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FORECOURSE. This sail is quadrilateral, square on the head, and made of canvas No. 1 or 2. It is bent, at the head, to the foreyard, which hangs to the foremast at right angles with the ship’s length, and parallel to the deck. This sail extends within 18 inches of the cleats on the yardarms, and drops to the mainstay at the foot. One cloth is gored on each leech, and a gore is made on the foot, to drop the clue, 5 to 6 inches per cloth, beginning at two cloths within the nearest buntlinecringle to the clues. Sometimes, two cloths are gored on each leech, in the merchantservice. Two reefbands, of onethird the breadth of a cloth, are put on at onesixth of the depth of the sail asunder, the upper one being at that distance from the head: a middleband, of one breadth of cloth, is put on half way between the lower reefband and the foot: the linings on the leeches are of one breadth of cloth, and extend from the clue to the earing: and four buntlinecloths, at equal distances asunder, on the foot, are carried up to the middleband. In the merchantservice, middle bands are seldom used, and the buntlinecloths run up one quarter of the depth of the sail. Marlingholes are made in the tabling from the clue to the nearest buntlinecringle on the foot, and oneeighth of the depth of the sail up the leech. They are turned on the contrary side to the roping, in fixing the sail. Two reefcringles are made on the leeches, one at the end of each reefband; as also are two bowlinecringles, the upper bowlinecringle is made in the middle of the leech, and the lower one equally distant from the upper one and the clue: a buntlinecringle is also made at the end of each buntlinecloth on the foot. The ends of the buntlinecringles next the clues should be left long enough to be worked under the service and meet the ends of the cluerope. In sewing on the boltrope, two inches of slackcloth should be taken up in every cloth, in the head and foot, and one inch and a half in every yard in the leeches. The clue is wormed with spunyarn, parcelled with slips of tarred canvas; served with 3 or 4 yarn spunyarn, marled on with marline or houseline, and seized with several turns of inchline, strained tight with three crossturns. RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN THIS SAIL. Add the number of cloths in the head and foot, and halve the product, to make it square; then multiply by the depth, and add the quantity in the gores, linings, bands, and pieces. To find the quantity in the foot gores, add together the number of inches gored on each cloth on one side of the sail, and multiply the product by the number of gored cloths. EXAMPLES.
 
MIZENCOURSE. This sail is quadrilateral, and made of canvas, No. 2 or 3. The head is bent to the mizen yard or gaff, and extends within 9 inches of the cleats. The foreleech is attached to the mizenmast within 6 or 7 feet of the deck, so that it hangs fore and aft in the plane of the ship’s keel. The head is cut with a gore of 16 to 22 inches per cloth, agreeable to the peek: the foot is gored oneinch per cloth, leaving two cloths square in the middle. One cloth on the mastleech is sometimes gored in the navy, and sometimes two cloths in the merchantservice. This sail has a reefband, 6 or 8 inches broad, at onefifth of the depth of the mastleech from the foot. The after leech is lined from the clue with one breadth of cloth 5 yards in length, and the nock and peek with pieces so cut from each other that each contains one yard. One cringle is made on each leech at the ends of the reefband; and one at the distance of every threequarters of a yard on the mastleech; or sometimes holes are worked in the tabling of the mastleech: a cringle is also made 5 yards from the clue on the after leech for the throatbrails. Two inches of slackcloth in every yard should be taken up in sewing the boltrope on the mastleech, but none in the foot or afterleech. The marlingholes extend two feet each way from the clue; the clue is seized with threequarter line, and is left 9 inches long from the seizing. RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN THIS SAIL. Add the depth of the fore and afterleech, and take the product for a medium depth; multiply the medium depth by the number of cloths, and add the quantity of canvas in the footgores, pieces, and reef band. To find the quantity in the foregores. Multiply the number of cloths by the depth the square cloths its the middle are more than those at the tack; from the product subtract the gores from the square cloths to the tack and clue. EXAMPLE.
 
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MAINTOPSAIL. This sail is quadrilateral, square on the head and foot, in the navy, and made of canvas, No. 2 or 3: it is bent at the head to the maintopsail yard, which hangs to the main topmast at right angles with the ship’s length, and parallel to the mainyard: the sail extends within 18 inches of the cleats on the yardarms, and drops to the mainyard, when its own yard is hoisted to the hounds. The cloths on the leeches are gored sufficiently for the foot to spread the cleats on the mainyard. This sail has three or four reefbands, put on at oneeighth of the depth of the sail asunder, the upper one being at that distance from the head. A middleband is put on halfway between the lower reefband and the foot; and the leeches are lined from clue to earing with one cloth, so cut, as, when put on, to be half a cloth broad at the head, and a cloth and a half broad at the foot. This sail has also a toplining on the aftside, of canvas, No. 6 or 7, which covers onefifth of the cloths in the foot. Two mastcloths are put on in the middle of the sail, on the aftside, between the middleband, and lower reef band, and buntlinecloths are put on the foreside of the sail, one on each side of the toplining, which have the ends carried up under the middleband. One reefcringle is made on the leeches at the end of each reefband, and a reeftacklependentcringle between the lower reef and upper bowlinecringles: below these are four bowlinecringles; the upper one is on the middle of the leech, and the other three are equally distant from each other between the upper one and the clue. One buntlinecringle is made in the middle of each buntline cloth at the foot. Three inches of slackcloth are taken up in sewing on the boltrope in every cloth in the head and foot; 2 inches are allowed for every cloth left open in the topbrim; and one inch and a half is taken up in every yard in the leeches. The boltrope against the topbrim is wormed, parcelled, &c. as the clues, and is marled to the sail. The marlingholes extend 3 feet each way from the clue, and along the breadth of the toplining at the topbrim. In the merchantservice, the foot is gored from 2 to 4 inches per cloth, onethird of the breadth of the foot from the clues; the leechlinings are but 9 inches broad at the head, and 15 inches broad at the foot; the toplining and buntlinecloths cover one third of the cloths in the foot, and are carried up onethird of the depth of the sail; the buntlinecloths are half a yard shorter than the toplining; and the leeches have only three bowlinecringles. RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN THIS SAIL. Add the number of cloths in the head and foot, and halve the product to make it square; then multiply by the depth, and add the quantity in the linings and bands. EXAMPLE
 
FORETOPSAIL. This sail is quadrilateral, square on the head and foot in the royal navy, and made of canvas No. 2 or 3. The head is bent to the foretopsailyard, and it hangs to the mainmast at rightangles with the ship’s length, and parallel to the foreyard, extending, at the head, within 18 inches of the cleats on the yardarms. The cloths on each leech are gored sufficiently for the foot to spread the length of the foreyard. Sometimes, in the merchantservice the foot is gored 2 to 4 inches per cloth, from onethird of the breadth of the foot to the clues. One reefcringle is made at the end of each reefband, and a reefpendentcringle between the lower reef and upper bowlinecringles. The reef and reefpendentcringles are stuck through holes made in the tabling; and beneath them are made three bowlinecringles; the upper one upon the middle of the leech, and the others equally asunder between that and the clue: two buntlinecringles are also made in the middle of each buntlinecloth on the foot. The linings, cloths, bands, clues, &c. are the same as for the main topsail. RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN THIS SAIL. Add the number of cloths in the head and foot, and halve the product to make it square, then multiply by the depth and add the quantity in the linings, and bands. EXAMPLE.
 
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MIZENTOPSAIL. This sail is quadrilateral, square on the head, and made of canvas No. 4, 5, or 6: it is bent at the head to the mizen topsail yard, and hangs to the mizen topmast at right angles with the ship’s length, and parallel to the crossjackyard, extending within 12 inches of the cleats on the yardarms. The cloths on the leeches are gored sufficiently for the foot to spread the length of the crossjackyard, and the clues reach the sheetblocks on the crossjackyardarms, when both yards are hoisted. The gore on the foot is three quarters of a yard deep, and begins at two cloths from the buntline cringle, on the side next the clues. In the merchantservice, the foot is sometimes square. Mizentopsails, for 50 gunships and upwards, have three reefbands at oneeighth of the depth of the sail asunder from the head; and, for 44 gunships and under, two reefbands, oneseventh of the depth of the sail asunder; also a middleband, of one breadth of cloth, halfway between the lower reefband and the foot. In the merchantservice, they have 2 reefs, as the 44 gunship, but no middleband. The leeches are lined with onebreadth of cloth, so cut as to be half a cloth broad at the head, and a cloth and a half broad at the foot. In the merchant service, they are lined with part of a cloth, 9 inches broad at the head, and 15 inches at the foot. The toplining covers onefifth of the cloths in the foot: the upperend is carried as high as the middleband, and the band is tabled on it. The buntlinecloths join the toplining, and are carried under the middleband. In the merchantservice, the toplining covers onethird of the cloths in the foot, and is carried up onethird of the depth of the sail, and the buntlinecloths are half a yard shorter than the toplining. One inch and a half of slackcloth is taken up, in sewing on the boltrope, in every yard in the leeches, three inches in every cloth in the head and foot, and and 2 inches are allowed for every cloth in the topbrim. One reefcringle is made on the leeches at the end of each reefband, and three bowlinecringles are made on each leech, the upper one in the middle of the leech, and the others equally distant between that and the clue. Fortyfour gun ships and upwards have a reefpendentcringle between the lower reef and upper bowlinecringles. The clue and topbrim are wormed, parcelled, served, and marled as other topsails. RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN THIS SAIL. Add the number of cloths in the head and foot, and halve the product to make it square, then multiply by the depth of the sail, and add the quantity in the footgores, linings, and bands. EXAMPLE.
 
