the fore and after sides of the main and fore topsail yards, three inches to every yard in the length, and mizen topsail yards two inches and a quarter within their outer ends, or arms.
Topgallant-yards the same as topsail-yards.
Royal-yard cleats, are once the diameter on each side the middle asunder, and twice their length within at the arms.
Cross-jack-yards have stop-cleats nailed on the foreside of the yard half the diameter on each side the slings. Those at the arms one inch and a half within their outer ends to every yard in length, and nailed on the fore and after sides.
Mizen-yards have stop-cleats nailed once the diameter asunder on the starboard side, and once and a half the diameter below the middle of the yard: those at the peek, or outer end, once the diameter within.
Sprit and sprit-topsail yards have stop-cleats nailed on their undersides; the spritsail-yard once the diameter on each side the slings; the sprit-topsail-yard half the diameter on each side: those at the arms one inch and a half within their outer ends, to every yard in the length; and they nail on the fore and after sides, contrary to those at the slings.
Studding-sail and driver yards have stop-cleats, nailed once the diameter asunder, at one-third the length of the yard from the inner end. Those at the arms twice their length within.
Boats yards cleats once the diameter asunder at the slings; some in the middle, others at one-third from the end, such as lugs, lateen, and settees, and the length of the cleat within at the arms.
Yards are fitted at their outer ends for rigging out studding-sails. Main and fore yards have four boom-irons; one on each of the outer ends, the others at one-third the length of the boom within. The outer boom iron is composed of a ring, a neck, and straps.
The ring, through which the boom slides, is the same diameter in the clear as its topmast studding-sails boom; breadth, three-eighths the diameter, and five-eighths to three-quarters of an inch thick. In one side a lignum vitae roller is fitted, one-third in length the diameter of the boom-ring.
The neck is square, and connects the ring to the straps, each one inch longer than the diameter of the ring, and one-fourth its length in size.
The straps are made one inch and a quarter in length to every three feet of the yard. The breadth, once and a half the breadth of the ring. Thickness at the inner part, three-eighths of an inch: they increase in substance towards the neck, and are made to the shape of and set into the yard-arm its thickness. Two holes are punched through the straps, for bolts, the ends made round, and holes
punched. Two hoops are made the size of the yard-arm, one close to the end, the other nearer the neck.Inner boom-irons are made after the same proportion as the outer ones, but differ in shape. The straps are made to compass the yard at one-third the length of the topmast studding-sail boom, within the end, and the ring is separated from the straps by a collar; the upper part of the ring opens with a hinge on one side, and the heel of the boom is laid therein, and confined by a bolt passing through eyes opposite the hinge, which is retained by a spring-forelock through the point.Boom-irons fix on the yards thus: the rings are parallel with the axis of the yard, in a straight direction with a line struck upon the yard, in the middle of the square, between the upper and fore side. The outer boom-irons set in their thickness at each outer end of the yard, and are bolted through, clenched, and nailed; the two hoops are driven on tight, and stopt with a nail on each side. The inner boom-irons have their straps made hot, and encircle the yard at one-third the length of the topmast studding-sail boom; they are nailed through holes in the straps, and oakum misted round their heads to prevent their flying off.Boom-irons on the yard-arms of ships in the merchant-service differ much in shape. The ring the boom slides through is connected by a collar to a square hoop, that lets on, and nails to the yardarms, they being left square; and sometimes a round hoop to the size of the yard-arm. Others have a straight neck, projecting from straps, with a shoulder in the middle of the neck, and the part without left square. The boom-ring has a shank on the under part, with a mortise that fits the neck, and is there fastened by a screw-nut or a spring-forelock that goes on the neck next the ring.
Topsail yards, main and fore, commonly have boom-irons at their outer ends, like the lower-yards in merchant-ships; in the navy they are mostly fitted with a boom-ring, and a sprig-eye-bolt driven in the middle of their ends, parallel to its axis, and an iron hoop set in its thickness and breadth, and nailed, to prevent splitting the yard-arm. Yards that have no inner boom-irons have saddles for the heel of the boom.
Topgallant yards, main and fore, mizen yards, sprit and sprit-topsail yards, have their arms fitted with a ferrule-hoop, and sprig-eye-bolts, as the topsail yards.
Mizen topsail and topgallant yards have hoops set on their outer ends, but no eye-bolts.
Driver yards have a sheave-hole cut through the outer end, and a hoop and eye-bolt.
BOOMS. Booms are driver, jib, and studding-sail, in ships; and main-boom, in cutters, sloops, &c.
Driver-booms have their diameters set off from a straight line struck along the middle, like a top-sail yard. The given diameter in the Table of Dimensions is set off in the middle, and at the first quarter, on each side, forty forty-one parts of the diameter in the middle; at the second, eleven-twelfths; at the third, five-sixths; and, at the ends, two-thirds. They are then lined to that bigness, and trimmed like the topsail-yard.
The inner end is commonly fitted with jaws, made of oak, that embrace half the diameter of the mast. The inner part is one-fourth of what is left on each side, and from thence breaks in fair, to the size of the inner end of the boom, to which it scarfs with a tongue two feet long, trimmed in the end of the boom, rounded, and then fastened with bolts, hoops, and nails, at the ends. One and sometimes two holes are bored through the middle of each jaw, fore and aft, for the parrel that confines it to the mast, and the sweep is leathered.
An eye-bolt is driven through the middle from the upperside, between the sweep and the scarf, and clenched on a ring underneath, for confining the tack of the sail. A sheave-hole is cut through its length within the outer end of the boom for the sheet; and on the outer end is set on a hoop, and an eye-bolt driven in the middle of the end parallel to its axis.Sometimes an iron strap with an eye is fitted on the inner end, and fastened with bolts and hoops, and nailed at the ends. The eye of the strap is confined to a groove, by a pin in a hoop or strap round the mast.Commonly, in the merchant-service, an iron hoop is set on the inner end, and an iron hook, or neck, driven in the middle, parallel to its axis, that hooks into an eye in a hoop, or a strap round the mast, and it is moused or forelocks through a hole, to prevent its lifting.JIB-BOOMS have a straight line struck along the middle, and the length set up from the butt, and one-third that length for the cap. From thence to the outer end is divided into four quarters, and the given diameter (in Tab. Dimen.) is set off at the cap, and forty forty-one parts that diameter at the first quarter; eleven-twelfths at the second; five-sixths at the third; and two-thirds at the outer end. They are then lined to that size, and hewed plumb; then squared and eight-squared, and three times and a half the diameter set up from the heel, and from thence rounded to the outer end. Let a stop be made from the end once and a half the diameter of the boom, and a sheave-hole half its length within the stop from the upperside, for the outhauler, and another sheave-hole, once and a half the diameter from the heel for the top-rope, be made through the middle of the starboard square, next the upperside, and a hole bored through between that and the heel, the same size, for lashing down the heel.
STUDDING-SAIL BOOMS trim alike, from a straight line struck along the middle. The length is set up from the heel, and the given diameter in the Table of Dimensions set off at the heel, and at one-third the length, and lines parallel to the middle-line, and from thence to two-thirds the given diameter at the ends, and rounded as before.
The lower studding-sail booms have an iron hoop set on the inner end, and a hook driven in the middle of the end, parallel to its axis, and a hole bored through the outer end the diameter within.
Top and topgallant studding-sail booms have a hole bored through the end.
Main booms for cutters, sloops, &c. have a straight line struck along the middle, and the length set up from the butt; the length from the mast to the stern is then set off, for the station of the mainsheet. Then, between the sheet and inner end, divide four quarters; and between the sheet and outer ends two equal parts; and set off the given diameter (in the Table of Dimensions) at the sheet; and forty forty-one parts of that diameter at the first quarter; eleven-twelfths at the second; seven-eighths at the third; and two-thirds at the inner end, and between the sheet and outer end eleven-twelfths, and three-fourths at the outer end. The diameters are set off, and the boom lined and rounded, as the driver boom, and finished with jaws at the inner end.
This boom is leathered its diameter on each side the sheet, and comb-cleats nailed over the strap of the block. Without the sheet are holes bored through for the reef-pendants, or notches underneath, made from the solid, and a sheave-hole, hoop, and eye-bolt, at the outer end, as the ship’s driver-boom.