MAINTOPGALLANTSAIL. This sail is quadrilateral, and square on the head and foot, in the navy, and made of canvas No. 6 or 7: the head is bent to the maintopgallantyard, which hangs to the maintopgallantmast at right angles with the ship’s length, and parallel to the maintopsailyard, extending within 6 inches of the cleats on the yardarms. The clues reach to the maintopsailyardarms, when both yards are hoisted. The cloths on the leeches are gored sufficiently for the foot to spread the length of the maintopsailyard. A gore of 2 or 3 inches per cloth is often made on the foot, in the merchantservice, beginning at onethird of the breadth from the clue. The cloth at the clue is so cut as to fall to the foot and form its own lining; and earingpieces of one quarter of a yard are put on each corner at the head. Three bowlinecringles are made on each leech, the upper one in the middle, and the others equally asunder between that and the clue. FORETOPGALLANTSAIL. This sail is quadrilateral, and square on the head and foot, in the navy, and made of canvas No. 6 or 7: the head is bent to the foretopgallantyard, which hangs to the foretopgallantmast at right angles to the ship’s length, and parallel with the foretopsailyard, extending within 6 inches of the cleats on the yardarms: the clues reach to the foretopsailyardarms, when both yards are hoisted. The cloths on the leeches are gored sufficiently for the foot to spread the length of the foretopsailyard: the cloth at each clue is so cut as to fall to the foot and form its own lining, and a piece, of one quarter of a yard, is put on each corner at the head. In the merchantservice, a gore is sometimes made on the foot, of 2 or 3 inches per cloth, beginning at onethird of the breadth from the clue. Three bowlinecringles are made on each leech; the upper one in the middle, and the others equally distant from that and the clue; as this sail may be occasionally used for the maintopgallantsail. In the merchantservice, it has no cringles. MIZENTOPGALLANTSAIL. This sail is quadrilateral, and square on the head and foot, in the navy, and made of canvas No. 7 or 8. The head is bent to the mizentopgallantyard, and it hangs to the mizentopmast at right angles with the ship’s length, and parallel with the mizentopsailyard, extending within 6 inches of the cleats on the yardarms. The clues reach to the mizentopsailyardarms, when both yards are hoisted. The leeches are gored sufficiently for the foot to spread the length of the mizen topsailyard, and the pieces on the clues and earings are each a quarter of a yard in length. RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN MAIN, FORE, AND MIZEN TOPGALLANT SAILS. Add the number of cloths in the head and foot, and halve the product to make it square, then multiply by the depth, and add the quantity in the pieces.
 
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MAINROYALSAIL. This sail is quadrilateral, square on the head and foot, and made of canvas No. 8: the head is bent to the mainroyalyard, which hangs to the maintopgallantmasthead at right angles with the ship’s length, and parallel with the maintopgallantyard, extending within 4 inches of the cleats on the yardarms. The cloths on the leeches are gored sufficiently for the foot to spread the length of the maintopgallantyard, and the clues reach to the maintopgallantyardarms, when both yards are hoisted. FOREROYALSAIL. This sail is quadrilateral, square on the head and foot, and made of canvas No. 8: the head is bent to the foreroyalyard, which hangs to the foretopgallantmasthead at right angles with the ship’s length, and parallel with the foretopgallantyard, extending within 4 inches of the cleats on the yardarms. The cloths are gored on the leeches sufficiently for the foot to spread the length of the foretopgallantyard, and it drops for the clues to reach the foretopgallantyardarms, when both yards are hoisted. MIZENROYALSAIL. This sail is quadrilateral, square on the head and foot, and made of canvas No. 8: the head is bent to the mizenroyalyard, which hangs to the head of the mizentopmast or topgallantmast, at right angles with the ship’s length, and parallel with the mizentopgallantyard, extending within 4 inches of the cleats on the yardarms. The cloths are gored on each leech sufficiently for the foot to spread the mizentopgallantyard, and the clues reach to the mizen topgallantyardarms when both yards are hoisted. *** This sail is seldom used. RULE FOR FINDING THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN MAIN, FORE, AND MIZENROYAL SAILS. Add the number of cloths in the head and foot, and halve the product to make it square, then multiply by the depth of the sail.
 
MAIN STAYSAIL. This sail is triangular, square on the foot in the royalnavy, and made of canvas No. 1 to 3. It is extended upon the mainstaysailstay, between the main and fore mast, so that the foot will clear the boat upon the booms. *** This sail is seldom used in large vessels. A regular gore is made on the stay of 17 to 19 inches per cloth. The cloth at the tack is so cut as to fall to the foot and form its own lining. The cluepiece extends two yards up the leech, and the peekpiece is one yard in length. Holes are made on the stay 27 inches asunder, and marlingholes are made 2 feet each way from the clue. In sewing on the boltrope, 3 inches slack should be taken up in every yard in the stay, and one inch in every cloth in the foot, but none in the leech. Iron thimbles are sometimes stuck at the tack and peek, but when none, the tack and peek are the same as the clue. In the merchantservice, this sail is frequently cut with a bunt, and a gore is sometimes made on the foot, with a sweep. It also frequently has a reefband at about 4 feet from the foot, and sometimes a bonnet. FORE STAYSAIL. This sail is triangular, square on the foot, and made of canvas No. 1 to 3. It is extended on the forestay between the foremast and bow sprit. A regular gore is made on the stay of 21 to 23 inches per cloth. The cloth at the tack is so cut as to fall to the foot, and form its own lining; the cluepiece extends two yards up the leech, and the peekpiece is half a yard in length. The holes on the stay are 27 inches asunder, and the marlingholes extend 2 feet each way from the clue. Three inches slack should be taken up in every yard in the stay when sewing on the boltrope, and one inch in every cloth in the foot. The tack and peek are sometimes fixed on, or are marled, as the clue. Thimbles are sometimes stuck at the tack and peek, but when none, the tack and peek are the same as the clue. RULE FOR FINDING THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN MAIN AND FORE STAYSAILS. Multiply half the number of cloths by the depth of the leech, and add the quantity in the pieces.
 
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MIZEN STAYSAIL. This sail is quadrilateral, square on the foot, and made of canvas No. 2 or 3: it has a bunt threefifths of the depth of the leech in the navy, and onethird or onefourth of the depth of the leech in the merchantservice; and it is extended on the mizenstay between the main and mizen masts. The foot drops within 6 or 7 feet of the quarterdeck. Two cloths are generally gored on the bunt, and the stay from 10 to 12 inches per cloth. If the depth of the bunt be subtracted from the depth of the leech, the remainder, divided by the number of gored cloths, gives the depth of each gore on the stay. The bunt or forepart is lined with half a breadth of cloth; the cluepiece is two yards long, and the peekpiece one yard. In the merchantservice the tack, peek, and nock pieces are generally but threequarters of a yard in length. Holes are made in the stay, threequarters of a yard asunder, and marlingholes two feet each way from the clue. Three inches of slack cloth should be taken in with the rope in every yard in the stay, and one inch in every cloth in the foot, but none in the leech. Thimbles are sometimes stuck at the tack and peek; but, when thimbles are not used, the tack and peek are frequently marled as the clue. RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN THIS SAIL. Add the depth of the bunt to the depth of the leech, and halve the same for a medium depth; add the cloths in the head and foot, and halve the product to make it square; then multiply the number of square cloths by the medium depth, and add the quantity in the lining and pieces. EXAMPLE.
 
MAIN TOPMAST STAYSAIL. This sail is quadrilateral, cut square on the foot, and made of canvas No. 5, or 6. It is extended on the maintopmast preventerstay, between the main and fore topmasts. The leech is 4 or 5 yards deeper than the maintopsail, and there are one or two cloths more in the foot than the leech is yards in depth. In large merchantships, the leech is 4 or 5 yards deeper than the maintopsail, but, in smaller ships, only 1 or 2 yards; and there are from 1 to 3 cloths more in the foot than the leech is yards in depth. The bunt is twofifths of the depth of the leech: but in the merchantservice it is from twofifths to onehalf of the depth. Two cloths are generally gored on the bunt, and the stay is gored 22 inches per cloth. If the depth at the nockseam be subtracted from the depth of the leech, the remainder, divided by the number of gored cloths, gives the depth of each gore on the stay. The bunt is lined with half a breadth of cloth. The cluepiece is two yards long, and the peekpiece one yard. In the merchantservice this sail generally has tack, nock, and peek pieces, each, three quarters of a yard in length. The holes on the stay are 27 inches asunder, and marlingholes are made two feet each way from the clue. Three inches of slackcloth should be taken up in every yard in the stay, and one inch in every cloth in the foot, but none in the leech. Thimbles are sometimes stuck in the tack and peek: when there are none, the tack and peek are the same as the clue, and are fixed or marled on. RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN THIS SAIL. Add the depth of the bunt to the depth of the leech, and halve the product for a medium: add the number of cloths in the foot and upper part together, and halve the product to make it square: then multiply the number of squared cloths by the medium depth, and add the quantity in the lining and pieces. EXAMPLE.
 
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FORE TOPMAST STAYSAIL. This sail is triangular, cut square on the foot, and made of canvas No. 5, 6, or 7. It is extended on the foretopmaststaysailstay, and the foot is spread on the bowsprit. The leech is of the same depth as the foretopsail; and 2 or 3 cloths are allowed in the foot for every yard in the depth of the leech. In the merchantservice, one cloth only is allowed in the foot for every yard in the depth of the leech. The stay is gored 30 inches per cloth. The depth of the gore on each cloth in the stay is found by dividing the depth of the leech by the number of cloths. The cloth at the tack is so cut as to fall to the foot and form its own lining. The cluepiece is two yards long, and the peekpiece one yard. In the merchantservice, the piece at the clue is in general but one yard in length, and the tack and peek pieces half a yard each. The holes on the stay are 27 inches asunder, and the marlingholes extend two feet each way from the clue. Three inches slack should be taken up, in sewing on the rope, in every yard in the stay, and one inch in every cloth in the foot. Thimbles are sometimes stuck at the tack and peek: when there are none, the tack and peek are the same as the clue, and are fixed or marled on. The clue is seized with small line. RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN THIS SAIL. Multiply half the number of cloths in the foot by the depth of the leech, and add the quantity in the pieces. EXAMPLE.
 