GAFFS have their diameters set off from a straight line, struck along the middle, and their lengths within eighteen inches set up from the butt; then set up four feet for scarfing on the jaws, and there set off the given diameter in the Table of Dimensions; and divide from thence to the end into four quarters; and set off forty forty-one parts of the given diameter at the first quarter; eleven-twelfths
at the second; four-fifths at the third; and five-ninths at the outer end. They are then lined to that size and rounded, as before. The jaws are made and finished similar to the booms; but, owing to the gaffs being topped so much above a level, the jaws have a great bevelling. At the inner part, they have also an eye-bolt, driven through from the upper sides, and clenched underneath for the throat haliards, and one from the underside for the nock-earing, securing the sail and throat downhauler, and sometimes a sheave-hole cut through on each side, for the throat brails.A hoop is set on the outer end, and an eye-bolt driven in the middle parallel to its axis, and cleats nailed on the ‘thwartship sides, the diameter within the outer end, and a sheave-hole cut through from the upperside within the cleats.TOPS. The dimensions of tops are, their breadths athwartships, one-third the length of their topmasts; their length fore and aft, three-fourths the breadth; and the square hole athwartships two-fifths the breadth of the top; and fore and aft thirteen-fourteenths the breadth; and the aftside of the hole one-fifth the length of the top, from the aftside of the platform, and placed in the middle athwartships.Tops are made thus: the platform of close tops is made of three inch deals, down to a third-rate ship, of two inches and a half to a fourth and fifth rate, and of two inches for all under, in the royal navy. The deals are scarfed together half their thickness from the size of the square hole each way to the whole size of the top, and the edges fayed close together. The aftside to be straight, and the ‘thwartship sides square from thence, at the breadth, to the aftside of the foremost cross-tree, where the fore part breaks in with an elliptical curve. After the top is trimmed to its dimensions and the scarfs well nailed together, a rim of elm board (one inch and an eighth thick, in large, and one inch in small ships, and from eight to seven inches broad, except the mizen tops of small ships, which are only six inches) is nailed on the upperside, to overhang the edge all round, four inches in large, three inches and a half in small, and only three inches on mizen tops of small ships. Then station the timbers, which are made of elm plank, from four to two inches thick, according to the size of the top, and moulded to the same depth on the rim: to be four in number on each ‘thwartship side, equally spaced between the aftside and breaking in of the sweep, and seven or eight between them on the fore part, and one less on the aftside. Between the middle timbers on the ‘thwartship sides are cut two mortises for the futtock-plates, as far asunder as the timbers will admit, and one on each side them, the same distance, and four inches and a half within the edge, over which is fastened an iron plate with mortises punched through to answer the above holes; then fay the timbers close to the top and elm rim on their under sides, from the projection of the rim to the square hole, to taper on the upperside, within the rim, with a hollow to wear off to nothing at the square hole, and they are nailed through the top, with two nails in each breadth of deal, and clenched on a rove. Between the timbers are fayed fir fillings, of the same thickness and nine inches broad, on the ‘thwartship sides, and tapering from thence to half that breadth round the fore part; they nail as the timbers, and mortises are cut through for the futtock-plates, and chamfered on the inside round the fore part of the top. On the aftside over the timbers is a gunwale, made with elm board, eleven or twelve inches broad, and as many eighths of an inch in thickness, in large ships, (and in proportion for smaller,) and it is nailed through the timbers in each edge as before, and four square mortises cut through that and the rim for the rail stantions. On the ‘thwartship sides, within the fillings, is fayed and scored down over the timbers a chock of elm, eight inches broad, and three times deeper than the timbers, and three or more holes bored through, one inch and a half or two inches in
diameter, in the middle between the mortises, for the futtock-plates, for fixing the swivels, and a square iron plate, half an inch thick, set in over the holes. The chocks are nailed through the timbers as before. The stantions on the aftside are from two to three inches square, and tenon at the heel into mortises in the gunwale and through to the underside, and at the head into the underside of the rail, which is the breadth of the top in length, and as much as the stantions are in thickness, and one inch more in depth. The stantions are trimmed eight-square in the middle, and the rail rounded on the upperside; the whole is well secured together, when the top is up in its place,Yachts and small vessels often have iron rails and stantions on the aftside of their tops, for neatness.Battened or open tops have the trestle and cross trees framed together, and a rim of elm board, similar to the former, nailed round the extremities. On each side the mast head, parallel with the trestle-trees, to the size of the square hole, are scored into the cross-trees, pieces the same in size, and two more on each side athwartships, scored into the latter pieces, and lapped underneath the rim, and well nailed thereto; then a cant of oak, similar to the fir fillings, on the fore part of the former top, is fayed and nailed to half the breadth of the rim, and kept well with the outside; then oak battens, one inch or seven-eighths thick, and four or six inches broad, are fitted fore and aft within the cant, except over the square hole, about their breadth asunder, and are securely nailed to the rim, cross-trees, and cross-pieces.N. B. All battened tops are made similar to the above.
DAVITS for fishing the anchor to be, in length, three-tenths the breadth of the ship, and square at the inner end, one inch to every foot in the length, and at the outer end one inch less than the inner end, and trimmed thus: viz. After they are squared to the above size, they are eight-squared, leaving them square at the inner end, three-fourteenths the length, and a stop of one inch and a half to two inches made at the outer end, its diameter within the end. Three eye-bolts, of one inch and a quarter to seven-eighths of an inch diameter, are driven through within the stops, one from the upperside, for the mast-head, guy, or topping-lift, and one on the fore and after sides for the guys. The former is well clenched on an iron plate, set in the underside, the others on a ring. The heel is snaped to half its depth, the up and down way, to fay to the ship’s side, and upperside of the fore channel, and a large elm cleat, four inches thick, is nailed to the side over the heel to prevent its rising, and another upon the upperside of the channel to prevent its slipping.
FIRE BOOMS trim as lower studding-sail booms, the same for size, and two-thirds their length. The inner end is fitted with a hook, the outer end with a forked iron, driven in the middle parallel with its axis, and a hoop driven on to prevent slipping.
THE FOLLOWING METHODS ARE TAKEN, IN FIXING MASTS, IN THE ROYAL NAVY AND MERCHANT SERVICE.
AFTER the mast is raised by means of the sheers, the lower end is fixed; it is tenoned into the upperside of a large block of oak timber, called a step, secured across the keelson.
The topmast is attached and secured to the head of the lowermast by a cap, trestle-trees, and fid.
Between the lower-mast-head and foremost cross-tree, is a square space, bounded on each side by the two trestle-trees; perpendicularly above which is the foremost hole in the cap, and the head of the lowermast is solidly fixed in the other hole.The topmast is erected by the top-rope, which raises it to the head of the lowermast, and the upper end of the topmast is guided and conveyed through the holes between the trestle-trees and cap.When the topmast is raised to its proper heighth, the block or square part is fidded on the trestle-trees, by a bar of wood or iron, called a fid, which is driven through a hole athwart the trestle-trees; and, upon the topmast, in the same manner, the topgallant-mast is placed at the head of the topmast, and the royal-mast upon the head of the topgallant-mast.
THE FOLLOWING PROPORTIONS FOR THE HEIGHTH OF MASTS ARE THOSE BY WHICH SHIPS AT PRESENT ARE MASTED IN THE ROYAL NAVY.
The length of the lower deck and extreme breadth being added together, the half is the length of the main-mast.
The length of the lower deck of a 74 gun ship is 176 feet. Breadth extreme 48 feet 8 inches; added together, they make 224 feet 8 inches; the half, or 112 feet 4 inches, is the length of the main-mast; which being determined, the other masts, yards, &c. bear the following proportions.
|Fore-mast, 8/9 of the main-mast.|
Mizen-mast, 6/7 of the main-mast.
In Sloops, the mizen-mast, 3/4 of the main-mast.
Main-topmast, 3/5 of the main-mast.
Fore-topmast, 8/9 of the main-topmast.
Mizen-topmast, 3/4 of the main-top-mast
|Sloops mizen-topmast, 5/7 of the main-topmast.|
Topgallant-mast, 1/2 the length of the topmast.
Bowsprits of 80 guns and upwards, 7/11 of the main-masts.
Bowsprits of 74 gun ships and under, 3/5 of their main-masts.
The diameters in proportion to the length, in the royal navy, are as follow: viz.
The main and foremasts of ships of 100 to 64 guns inclusive, are one inch in diameter at the partners to every yard in length. Ships of 50 to 32 guns inclusive, 9/10 of an inch to every yard in length. And ships of 28 guns and under, 7/8 a of an inch to every yard in the length.
The main-mast of brigs to be one inch to every yard in length, and the foremast 9/10 of the diameter of the main-mast.
Masts of cutters to be 3/4 of an inch in diameter to every yard in length.
The mizen-masts of ships of 100 to 64 guns, inclusive, 3/5 of the diameter of the main-mast; 50 gun ships and under, 2/3 of the diameter of the main-mast.