MIDDLE STAYSAIL. This sail is quadrilateral, cut square on the foot, and made of canvas No. 6, or 7. It has a square bunt fivetwelfths of the depth of the leech, and it is extended on the middlestaysailstay, between the maintopmaststay and maintopgallantstay. The leech is from 4 to 7 yards deeper than the maintopgallantsail, and there are from 6 to 8 cloths more in the foot than the leech is yards in depth. Sloops and brigs in the navy have only from one to three cloths more in the foot than yards in the depth of the leech. In the merchantservice, the leech is sometimes of the same depth as the maintopgallantsail, but generally, one, two, or three yards more; and the sail has from 5 to 10 cloths more in the foot than yards in the depth of the leech. The stay is gored 13 inches and a half per cloth. If the depth of the bunt be subtracted from the depth of the leech, the remainder, divided by the number of cloths, gives the depth of each gore on the stay. The bunt is lined with half a breadth of cloth, the clue with a piece two yards long, and the peek with a piece one yard in length. Three inches of slackcloth should be taken up in every yard in the stay, when sewing on the rope, and one inch in every cloth in the foot. Thimbles are sometimes stuck at the tack and peek: when there are none, the tack and peek are the same as the clue, and are marled on. RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN THIS SAIL. Add the depth of the bunt to the depth of the leech, and halve the same for a medium depth; then multiply the medium depth by the number of cloths, and add the quantity in the lining and pieces. EXAMPLE.
 
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MIZEN TOPMAST STAYSAIL. This sail is quadrilateral, cut square on the foot, and made of canvas No. 7. It has a bunt threesevenths or onethird of the depth of the leech, and is extended on the mizentopmaststay between the main and mizen topmasts. The leech is one or two yards deeper than the mizentopsail, and there are from 2 to 5 cloths more in the foot than the leech is yards in depth. One cloth is generally gored on the bunt, and the stay is gored twentyfour inches per cloth. If the length of the nockseam be subtracted from the depth of the leech, the remainder, divided by the number of cloths in the stay, gives the depth of each gore. The bunt is lined with half a breadth of cloth; the cluepiece is 2 yards long, and the peekpiece one yard. In the merchantservice the cluepiece is generally one yard long, and the peekpiece half a yard. Three inches slack should be taken up in every yard in the stay, and one inch in every cloth in the foot. Thimbles are generally stuck in the tack and peek; but, when no thimbles, the tack and peek are the same as the clue. RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN THIS SAIL. Add together the depth of the bunt and the depth of the leech, and halve the product for a medium: then add the number of cloths in the stay and foot, and halve the product to make it square: multiply the number of square cloths by the medium depth, and add the quantity in the lining and pieces. EXAMPLE.
 
MAIN TOPGALLANT STAYSAIL. This sail is quadrilateral, cut square on the foot, and made of canvas No. 7. It has a bunt from onethird to threesevenths of the depth of the leech, and is extended on the maintopgallantstaysailstay between the main and fore topgallantmasts. The leech is nearly of the same depth as the leech of the middlestaysail, and there are from 3 to 6 cloths more in the foot than the leech is yards in depth. In the merchantservice, there are from 2 to 8 cloths more in the foot than the leech is yards in depth. The stay is gored 24 inches per cloth. If the depth of the bunt be subtracted from the depth of the leech, the remainder, divided by the number of cloths, gives the depth of the gore on each cloth. The bunt is lined with half a breadth of cloth, the cluepiece is two yards long, and the peekpiece one yard. In the merchantservice, the cluepiece is only one yard; and the tack, nock, and peek pieces are each half a yard in length. The holes on the stay are 27 inches asunder. In sewing on the boltrope, three inches slack should be taken up in every yard in the stay, and one inch in every cloth in the foot. Thimbles are generally stuck at the tack, nock, and peek. When there are no thimbles, the tack and peek are the same as the clue. RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN THIS SAIL. Add the depth of the bunt and depth of the leech together, and halve the product for a medium depth, which multiply by the number of cloths in the sail, and add the quantity in the lining and pieces. EXAMPLE.
 
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LOWER MAIN STUDDINGSAILS. These sails are quadrilateral, cut square on the head, foot, and leeches, and made of canvas No. 6 or 7. They spread beyond the skirts or leeches of the maincourse, the heads being bent to the mainstuddingsailyards, and the feet extended on the boom. The sails are 2 or 3 yards deeper than the maincourse. In large ships, two cloths more, and, in small ships, one cloth less, are allowed, for the breadth, than the number of yards in the depth. But, in the merchantservice, they are only one yard deeper, or of the same depth as the maincourse; and from 2 to 7 cloths are allowed in the foot more than the number of yards in the depth. A reefband, 6 inches wide, is put on at oneeighth of the depth from the head, and pieces of onequarter or half a yard in length are sometimes put on at the clues and earings. One inch of slackcloth should be taken up, in sewing on the boltrope, in every cloth in the foot. The rope should be sewed home to the clue, and a reefcringle made at each end of the reefband. LOWER FORE STUDDINGSAILS. These sails are quadrilateral, square on the head, foot, and leeches, and made of canvas No. 6 or 7. They are spread beyond the skirts, or leeches of the forecourse, the heads being bent to the forestuddingsailyards, and the feet extended on the boom. The depth is the same as the maincourse, or from one to two yards more, and the breadth is one cloth less than the mainstuddingsail. One quarter or half a yard of cloth is sometimes put on at the clues and earings. One inch of slackcloth should be taken up in every cloth in the foot, when sewing on the boltrope, which is to be sewed home to the clues. RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN THE LOWER MAIN AND FORE STUDDINGSAILS. Multiply the depth of the sail by the number of cloths, and add the quantity in the pieces.
 
MAIN TOPMAST STUDDING SAILS. These sails are quadrilateral, and made of canvas No. 6 or 7. They are spread beyond the skirts or leeches of the maintopsail, the heads being bent to their respective yards, and the feet extended on the boom. The depth is one yard more than the maintopsail, and two cloths less are allowed for the breadth of the foot than the number of yards in the depth of the leech. Four cloths are gored on the outer leech, in the navy, and from 4 to 7 cloths in the merchantservice; and a regular gore is made on the head and foot of 4 inches per cloth, decreasing to the outer earing at the head, and increasing to the tack or outer clue at the foot. A reefband, 6 inches broad, is put on at oneeighth of the depth of the sail from the head. One inch and a half slackcloth should be taken up in every yard in the gored leech, when sewing on the boltrope, and one inch in every cloth in the foot, but none in the square leech. The rope is to be sewed home to the clue. One reefcringle is made on the leeches at each end of the reefband, and a downhaulcringle is made on the outer leech, about half the depth of the leech from the head. FORE TOPMAST STUDDINGSAILS. These sails are quadrilateral, and made of canvas No. 6 or 7. They are spread beyond the leeches of the foretopsail, the heads being bent to their respective yards, and the feet extended on the boom. The depth is one yard more than the maintopsail, and one cloth less is allowed for the breadth of the foot than in the maintopmaststuddingsail. Four cloths are gored on the outer leech, in the navy, and from 4 to 7 cloths, in the merchant service; and a regular gore is made on the head and foot of 4 inches per cloth, decreasing to the outer earing at the head, and increasing to the tack or outerclue at the foot. One inch and a half slackcloth should be taken up in every yard in the gored leech, when sewing on the rope, and one inch in every cloth in the foot, but none in the square leech. The rope is to be sewed home to the clue, and a downhaulcringle is made on the outer leech at about half the depth of the sail from the head. RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN THE MAIN AND FORE TOPMAST STUDDINGSAILS. Add the number of cloths in the head and foot together, and halve the product to make it square, then multiply the number of square cloths by the depth, and add the quantity in the bands, &c.
 
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MAIN TOPGALLANT STUDDINGSAILS These sails are quadrilateral, and made of canvas No. 7 or 8. They spread beyond the skirts or leeches of the maintopgallantsail, the heads being bent on their respective yards, and the feet extended on the boom. The depth is half a yard more than the maintopgallantsail. In large ships, there are 5 cloths more allowed for the breadth of the foot than the number of yards in the depth, but in small ships there are only 3 more, or the same as the number of cloths in the breadth of the foot as yards in the depth of the leech. The outer leech is gored from two to four cloths, and an even gore is made on the head and foot from 3 to 5 inches per cloth, decreasing to the outer earing at the head, and increasing to the tack at the foot. One inch and a half of slackcloth should be taken up in every yard, when sewing the boltrope on the gored leech, and one inch in every cloth in the foot, but none in the square leech. The rope is sewed to the clue, and the clue is seized with small line. FORE TOPGALLANT STUDDINGSAILS These sails are quadrilateral, and made of canvas No. 7 or 8. They are spread beyond the leeches of the foretopgallantsail, the heads being bent on their respective yards, and the feet extended on the boom. The depth is half a yard more than the maintopgallantsail. In large ships, there are 5 cloths more allowed for the breadth of the foot than the number of yards in the depth, but in small ships there are only 3 more, or the number of cloths in the foot as yards in the depth of leech. The outer leech is gored from two to four cloths, and an even gore is made on the head and the foot from 3 to 5 inches per cloth, decreasing to the outer earing at the head, and increasing to the tack at the foot. One inch and a half of slackcloth should be taken up in every yard in the gored leech, when sewing on the rope, and one inch in every yard in the foot, but none in the square leech. RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN MAIN AND FORE TOPGALLANT STUDDINGSAILS Add together the number of cloths in the head and foot, and halve the product to make it square; then multiply the number of square cloths by the depth of the sail.
 