Diameter of the main and fore topmasts, one inch to every yard in the length of the fore topmast.
Diameter of the mizen-topmast, 7/10 of the diameter of the main-topmast.
Diameter of the topgallant-masts, one inch to every yard in their lengths.
Diameter of the royal-masts, 2/3 of the diameter of their topgallant-masts.
Bow sprits of ships of 100 to 64 guns, inclusive, two inches less than the diameter of the main-mast. In 50 gun ships and under, the same diameter as the main-mast.
In the merchant-service the proportion of masts and yards are variable; therefore Tables of Dimensions for vessels of different tonnages are subjoined.
PROPORTIONAL LENGTHS OF YARDS, IN THE ROYAL NAVY.
|Main-yard, 8/9 of the main-mast.|
Fore-yard, 7/8 of the main-yard.
Mizen-yard, 6/7 of the main-yard.
Main-topsail-yard, 5/7 of the main-yard.
Fore-topsail-yard, 7/8 of the main-topsail-yard.
Mizen-topsail-yard, 2/3 the main-topsail-yard.
Topgallant-yards to 74 gun ships, 2/3 all under, 3/5, of their topsail-yards.
|Royal-yards, 1/2 of the topsail-yards.|
Cross-jack-yard, the same as the fore-topsail-yard.
Spritsail-yard, the same as the fore-topsail-yard.
Spritsail-topsail-yard, the same as the fore-top-gallant-yard.
Studdingsail-yards, 4/7 of their booms.
Driver-yard, the same as the fore-topgallant-yard.
PROPORTIONAL DIAMETERS OF YARDS.
Main and fore yard, at the slings, 7/10 of an inch to every yard in the length.
Mizen-yard, 2/3 of the diameter of the main-yard.
Topsail-yard, 5/8 of an inch to every yard in the length.
Topgallant-yard, 6/10 of an inch to every yard in the length.
Royal-yards, 1/2 the diameter of their topsail-yards.
Spritsail-yard, the same diameter as the fore-topsail-yard. Spritsail-topsail-yard, the same diameter as the fore-topgallant-yard. Studdingsail-yards, one inch in diameter to every 5 feet in the length. Cross-jack-yard, the same diameter as the fore-topsail-yard.
Driver-yard, the same diameter as the fore-topgallant-yard.
PROPORTIONAL LENGTHS OF BOOMS.
Lower studding-sail booms, 5/9 of the main-yard.
Top studding-sail booms, 1/2 the length of the yards they go on.
Flying jib boom, 5/7 of the bowsprit.
Driver boom, the same length as the main-topsail-yard.
PROPORTIONAL DIAMETERS OF BOOMS.
Studding-sail booms, one inch to every five feet in the length.
Flying jib booms, 7/8 of an inch to every yard in the length.
Driver boom, the same as the fore-topsail-yard.
PROPORTIONAL LENGTHS OF GAFFS.
Length of the gaffs, 5/8 of their respective booms.
Diameter of the gaffs, the same as their booms.
PROPORTIONAL LENGTHS OF STAFFS.
Length of the ensign-staff, 1/3 of the main-mast, above the taffarel.
Length of the jack-staff, 1/2 the length of the ensign-staff above the taffarel.
Diameter of the ensign-staff, half an inch to every yard in the length.
Diameter of the jack-staff, 3/4 of an inch to every yard in the length.
PROPORTIONS OF MASTS, YARDS, &c. FOR SLOOPS, SMACKS, AND HOYS.
Mast and topmast in one, thrice and 3/4 the breadth of the vessel.
Mast to the rigging-stop or hounds 3/4 the whole length.
Mast and topmast to the stop of the topmast 40/41 of the whole length.
Topgallant-mast to the rigging-stop 4/7 of the length of the mast.
|Boom 2/3 of the mast.||Cross-jack-yard 2/5 of the mast.|
|Gaff 3/5 of the boom.||Topsail-yard 4/5 of the cross-jack-yard.|
|Spread-yard 5/8 of the mast.||Topgallant-yard 5/6 of the topsail-yard.|
|Bowsprits 5/9 of the mast.|
PROPORTIONAL DIAMETERS IN FRACTIONAL PARTS OF AN INCH TO EVERY FOOT IN LENGTH.
|Mast 1/4.||Gaff 1/4.||Topsail-yard 2/10|
|Topgallant-mast 3/8.||Spread-yard 1/7||Topgallant-yard 1/8.|
|Boom 3/16||Cross-jack-yard 2/10||Bowsprit 3/8.|
MASTS, YARDS, &c. FOR BOATS.