JIB. This sail is triangular, and made of canvas No. 6 or 7. It is the foremost sail of a ship, and differs in shape but little from a staysail. The foot is extended from the outer end of the bowsprit by the jibboom, and it slides on the jibstay, which is attached to the foretopmast head. The leech is about twice the depth of the leech of the forestaysail, and one cloth more is allowed for the breadth of the foot, than the leech is yards in depth. The stay is cut with a curve, or roach. The length of the regular gore per cloth may be found by dividing the depth of the stay by the number of cloths. The gores should be allowed full, and the curve cut fair after the sail is sewed together. The foot has an even gore of 3 inches per cloth, decreasing from the tack to the clue, which is governed by the stive of the bowsprit. For brigs, this sail has a circular foot, and sometimes for ships, in the merchantservice. The seams are generally one inch broader at the foot than at the head, when cut with a circular or roach foot. The cluepiece is two yards, and the peekpiece is one yard long, and the cloth at the tack is so cut as to fall to the foot and form its own lining. Marlingholes are made two feet each way from the clue, and one hole is made in every yard in the stay. In sewing on the boltrope, four or five inches of slackcloth should be taken up in every yard in the stay, and one inch in every cloth in the foot. Iron thimbles are sometimes seized in at the tack and peek; but, when thimbles are not used, the tack and peek are the same as the clue, and are frequently marled on. RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN THIS SAIL. Multiply the depth of the leech by half the number of cloths in the sail, and add to the product the quantity in the footgores and pieces. To find the quantity in the footgores. Multiply half the number of cloths in the foot by the regular gore per cloth, and the product, multiplied by the whole number of cloths gives the answer. EXAMPLE.
 
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SPRITSAIL COURSE. This sail is quadrilateral, square on the head, foot, and leeches, and made of canvas No. 2 or 3. It is bent at the head to the spritsailyard, and hangs under the bowsprit at right angles with the ship’s length, extending within 9 inches of the cleats on the yardarms. Two reefbands, onethird of the breadth of a cloth, are put on diagonally; the ends on the leeches being 27 inches from the clues, and those at the head on the first or second seam from the earings. Sometimes a reefband is put on from leech to leech, at onefifth of the depth of the sail from the head. A waterhole, from 4 to 6 inches diameter, is made in the second cloth from each leech, near the foot, or opposite the reefcringles. The marling holes extend two feet each way from the clues. A reefcringle is made on the leeches at the end of each reefband, and two buntlinecringles are made on the footrope, at onethird of the breadth of the foot from each clue. RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN THIS SAIL. Multiply the number of cloths by the depth, and add the quantity in the reefbands.
EXAMPLE.
SPRITSAIL TOPSAIL. This sail is quadrilateral, cut square on the head and foot, and made of canvas No. 6 or 7. The head is bent to the spritsail topsailyard, which hangs under the jibboom at right angles with the ship’s length, and the foot is spread on the spritsailyard. It has as many cloths in the head as the foretopgallantsail; and is of the same depth as the maintopgallantsail, in the navy, but from one to two yards deeper, in the merchantservice. The leeches are gored from 4 to 5 cloths sufficiently for the foot to spread to the cleats on the outer ends of the spritsailyard. Two inches of slackcloth should be taken up in every cloth in the foot, when sewing on the boltrope, and one inch in every yard in the leeches. RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN THIS SAIL. Add together the number of cloths in the head and foot, and halve the sum, to make it square: then multiply the number of square cloths by the depth. EXAMPLE.
 
DRIVER BOOMSAIL. This sail is quadrilateral, made of canvas No. 5 or 6, and is occasionally hoisted to the mizenyard or gaff, in light fair winds. The fore leech is attached to the mizenmast, and the head to the mizenyard or gaff; the foot is extended by the boom which hangs fore and aft in the plane of the ship’s keel. The foreleech is nearly of the same depth as the foreleech of the mizen course, and the afterleech is from 2 to 4 yards deeper than the afterleech of the mizencourse. The head, foot, and mastleech, are cut with a roach or curve; and, as no strict rule can be laid down, the gores must be judiciously encreased or diminished according to the sweep required. The gore on the head is at the rate of from 9 to 12 inches per cloth; and on the foot from 6 to 9 inches; or about 27 inches for every cloth in the mastleech. From 4 to 6 cloths next the clue are cut square; or, the fifth cloth next the clue being square, the other four cloths are shortgored one inch per cloth to the clue. From 4 to 6 cloths are gored on the mastleech; and, if the depth of the leech be divided by the number of cloths in it, the quotient will be the regular gore per cloth, which must be augmented on the middle cloths so as to form the sweep required. The cluelining is two or three yards in length, and the tack, nock, and peek pieces are each one yard in length. The seams are 6 inches broad, 6 feet up the sail from the foot; and 2 inches broad 4 feet down from the head: the remainder is one inch broad. Two inches of slackcloth should be taken up with the rope in every yard in the mastleech, and one inch in every cloth in the foot. Iron thimbles are generally spliced in the rope at the tack, nock, peek, and clue, which are otherwise fitted as the mizencourse. Cringles for the lacing are made on the mastleech 30 inches asunder. RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN THIS SAIL. Add together the number of cloths in the head and foot. and halve the product to make it square add together the depth of the fore and after leeches, and halve the sum for a medium depth: then multiply the number of square cloths by the medium depth, and add the quantity in the footgores and pieces. To find the quantity in the foot gores. Add together the depth of the gore on each cloth to the tack, and halve it for a medium; then multiply by the number of cloths gored to the tack. EXAMPLE.
 
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A BRIG’S MAINSAIL. This sail is quadrilateral, and made of canvas No. 5 or 6. The foreleech is in depth nearly the length of the mainmast from the under part of the hounds to the boom, and is fastened, in different places, to hoops which encircle the mast. The depth of the afterleech is about onethird more than the depth of the foreleech. The head is bent to the gaff, and spreads within 9 inches of the cleats on the outer end; and the foot is extended by the boom, which hangs abaft the mainmast, and spreads within 18 inches of the sheavehole at the outer end. The seams are three inches broad 8 feet, up the sail from the foot, and two inches broad 8 feet down from the head: the remainder is one inch broad. The head and mastleech are sometimes gored with a small circular sweep, which must be regulated by practice. The regular gore on the head is from 4 to 5 inches per cloth, and the sweep may be cut after the sail is sewed together. The foot is gored with a circular sweep, at the rate of 5 or 7 inches per cloth, leaving 4 or 5 square cloths at the clue, or at the rate of 14 to 18 inches per cloth for every cloth in the mastleech, which has 5 or 6 gored cloths in it. This sail has three reefbands, 6 inches broad, parallel to the foot. The upper one is nearly half way up the foreleech, and the others are at equal distances between that and the foot; it also sometimes has a balancereef from the nock to the upper reefcringle on the afterleech. The afterleech is lined with one breadth of cloth from the clue to one yard above the upper reef band; half a yard of the lining is cut down at the upper end, and the inner part is doubled under, or cut off. The peekpiece is one yard in length, and the foreleech is lined with half a breadth of cloth; or sometimes pieces, one yard in length, are put on at the tack and nock, and small triangular pieces at each hole. Four inches of slackcloth should be taken up with the rope in every yard in the mastleech. Large iron thimbles are stuck in the cringles at the clue, peek, nock, and tack; also in the cringles made on the leeches at the ends of the reefbands: a luffcringle is made on the mastleech, equidistant from the lower reefband and the foot, which also has a thimble. RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN THIS SAIL. Add together the number of cloths in the head and foot, and halve the product to make it square: add together the depth of the fore and after leeches, and halve their sum for a medium depth: then multiply the number of square cloths by the medium depth, and add the quantity in the gores, linings, and pieces. To find the quantity in the foot gores. Add together the gores on each cloth, and multiply half the sum by the number of cloths gored. EXAMPLE.
 
CUTTER’S MAINSAIL. This sail is quadrilateral, and made of canvas No. 1 or 2. The foreleech is nearly of the depth of the mast from the under part of the hounds to the boom, and is fastened in different places to hoops which encircle the mast: the afterleech is about onethird deeper than the foreleech. The head is bent to a gaff and spreads within 18 inches of the cleats at the outer end; and the foot spreads within 2 or 3 feet of the sheavehole at the outer end of the boom, which hangs fore and aft abaft the mast. Six or eight cloths are gored on the foreleech, and its length divided by that number of cloths gives the length of the gore on each cloth; the head is gored at the rate of 5 or 7 inches per cloth; and sometimes the foreleech and head are cut with a small circular sweep, which must be cut by judgement, or after the sail is sewed together. In the merchantservice, the head is generally wider, and peeks less, than in the royalnavy. The foot is gored with a circular sweep at the rate of 5 to 7 inches per cloth from the tack to the middle of the foot; then, two or three cloths being less square, the remaining cloths to the clue are gored at the rate of a full inch per cloth. Four reefbands, 8 inches broad, are put on parallel to the foot; the upper one is about threesevenths of the depth up the foreleech from the foot, and the others at equal distances between that and the foot. The seams are 5 inches broad 12 feet up the sail from the foot, and 3 inches broad 8 feet down from the head: the remainder is one inch and a half broad. In sewing on the rope four or five inches of slackcloth should be taken up in every yard in the depth of the foreleech. Large iron thimbles are stuck in the cringles at the clue, peek, nock, and tack, and also in the reefcringles at the ends of the reefbands. A luffcringle is made on the foreleech between the lower reefband and the tack, which also has a thimble. RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN THIS SAIL. Add together the depth of the fore and after leeches, and halve the same for a medium depth: add the number of cloths in the head and foot together, and halve the sum to make it square: then multiply the number of square cloths by the medium depth, and add the quantity in the foot gores, linings, and pieces. To find the quantity of canvas in the foot gores. Add together the gores from the tack to the first square cloth in the foot, and multiply halve the sum by the number of cloths in the foot: then add together the gores from the clue to the first square cloth, and multiply half the sum by the number of cloths gored to the clue; which, subtracted from the product of the gores to the tack, gives the answer. EXAMPLE.
 
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CUTTER’S TRYSAIL. This sail is occasionally used, instead of the mainsail, in stormy weather, and is quadrilateral, generally cut square on the head, and made of canvas No. 1 or 2. It is extended as the mainsail, the foreleech being attached to hoops which encircle the mast. The head is bent to a gaff, and the foot is extended by the boom. In the head of the trysail there are twofifths of the number of cloths that are in the head of the mainsail: the foreleech is about threefourths of the depth of the foreleech of the mainsail, and the afterleech is onesixth deeper than the foreleech. Eight or ten cloths are gored on the foreleech; and its depth, divided by the number of cloths, gives the length of each gore: if cut with a sweep, the gores can only be regulated by practice, or the sweep cut after the sail is sewed up. The foot is gored with a circular sweep at the rate of 5 or 7 inches per cloth from the tack, leaving two or three square cloths at the clue. The seams should be 5 inches broad 12 feet up from the foot; and 3 inches broad 8 feet down from the head. The remainder is one inch and a half broad. This sail has three reefbands, 6 inches wide, parallel with the foot; the upper one is threeeighths of the depth of the foreleech from the foot, and the others are at equal distances between the foot and the upper one. It also has three strengthening bands of half a breadth of cloth, at equal distances between the upper reefband and the head, which are seamed on, and stuck along the middle. The afterleech is lined with one breadth of cloth, from the clue to one yard and a half above the upper reefband, where it is cut half way across; and, one half of it being cut off, it is so continued about one yard higher. Four or five inches of slackcloth should be taken up with the rope in every yard in the foreleech. Iron thimbles are stuck in cringles made at the clue, peek, nock, and tack; also in reefcringles on the leeches at the ends of the reefbands, and in a luffcringle made on the foreleech between the lower reefcringle and the foot. RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN THIS SAIL. Add together the number of cloths in the head and foot, and halve the sum to make it square; then add the depth of the fore and after leeches together, and halve the sum for a medium depth. Multiply the medium depth by the number of cloths, and add the quantity in the bands, linings, and pieces. To find the quantity in the footgores. Add together the gores in each cloth, and multiply half the sum by the number of gored cloths. EXAMPLE.
 
SLOOP’S MAINSAIL. This sail is quadrilateral, and made of canvas No. 1 or 2. The foreleech is nearly of the depth of the mast from the under part of the hounds to the boom, and is attached to hoops which encircle the mast. The afterleech is about onethird deeper than the foreleech. The head is bent to the gaff, and spreads within 12 inches of the outer end; and the foot is extended by the boom, which hangs fore and aft abaft the mast, and spreads within one or two feet of the sheavehole at the outer end. The head is gored at the rate of 3 to 6 inches per cloth, and is sometimes cut circular; and the foot is gored with a circular sweep, at the rate of 5 inches, to 6 inches and a half per cloth, 4 or 5 cloths next the clue being left square. The gore on the foot is governed by the number of cloths in the mastleech; from 12 to 14 inches gore being allowed on each cloth in the foot for every cloth in the mastleech. From 6 to 8 cloths are gored on the foreleech; and its depth, divided by that number of cloths, gives the length of each gore. It is sometimes cut circular. This sail generally has three or four reefbands, 4 or 6 inches broad, parallel to the foot; the upper one is about half way up the foreleech, and the others are at equal distances between the upper one and the foot. Sometimes the reefs are fitted without bands. It also frequently has a balancereef from the nock to the upper reefcringle. The afterleech is lined with one breadth of cloth from the clue to two feet above the upper reefband: this lining is cut down the middle at the upper end; and, half of it being cut away, the remaining part is so continued half a yard higher. The mastleech is lined with half a breadth of cloth from the tack to the nock; and the peekpiece is one yard and a half in length. Sometimes pieces one yard and a quarter long are put on at the nock and tack, and small triangular pieces at each hole, instead of a mastlining. The seams should be 4 inches broad 9 feet up the seam from the foot; and two inches broad 6 feet down the seam from the head. The remainder should be one full inch broad. The boltrope on the mastleech should be 2 inches and a half or 3 inches in circumference; and on the head, foot, and afterleech, one inch and a half. The cluerope should be 3 inches and a half or 4 inches. Sometimes the footrope is not put on till the sail is half worn. When sewing on the rope, 4 inches of slackcloth should be taken up in every yard in the mastleech. Iron thimbles are stuck in cringles at the tack, nock, peek, and clue. Thimbles are also stuck in cringles at the ends of the reefbands, and in a luffcringle on the mastleech. RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN THIS SAIL. Add together the number of cloths in the head and foot, and halve the product to make it square: add the depth of the fore and after leeches together, and halve the sum for a medium depth: then multiply the number of square cloths by the medium depth, and add the quantity in the foot gores, linings, bands, and pieces. To find the quantity in the foot gores. Add together the gores on each cloth, and multiply half the product by the number of gored cloths. EXAMPLE.
 
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SLOOP’S TRYSAIL, OR STORM MAINSAIL. This sail is quadrilateral, generally cut square on the head, and made of canvas No. 1 or 2. It is occasionally used for the mainsail in stormy weather. The foreleech is from threefourths of the depth to the same depth as the mainsail, and the afterleech is oneeighth deeper than the foreleech. The head has twofifths of the number of cloths that are in the head of the mainsail, and the foot is threetimes the breadth of the head. This sail is extended as the mainsail; the foreleech being attached to hoops which encircle the mast: the head is bent to a gaff, and the foot is extended by the boom. Eight or ten cloths are gored on the foreleech; and its depth, divided by the number of cloths, gives the length of each gore: is cut with a sweep, the gores can only be regulated by judgement. The foot is gored with a circular sweep, at the rate of 6 or 8 inches per cloth. This sail has three or four reefbands, from 4 to 6 inches wide, parallel with the foot; the upper one is neatly halfway up the foreleech, and the others are at equal distances between that and the foot. It also has two or three strengthening bands, half a cloth broad, at equal distances asunder, above the upper reefband, which are stuck, or stitched, along the middle. The afterleech is lined with one breadth of cloth, from the clue to one yard and a quarter above the upper reefband, which is there cut down the middle; and one part being cut away, the other is so continued about one yard higher. The foreleech is lined with half a breadth of cloth and, the peek with a piece one yard and a half in length. Sometimes a piece, one yard in length, is put on at the nock. The seams should be 5 inches broad, 12 feet up the seam from the foot; and 3 inches broad, 8 feet down the seam from the head. The remainder is one inch and a half broad. The boltrope for the mastleech should be 2 inches and a half or 3 inches in circumference; for the head, foot, and afterleech, one inch and a half. The ropesropes should be three inches and a half or four inches. When sewing on the rope 4 or 5 inches of slackcloth should be taken up in every yard in the foreleech. Iron thimbles are stuck in the clue, peek, nock, and tack; also in the cringles at the ends of the reefbands; and in a luffcringle, made on the foreleech, between the lower reefcringle and the tack. RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN THIS SAIL. Add together the number of cloths in the head and foot, and halve the product, to make it square: add together the depth of the fore and after leeches, and halve the same for a medium depth; then multiply the number of square cloths by the medium depth, and add the quantity in the footgores, bands, lining, and pieces. To find the quantity in the foot gores. Add the gores on each cloth together, and multiply half the sum, by the number of gored cloths. EXAMPLE.
 
SLOOP’S SQUARESAIL, OR CROSSJACK. This sail is quadrilateral, square on the head and leeches, and made of canvas No. 6 or 7. The head is bent to the crossjackyard, and it hangs at right angles with the ship’s length, and parallel to the deck, extending within 6 inches of the cleats on the yardarms. The depth of this sail is fourfifths of the depth of the foreleech of the mainsail. The foot is gored one inch per cloth, encreasing to each clue; two or three square cloths being left in the middle. This sail has two reefbands, four inches broad; the lower one is at onesixth of the depth of the sail from, and parallel, to the foot; and the upper one is at the same distance from the head. One yard of cloth is put on at each clue, half a yard at each earing, and half a yard against every cringle on the leeches. These linings are all put on the aftside. A reefcringle is made at each end of the upper reefband; and three bowlinecringles are made on each leech; the upper bowlinecringle is on the middle of the leech, and the others are equally distant from that and the clue. Sometimes the clues are marled on; and, for this purpose, ten marlingholes are made each way from the clues. The boltrope, on the foot and leeches, should be one inch and a half or two inches in circumference; and, on the head, one inch or one inch and a half. The cluerope, when any, should be two inches and a half. When sewing on the boltrope, one inch of slackcloth should be taken up in every cloth in the head and foot. RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN THIS SAIL. Multiply the number of cloths by the depth, and add the quantity in the footgores, bands, and pieces. To find the quantity in the footgores. Add together the gores on each cloth on one side of the sail, and multiply the sum by half the number of gored cloths. EXAMPLE.
 