Long boats, sloop fashion, as above; but with lug-sails as follow.
Main-mast twice and a half the breadth of the boat.
|Fore-mast 7/8 of the main-mast.||Main-yard 5/8 of the main-mast.|
|Bowsprit 1/2 of the main-mast.||Fore-yard 5/8 of the fore-mast.|
DIAMETERS IN FRACTIONAL PARTS OF AN INCH TO EVERY FOOT IN LENGTH.
|Main-mast 1/4.||Foremast 1/4||Main-yard 1/4.||Fore-yard 1/4||Bowsprit 5/8.|
LAUNCHES AND CUTTERS WITH LUG-SAILS.
|Main-mast twice and 3/4 the breadth of the boat.|
|Fore-mast 8/9 of the main-mast.||Mizen-mast 5/8 of the main-mast.|
|Main-yard 9/17of the main-mast.||Sprit 2 feet longer than the mizen-mast.|
|Fore-yard 9/17 of the fore-mast.||Outrigger 2/3 of the mizen-mast.|
DIAMETERS IN FRACTIONAL PARTS OF AN INCH TO EVERY FOOT IN LENGTH.
|Main-mast 1/4||Fore-mast 1/4||Main-yard 1/4||Fore-yard 1/4||Mizen-mast 1/4||Sprit 1/7||Outrigger 3/7.|
LAUNCHES AND CUTTERS WITH SETTEE-SAILS.
Length of the main-yard, thrice and, the breadth of the vessel.
Length of the main-mast, 4/7 of the main-yard.
Length of the fore-mast, 17/18 of of the main-mast.
Length of the fore-yard, 9/10 of the main-yard.
Diameter of the masts, 3/8 of an inch to every foot in the length.
Diameter of the yards, 1/4 of an inch to every foot in the length.
BARGES AND PINNACES WITH LATTEEN-SAILS.
Length of the masts, twice the breadth of the boat and 8 inches added.
Length of the topmasts, the length of the mast and 1/9 more.
Length of the scarf to the lower-mast, 1/4 its length.
Diameter of the masts, 1/16 of an inch to every foot in length.
Diameter of the topmasts, 2/10. of an inch to every foot in length.
BARGES, PINNACES, AND YAWLS, WITH SPRIT-SAILS.
Length of the main and fore masts, twice and 1/4 the breadth of the vessel.
Length of the sprits, 1/8 more than the mast.
Diameters of the masts, 1/4 of an inch to every foot in the length.
Diameters of the sprits, 1/8 of an inch to every foot in the length.
|A FRACTIONAL TABLE OF THE PROPORTION THAT EVERY PART OF A MAST OR YARD BEARS TOWARD THE GIVEN DIAMETER IN THE TABLES OF DIMENSIONS.|
|Standing Masts that are checked for and aft||60/61||14/15||6/7||3/4||2/3||6/7|
|Standing Masts that are checked athwartships||60/61||14/15||6/7||6/7||2/3||6/7|
|Standing Masts that head themselves||60/61||14/15||6/7||6/7||2/3||6/7|
|Top-masts, Gallant-masts, and Royal-masts||60/61||14/15||6/7||9/13 Arms.||6/11||–|
|Yards in general||30/31||7/8||7/10||3/7||–||–|
|Main booms||40/41||12/13||7/8||fo. end. 2/3||af. end. 3/4||Middle 11/12|
|Heeling Standing Masts||2/3 athwartship.||–||1/2 fo.& aft.|
|Heeling Bowsprits||7/12 athwartship.||2/3 up and down.|
The head of the main and fore masts, 5 inches to every yard of the mast’s length.
The head of the mizen-mast, and main and fore topmasts, 4 inches to every yard of the length.
The head of the mizen topmast, and all topgallant-mast, 3 1/2 inches to every yard of the length.
Long pole-heads to topgallant-masts 2/3 of the length of the stop, (that is, when the 3 1/2 inches to a yard is taken out of the whole length). Proper pole-heads to be 3/15 of that length; and stump pole-heads 3 1/2 inch to every yard in length.
The hounds of aft lower-mast 7/15 of the length of the head.
The topmasts 3/4 of the length of the head.