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SLOOP’S TOPSAIL. This sail is quadrilateral, square on the head, and made of canvas No. 6 or 7. It is bent at the head to the topsail yard, extending within 18 inches of the cleats, and hangs to the mast at right angles with the ship’s length, and parallel to the crossjackyard. The depth in the middle is onethird of the depth of the crossjack, or squaresail. From one to two cloths are gored on the leeches, sufficiently for the foot to spread to the cleats on the crossjackyard; and the foot is hollowed from onethird to half of the depth of the sail in the middle, (on account of the jibstay,) or at the rate of 10 or 12 inches per cloth from the middle to the clue, the middle cloth being left square. This sail has one reefband, 4 inches broad, at about onethird of the depth of the middlecloth from the head. Pieces, half a yard in length, are put on at each earing; and six small pieces, cut out of half a yard of cloth, are put on the leeches, one against each bowlinecringle. The pieces are all put on the aftside. About threequarters of an inch of slackcloth should be taken up in every yard in the leeches, half an inch in every cloth in the head, and one inch in every cloth in the foot. The boltrope on the foot and leeches, should be one inch and a half, or two inches, in circumference; and, on the head, one inch, or one inch and a half. The cluerope should be 2 inches and a half. Sometimes one reef and three bowlinecringles are made on each leech. The reefcringles are made at the ends of the reefband; the upper bowlinecringle in the middle of the leech; and the others equally distant from that and the clue. RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN THIS SAIL. Add together the number of cloths in the head and foot, and halve the sum, to reduce it square; then multiply the number of square cloths by the depth in the middle, and add the quantity in the footgores, bands, and pieces. To find the quantity in the foot gores. Add the gores on one side of the sail together, and multiply the sum by half the number of gored cloths. EXAMPLE.
 
SLOOP’S SAVEALL TOPSAIL. This sail is quadrilateral, square on the head and foot, and made of canvas No. 8. The head is extended by haliards, fastened to its earingcringles, in the upper part of the hollow foot of the topsail, and the foot spreads the crossjackyard between the clues of the topsail. It is seldom used but in calm weather. Two or three cloths only are left square for the head, and the rest are gored for the leeches. The cloth at each clue is so cut as to fall to the foot and form the cluepieces; and the clues and earings are the same as those of other small sails. The boltrope, on the head, foot, and leeches, should be one inch in circumference. SLOOP’S GAFF TOPSAIL. This sail is quadrilateral, and made of canvas No. 8. The foreleech is fourfifths of the depth of the foreleech of the mainsail, and is attached to the topgallantmast: the head is bent to a small gaff or yard, by which it is hoisted to the topgallantmasthead, and the foot spreads the gaff of the mainsail. This sail is only used in light breezes. The depth of the gore on each cloth in the mastleech is found, by dividing the depth of the leech by the number of cloths. The head is gored 6 or 8 inches per cloth, and the foot 6 or 8 inches per cloth: short gore to the clue, that the foot may answer the peek of the mainsail. The boltrope on the foreleech should be one inch and a half in circumference; and, on the head, foot, and afterleech, one inch. The cluerope, when any, should be two inches.
 
SLOOP’S TOPGALLANTSAIL. This sail is quadrilateral, cut square on the head and foot, and made of canvas No. 8. It is bent on the head to the topgallantyard, which hangs above the topsailyard at right angles with the vessel’s length. The head spreads the topgallantyard, and extends within six inches of the cleats; and the foot spreads to the cleats on the topsailyard. This sail is from 3 to 5 yards deep; or the depth of the leeches of the topsail. One or more cloths are gored on the leeches; and sometimes pieces, half a yard in length, are put on the aftside of the sail at the clues and earings. The boltrope on the foot and leeches should be one inch in circumference; and on the head threequarters of an inch, or one inch. One inch of slackcloth should be taken up with the rope in every cloth in the foot, and threequarters of an inch in every yard in the leeches. SLOOP’S WATERSAIL. This sail is quadrilateral, cut square on the head, and made of canvas No. 7. It is occasionally spread under the boom of the mainsail in fair winds. The leeches are either cut square, or have one gored cloth. The depth of this sail is from onehalf to threefourths of the length of the boom, and it is 4 or 5 cloths wide. The boltrope, on the head, foot, and leeches, should be one inch and a half in circumference. *** When sloops have lowerstuddingsails, they are similar to the watersail: the leeches are square, and they are one yard deeper than the leech of the crossjack, or square sail. Some ships have a watersail, similar to a sloop’s watersail.
 
SLOOP’S FORESAIL. This sail is triangular, made of canvas N. 1 or 2; and bends with hanks to the stay next before the mast. The depth of the leech is nearly the same as the depth of the foremostleech of the mainsail: and there are as many cloths in the foot as will bring it clear of the mast. The depth of the hoist, or forepart, divided by the number of gored cloths, gives the length of each gore. The foot has a short gore of one inch per cloth, increasing to the clue; leaving 1 or 2 square cloths at the tack. The leechcloth is left threequarters of a yard longer than the depth of the leech, for the headlining, and tabling; and the cloth at the tack is so cut as to fall to the foot and form its own lining. The seams should be 3 or 4 inches wide at the foot, and decreasing to one inch at the hoist. Two reefbands, 4 inches broad, are generally put on at oneeighth of the depth of the sail asunder; the lower one being at that distance from the foot. Sometimes a bonnet is used instead of the lowerreef. The leech is lined with a breadth of cloth from the clue to half a yard above the upper reefband, where it is cut halfway across; and, onehalf of it being cut away, the other part is so continued about one yard higher. Sometimes small triangular pieces are sewed on at each hole in the hoist. The boltrope on the stay should be 2 inches and a half or 3 inches in circumference, and on the foot and leech one inch and a half or two inches. The cluerope should be 3 inches. Three or four inches of slackcloth should be taken up with the rope in every yard in the hoist. The hoistrope is put through the holes in the headstick; then served with spunyarn, and spliced into the leechrope. The middle of the headstick, is then seized to the head of the sail; and a thimble is seized in the bight of the rope. Thimbles are generally stuck in the cringles at the tack and clue. RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN THIS SAIL. Multiply half the number of cloths in the sails by the depth of the leech, and add the quantity in the footgores, bands, and pieces. To find the quantity in the footgores. Multiply the number of cloths by the depth of the gores when added together; and fiveeighths of the product is the answer. EXAMPLE.
 
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SLOOP’S JIB. This sail is triangular, made of canvas No. 2 to 6, and is sometimes bent to hanks on the stay before the foresail. The depth of the leech is one yard for every cloth in the foot, and the foot is made wide enough to spread the bowsprit. The depth of the hoist, or forepart, divided by the number of cloths gored, gives the length of each gore. The foot is gored with a sweep, at the rate of 5 to 6 inches per cloth, encreasing to the clue; leaving one square cloth at the tack. The leechcloth is left three quarters of a yard longer than the depth of the leech, for the headlining and tabling; the cloth at the tack is cut so as to fall to the foot and form its own lining; and the cluepiece is two yards in length. The seams on the foot should be 3 or 4. inches broad, and should decrease to one full inch on the hoist. If hoisted with a stay, the rope on the hoist should be 2 inches and a half or 3 inches in circumference; but if not hoisted with a stay, the rope on the hoist should be 5 inches. The rope on the foot and leeches should be 2 inches and a half, and the cluerope 3 inches. Four or five inches of slackcloth should be taken up in every yard in the hoist, when roping, and the rope on the hoist put through the holes in the headstick; then served with spunyarn, and spliced into the leechrope. The headstick is seized round the middle to the head of the sail, and a thimble seized in the bight of the rope. Thimbles are generally stuck in the cringles at the tack and clue. This sail sometimes has a bonnet. RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN THIS SAIL. Multiply half the number of cloths in the sail by the depth of the leech, and add the quantity in the footgores and pieces. To find the quantity in the foot gores. Multiply the number of cloths by the depth of the gores when added together; and fiveeights of the product is the answer. EXAMPLE.
Note. The sloop’s second jib is seveneighths of the size of the first jib; and the third jib is threefourths of the size of the first jib: but they are both made like the first jib, as above.  
SLOOP’S STORM JIB. This sail is triangular, and made of canvas No. 1 or 2. It is twothirds of the size of the first jib, and is used in stormy weather, in lieu of a larger one. The depth of the hoist, divided by the number of gored cloths in it, gives the length of each gore. The foot is gored at the rate of 5 or 6 inches per cloth, encreasing to the clue. The seams should be 3 or 4 inches broad at the foot, and should decrease to one inch on the hoist. The boltrope on the hoist, should be 5 inches in circumference, and on the foot and leech 2 inches and a half. The cluerope should be 3 inches. Two strengthening bands of half a breadth of cloth are put on, parallel to the foot, at onethird of the depth of the sail asunder. The clue is lined with a breadth of cloth one yard and a half in length; a piece, one yard long, is put on at the peek; and the cloth at the tack is so cut as to fall to the foot and form its own lining. Thimbles are sometimes seized in the peek, tack, and clue. RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN THIS SAIL. Multiply half the number of cloths in the sail by the depth of the leech, and add the quantity is the bands, and pieces. To find the quantity in the footgores. Multiply the number of cloths by the depth of the gores when added together; and fiveeighths of the product is the answer. EXAMPLE.
SLOOP’S FLYING JIB. This sail is triangular, made of canvas No. 6, and is two thirds of the size of the first jib. It is the foremost sail, and hoists without a stay. The depth of the hoist, or forepart, divided by the number of cloths, gives the length of each gore. The foot is gored with a sweep, at the rate of 8 or 9 inches per cloth, encreasing to the clue. The piece at the clue is one yard and a half in length; that at the peek is one yard; and the cloth at the tack is so cut as to fall to the foot and form its own lining. The seams should be two inches and a half broad at the foot, and should decrease to one inch at the hoist. The rope on the hoist should be 3 inches and a half in circumference; on the foot, two inches; and on the leech one inch. Three inches of slackcloth should be taken up with the rope in every yard in the hoist. Thimbles are sometimes spliced in the tack, peek, and clue. RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN THIS SAIL. Multiply half the number cloths in the sail by the depth of the leech, and add the quantity in the pieces. To find the quantity in the foot gores. Multiply the number of cloths by the depth of the gores when added together; and fiveeighths of the product is the answer. EXAMPLE.
 