EXPLANATION OF THE PROPORTIONS IN THE FRACTIONAL TABLE.
The diameters at the quarters being given in what mast-makers call fractional parts of the diameter at the partners, or slings, observe, that the first quarter of the main-mast is 60/61, that is, if the diameter at the partners be 61, that at the first quarter will be 60: now, the diameter at the partners of a 74 gun ship’s main-mast being 37 inches, we have three terms of the Rule of Three given, and thus expressed, 61:60::37 to the product, which we shall find to be 36 3/8 inches.
In the Rule of Three there are three numbers given; and, if the second be multiplied by the third, and the product divided by the first, the quotient will give the fourth term, which will have the same proportion to the third that the second term has to the first.
Draw out the slide till 61 is against 60; you will then find 36 3/8 against 37 inches; so that 36 3/8 is the diameter of the first quarter; hence we have this general rule, when the fractional part is given, draw out the slide till the denominator, 61, is against the numerator, 60; then look for the diameter of the partners, or slings, 37 inches, as above, on the same line with the denominator, 61; and, against 37, the diameter at the partners, you have 36 3/8, the diameter of the first quarter; then, by using the same operation as for finding the first quarter, you will find the second quarter 34 1/2, the third quarter 31 3/4, the head 27 3/4 and the upper part of the head 23 1/8.It is presumed These examples may suffice to explain the manner of notation in the preceding proportions, and likewise the method of working by the sliding-rule, which may be applied to all questions in the Rule of Three, such as measuring timber, plank, &c.
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METHOD OF MEASURING ROUGH TREES FOR MASTS.
The length to be 3 times, in feet, what the diameter is in inches at the partners, adding 9 feet.
The measuring-place for the partners is 2/3, in feet, from the butt what the mast measures in inches at the partners. The hounds to be set back from the length at half the distance from the butt to the partners; and from the hounds to the partners to be divided into 4 equal parts, called quarters. The quarters, hounds, and heel, to bear the following proportions to the diameter at the partners: viz. First quarter, 60/61; second quarter, 13/14; third quarter, 6/7; hounds, 2/3; and heel, 5/6.
HAND-MASTS to be of the sizes at the partners as in the Table of the Value of Fir Timber; which is, 8 inches from the butt for every hand in circumference. (that is, supposing the circumference to be 6 hands, the distance of the partners from the butt is 6 times 8, or 48 inches,) and 11/12 that bigness in the middle between the partners and the top, there to girth 2/3 the bigness of the partners. The length is governed in proportion to the number of hands in circumference at the partners, as follows: Add 6 inches to the number of hands, and multiply by 3, the product is the length in feet and inches. Or, multiply the number of hands by 3 and add 18 feet. – Four inches make a hand.
BOWSPRITS to be in length 2/3, in yards, what the diameter is in inches at the bed or measuring place, that being 2/3 in feet from the butt what the bowsprit is intended to measure in inches at that place.
MASTS from America are mostly trimmed in the country nearly to their sizes, so that the diameter and length as per Table is sufficient.
YARDS to be in length as per Table, and to hold that diameter in the middle, and half that diameter at the ends.
DUTIES ON MASTS PAYABLE IN GREAT-BRITAIN.
MASTS, 6 inches in diameter and under 8, imported in a British-built ship,. 1s. 1d.1/2. Drawback 1s. Ditto in a foreign built ship, the mast, 1s. 2d. Drawback 1s. Masts, 8 inches in Diameter and under 12 inches, in a British ship, the mast, 3s. 4d. Drawback 3s. 1d. Ditto in a foreign ship, the mast, 3s. 6d. Drawback 3s. 1d. 12 inches or upwards, in British ships, the mast, 6s. 8d. Drawback 6s. 2d. Ditto in foreign ships 6s. 11d. Drawback 6s. 2d.- SCAVAGE-RATES. (Port of London.) Large mast 2d. Middle mast 1d. Small mast 0d. 1/2.
A TABLE OF ROUGH TREES
Rough Trees for Masts, Yards, and Bowsprits, made of single Trees, need not be above Two Inches larger than the Dimensions in the Table of Masts, &-Foremasts, Yards, &c. are made of single Trees.
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Dimensions of Masts and Yards in the Royal Navy,
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Dimensions of Masts and Yards in the Royal Navy.
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Dimensions of Masts and Yards in the Merchant-Service.
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Dimensions of Masts and Yards in the Merchant-Service.
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