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SLOOP’S RINGTAIL SAIL. This sail is quadrilateral, and made of canvas No. 7, or 8. It is occasionally hoisted abaft the afterleech of the main sail, to which the foreleech is made to answer. The head is bent to a small yard at the outer end of the gaff; and the foot is spread on the boom, which is prolonged by a piece lashed to the outer end. The depth of the foreleech, being divided by the number of cloths in it, gives the length of the gore on each cloth. The head has a regular gore to answer the peek of the mainsail, and the foot is gored with a gore of one inch per cloth, encreasing to the tack. The boltrope on the head, foot, and afterleech, should be one inch in circumference; and on the foreleech, one inch and a half. *** A sail of this kind, but more square, is sometimes extended in light winds, on a small mast, erected for that purpose on the upper part of the stern of some vessels; the foot being spread out by a boom that projects horizontally from the stern. RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN THIS SAIL. Add together the number of cloths in the head and foot, and halve the sum to make it square: add the depth of the leeches together, and halve the sum for a medium depth, which multiplied by the number of square cloths gives the answer. EXAMPLE.
 
SMACK’S MAINSAIL. This sail is quadrilateral, and made of canvas No. 1 or 2. The foreleech is nearly of the depth of the mast from the under part of the hounds to the boom, and is attached to hoops which encircle the mast. The afterleech is about onefifth deeper than the foreleech. The head is bent to the gaff, and spreads within 12 inches of the cleats at the outerend; and the foot is spread upon the boom, extending within 18 inches of the sheavehole at the outerend of it. The depth of the foreleech, divided by the number of cloths to the mast, gives the length of the regular gore per cloth; but, if cut with a sweep, the gores must be regulated by judgement. The head is gored at the rate of 4 or 5 inches per cloth; and the foot with a circular sweep at the rate of 12 or 14 inches per cloth, for every cloth in the mastleech, it having a short gore to the clue on 5 or 6 cloths, at the rate of 3 or 4 inches per cloth. The foreleech is lined with a breadth of cloth from the tack to the nock; and the afterleech is lined with a breadth of cloth from the clue to 2 yards above the upper reefband, where it is cut half way across; and, one part being cut away, the other is so continued about one yard higher. The peek is lined with a piece one yard and a half in length. The seams should be 4 inches broad 9 feet up from the foot, and 2 inches broad 6 feet down the seam from the head, the remainder of the seam should be one inch broad. Four reefbands, from 6 to 8 inches broad, are put on parallel with the foot; the upper one is at threesevenths of the depth of the foreleech from the foot, and the others are at equal distances from the upperone. Sometimes a balancereef is put on from the nock to the upper reefcringle on the afterleech. The boltrope on the mastleech should be 3 inches in circumference, and on the head, foot, and afterleech, one inch and a half. The cluerope should be 4 inches. And 4 inches of slackcloth should be taken up with the rope in every yard in the mastleech. Iron thimbles, are stuck in the cringles at the tack, nock, peek, and clue; in cringles made on each leech, at the ends of the reefbands; and in a luffcringle made on the foreleech between the lower reefcringle and the tack. RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN THIS SAIL. Add together the number of cloths in the head and foot, and halve the sum to make it square: add the depth of the fore and after leeches together, and halve the product for a medium depth: then multiply the number of square cloths, by the medium depth, and add the quantity in the bands and pieces. To find the quantity of canvas in the footgores. Add together the gores from the tack to the first square cloth in the foot, and multiply half the sum by the number of cloths in the foot: then add together the gores from the clue to the first square cloth, and multiply half the sum by the number of cloths gored to the clue; which, subtracted from the product of the gores to the tack, gives the answer, EXAMPLE.
 
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SMACK’S FORESAIL. This sail is triangular, made of canvas No. 1 or 2, and bends with hanks to the stay next before the mast. The leech is of the same depth as the foreleech of the mainsail, and there are as many cloths in the foot as will keep clear of the mast. The depth of the hoist, divided by the number of cloths, gives the length of the gore on each cloth. The foot is gored with a short gore, encreasing to the clue of one inch per cloth, leaving two or three square cloths at the tack. The leechcloth is cut square at the upper end, and is so doubled as to form its own lining. The cloth at the tack is cut in the same manner. The leech is lined with a breadth of cloth from the clue to one yard and a half abovethe upper reefband, where it is cut half across; and one part being cut away, the other part is so continued about one yard higher. A broad tabling is generally made on the hoist, but sometimes small triangular pieces are put on at each hole instead of it. The seams should be 3 or 4 inches wide at the foot, and to decrease to one full inch at the hoists. Two reefbands, 4 inches broad, are sometimes put on parallel to the foot, at about oneninth of the depth of the leech, asunder; but a bonnet is more frequently used to this sail. The boltrope on the stay should be 2 inches and a half, or 3 inches in circumference, and on the foot and leech, one inch and a half or 2 inches. The cluerope should be 2 inches and a half or 3 inches. Three or four inches of slackcloth should be taken up with the rope in every yard in the hoists. Iron thimbles are generally stuck in the cringles at the tack and clue, and in the bight of the rope at the peek. Sometimes this sail has a headstick. RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN THIS SAIL. Multiply the depth of the leech by half the number of cloths in the sail, and add the quantity in the footgores, bands, and linings. To find the quantity in the foot gores. Add together the gores on each cloth; multiply the sum by the number of cloths in the sail, and fiveeighths of the product is the answer. EXAMPLE.
 
SMACK’S JIB. This sail is triangular, made of canvas No. 1 or 2, and generally hoists by haliards, without a stay, next before the foresail. The foot is made to spread the bowsprit, and the depth of the leech is from threequarters of a yard to one yard for every cloth in the foot. The depth of the hoists, or fore part, divided by the number of cloths, gives the length of each gore. The fourth and fifth cloths from the tack are cut square on the foot, and the cloths each way from them are gored with a sweep, at one inch per cloth, encreasing to the tack and clue. The upper end of the leechcloth is cut square, and is doubled back to form its own lining. The tack and clue are lined with a breadth of cloth two yards in length. When this sail is made to hoist with a stay, it either has small triangular pieces put on at each hole in the hoists, or a broad tabling. The seams should be 3 or 4 inches wide at the foot, and to decrease to one full inch at the hoist. The rope on the stay should be 5 inches in circumference, and that on the foot and leech, 2 inches. Four or five inches of slackcloth should be taken up with the rope in every yard in the hoists. Thimbles are stuck in the cringles at the tack and clue; and one is seized in the bight of the rope at the peek, which is seized with spunyarn. This sail sometimes has a headstick. RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN THIS SAIL. Multiply the depth of the leech by half the number of cloths in the sail: and add the quantity in the footgores, and pieces. To find the quantity in the footgores. Add together the gores on each cloth to the clue; multiply the sum by the number of cloths in the sail, and fiveeighths of that product is the answer. EXAMPLE.
 
THE FOLLOWING SAILS ARE SOMETIMES, THOUGH BUT VERY SELDOM, USED, AND ARE NOT USUALLY MADE IN THE GENERAL PRACTICE. SKYSCRAPERS. These sails are triangular, and made of canvas No. 8. The foot spreads half of the royalyards, and each sail has half the number of cloths in the foot, as are in the head of its respective royalsail. The peek is hoisted by a haliard to the truck on the masthead. To find the quantity of canvas: multiply half the number of cloths by the depth. ROYAL STAYSAILS are quadrilateral, and made of canvas No. 8. They are the same as a topgallantstaysails, only with one or two cloths less, and are hoisted next above them. The rule for finding the quantity of canvas is the same as that for the topgallantstaysails. STORM MIZEN. This sail is triangular, and similar to a foretopmaststaysail. It is made of canvas No. 2 or 3, and bends on the fore part to a horse, abaft and parallel to the mizenmast. The foot is extended towards the taffarel by a sheet. To find the quantity of canvas, multiply half the number of cloths by the depth. SPRITSAILTOPGALLANTSAIL is quadrilateral, cut square on the head, and is similar to the spritsailtopsail. It is made of canvas No. 8, and is bent on the head, to the spritsailtopgallantsailyard, which hangs at right angles under the outer end of the jibboom. The foot spreads the spritsailtopsailyard, and contains the same number of cloths in it as the head of the spritsailtopsail. One or two cloths are gored on each leech. The rule to find the quantity of canvas is the same as that for the spritsailtopsail. WINGSAIL FOR KETCHES. This sail is quadrilateral, and similar to the mizencourse of a ship. It is made of canvas No. 6 or 7, and bends abaft the mainmast to hoops which encircle the mast. The head is extended by a gaff. The rule to find the quantity of canvas is the same as that for the mizencourse of a ship.  
BOAT’S SETTEE SAIL. This sail is quadrilateral, and made of canvas No. 7 or 8. The head is bent to a latteenyard, which hangs obliquely to the mast at onethird of its length, and extends within 6 inches of the cleats. The cloth at the tack is cut goring to the nock, and the bunt is of the depth of the reef; which is onefifth of the depth of the leech. The leech is fivesixths of the length of the head. The length of the head, divided by the number of cloths in it, gives the length of each gore. The foot is cut with a circular sweep, after the sail is sewed together. Two small holes are made in each cloth along the head; and holes are made across the sail, on each seam, at onefifth of the depth of the leech from the foot, for the reef. A small reefcringle is made on the afterleechrope, and cringles are made at the nock and peek. RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN THIS SAIL. Add together the number of cloths in the head and foot, and halve the sum to reduce it square: add the depth of the bunt and depth of the leech together, and halve the sum for a medium depth; which, multiplied by half the number of square cloths, gives the answer. EXAMPLE.
BOAT’S LATTEEN SAIL. This sail is triangular, and made of canvas No. 7 or 8. It is so called from its head being bent to the latteenyard, which hangs obliquely to the mast at onethird of its length, extending within 6 inches of the cleats. The length of the head, divided by the number of cloths, gives the length of the gore on each cloth. The foot is cut square. Two small holes are made in each cloth along the head, through which the lacings are reeved. *** This sail, when the head of it (then called the foreleech) is laced to a mast and topmast, is called a slidingguntersail; the topmast being made to slide down the mast by means of hoops. It is likewise called a shoulderofmuttonsail, when laced by the foreleech to a single mast. RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN THIS SAIL. Multiply half the number of cloths by the length of the head. EXAMPLE.
 
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BOAT’S LUG SAIL. This sail is quadrilateral, and made of canvas No. 7 or 8. The head is bent to a yard, which hangs obliquely to the mast at one third of its length, and extends within 4 inches of the cleats. Two or three cloths are gored on the foreleech, and an even gore of 6 inches per cloth is made on the head. The foot is gored with a sweep; the cloth at the clue being cut with a 3inch short gore, the next cloth is square, and the cloths from thence to the tack are gored at the rate of 6 or 8, inches per cloth. The foreleech is as deep as the length of the head, and the afterleech is longer than the foreleech by nearly half the depth of the foreleech. Two small holes are made in each cloth in the head. This sail has two reefs parallel with the foot, the upper one is half way up the foreleech, and the other is equally distant from that and the foot. Sometimes reefbands 3 or 4 inches broad are put on at the reefs, but when these are not used, a small hole is made in every seam instead of them. Small cringles are made on the leeches at each reef; earingcringles are made at the nock and peek; and 10 or 12 strands in the length of the rope are seized at the tack and clue. RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN THIS SAIL. Add together the number of cloths in the head and foot, and halve the sum to make it square: add the depth of the leeches together, and halve the sum for a medium depth: then multiply the number of square cloths by the medium depth, and add the quantity in the footgores and reefbands. To find the quantity in the footgores. Multiply the number of gored cloths to the tack by the footgore on the cloth next the tack. EXAMPLE.
 
BOAT’S SPRITSAILS. There sails are quadrilateral, and made of canvas No. 7 or 8, the foreleeches are attached to their respective masts by lacings, reeved through holes made in them; and the heads are elevated and extended by sprits, or small yards, that cross the sail diagonally from the mast to the peek; the lower end of the sprit, rests in a wreath or collar of rope called a snotter, which encircles the mast at the foot of the sail. The foreleeches of the main and fore spritsails are the depth of the mast within 12 inches of the gunwale, and have one or two goredcloths. The heads of them have an even gore of 12 or 14 inches per cloth. The foreleech of the mizen spritsail is the depth of the mast, so as to clear the gunwale; and is square. The head has an even gore of 11 inches per cloth. Small holes are made in the foreleeches: those in the main and fore spritsails are one yard, and those in the mizen are threequarters of a yard asunder. Holes are also made in the seams, across the sail, at onefifth of the depth of the afterleech from the foot, for the reef. Ten or 12 turns or twists of the strands in the length of the rope is seized, to form bights, at the tack, nock, peek, and clue. RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN SPRITSAILS. Add together the number of cloths in the head and foot, and halve the sum to make it square: add the depth of the leeches together, and halve the sum for a medium depth; then multiply the number of square cloths by the medium depth. EXAMPLES.
BOAT’S FORESAIL. This sail is triangular, and made of canvas No. 8. The leech is of the same depth as the foreleech of the forespritsail, and the foot is made wide enough to spread from the stem to the mast. The depth of the forepart, or hoist, divided by the number of cloths, gives the length of each gore. The foot is cut square. Two inches of slackcloth should be taken up with the rope in every yard in the depth of the hoist. RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN THIS SAIL. Multiply half the number of cloths in the sail by the depth of the leech. EXAMPLE. 1 1/2 half the number of cloths.  
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BOAT’S JIB. This sail is triangular, and made of canvas No. 8. The leech is of the same depth as the leech of the foresail, and the foot is as wide as the length of the bowsprit. The depth of the fore part, or hoist, divided by the number of cloths, gives the length of each gore. The foot is cut with a sweep, at the rate of 6 or 7 inches per cloth, with a short gore to the clue. Two inches of slackcloth should be taken up with the rope in every yard in the hoist. RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN THIS SAIL. Multiply half the number of cloths by the depth of the leech. To find the quantity in the footgores. Multiply the gores, when added together, by the number of cloths; and fiveeighths of the product is the answer. EXAMPLE.
OBSERVATIONS. In order to strengthen sails, it has been recommended to have the holes in the heads and reefs placed thus: one hole to be made in the seam, another in the middle of the canvas, and so on alternately; the hole in the seam to be half an inch lower than the hole in the middle of the canvas. By this the strain would lie upon the holes in the seam, which are more capable of bearing it than those holes which are in the single canvas. It is likewise recommended to cut these holes with a hollow punch, instead of making them with a stabber or pricker  
AWNINGS. Awnings are made of canvas No. 1 or 2. The length of the maindeck awning is from the centre of the foremast to the centre of the mainmast. The width is shaped agreeably to the breadths of the ship, taken at the mainmast, the foremast, and at the midway between. The length of the quarterdeck awning is from the centre of the mainmast to the centre of the mizenmast. The width is shaped agreeably to the breadths of the ship, taken at the mainmast, the mizenmast, and at the midway between. The length of the poop or afterawning is from the centre of the mizenmast to the ensignstaff, about seven feet above the deck. The width is shaped agreeably to the breadths of the ship, taken at the mizenmast, the taffarel, and at the midway between. Vessels in harbour, particularly in the royal navy, have uprights, (instead of masts); one fixed at the break of the quarterdeck, one at the forecastle, and one at the knightheads forward. The lengths and breadths are taken as before, only at those uprights instead of at the masts. The canvas is cut out to the given breadths of the awning, allowing about nine inches to hang down on each side, which is sometimes scalloped and bound with green baize, and is sewed together with an inch seam, and tabled all round with a two or three inch tabling. Half the diameter of the masts is cut out in the middle at each end, and lacingholes are made across the ends to connect one awning to another. On the upper part, along the middle and sides, is sewed one inch and half or two inch rope, to which the trucks are sewed at about threequarters of a yard asunder. A thimble is spliced in each end of the rope. Sometimes curtains are made to hang to the sides of the awnings, of the same length as the awnings. Their depth is taken from the sides of the awning to the gunwale, supposing the awning to be in its place. The seams and tablings are the same as those of the awnings, and lacingholes are made along the upper tabling of the curtain, and the side tabling of the awning. RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN AWNINGS. Multiply the number of cloths by the medium breadth. The medium breadth is found by adding together the three breadths, and dividing the sum by three. To find the quantity in the curtains. Multiply the number of cloths by the length. EXAMPLE.
 
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QUARTERCLOTHS. Quartercloths are made of canvas No. 1 or 2. They are extended from the roughtreerail of the quarterdeck to the planksheer. The length is taken from the aftpart of the stern, along the roughtreerail upon the quarter, to the haunch, or where the rail ends: the depths are taken from the rail to the planksheer, at the fore part of the rail, at the taffarel, and at the midway between. They contain in general two whole cloths, and one gored cloth which is always placed at the lower part. The seams are one inch broad, and a two or three inch tabling is made all round. RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN QUARTERCLOTHS. Multiply the number of whole cloths by the length, and add the quantity in the gored cloth. To find the quantity in the gored cloth. Take the breadth of the goredcloth at the ends and in the middle; add them together, and divide their sum by three for a medium breadth. Then multiply that medium breadth by the length of the cloth. EXAMPLE.
MASTCOATS. Mastcoats are made of canvas No. 1 or 2, to fit round the mast and hole in the deck. When fixed, they have the shape of a cone. Girth the mast about 18 inches above the deck, and girth round the deck three inches from the masthole. This gives the circumference at top and bottom. The length is obtained by measuring strait the distance between the places girthed. Divide the lower girths into an equal number of parts, suitably to the width of the canvas, allowing for the seams, which are one inch wide. The cloths must be gored upwards, to produce the circumference of the mast at the topgirth, and, when sewed together, cut with a sweep to set neatly round the mast. The upper part is then sewed into a double canvas collar, six inches wide. RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN MASTCOATS. Multiply the number of cloths by the length, and add the quantity in the collar. EXAMPLE.
 
RUDDERCOATS. Ruddercoats are made of canvas No. 1 or 2, to fit round the rudder and the hole in the counter. Girth the circumference of the rudderhole; then round the rudder and part of the sternpost about four feet below the counter, This gives the width at top and bottom. The length is obtained by measuring the distance between the places girdled. Divide the upper girths into an equal number of breadths, suitably to the canvas, allowing for the seams. The cloths are gored downwards with a small sweep, that the coat may bag, and not set too tight when fixed. The seams are one inch wide, and a two or three inch tabling is made all round. RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN A RUDDERCOAT. Multiply the number of cloths by the length of the coat. EXAMPLE.
WINDSAIL, OR VENTILATOR. The windsail or ventilator is made of canvas No. 1 or 2. It is used for circulating fresh air between deck; and is in the form of a cylinder. Four breadths are sewed together, and the outer selvages joined, with an inch seam, leaving one cloth four feet short of the top. A three inch tabling goes round the top and bottom. It is kept distended by circular hoops, made of ash, sewed to the inside; one at top, and one at every six feet distance. The upper part, or top, is covered with canvas, and a small rope sewed round the edge; into which are spliced, at the quarters, the ends of two pieces of rope, that are sewed up to the middle, and an eye formed by seizing the bights. The length of a windsail is taken nine feet above the deck to three or four feet below the lower hatchway. RULE TO FIND THE QUANTITY OF CANVAS IN THE VENTILATOR. Multiply the number of cloths by the length. EXAMPLE.
 
PARLIAMENTARY REGULATIONS RELATIVE TO SAILS AND SAILCLOTH.
THE manufacturing of sails and sailcloth has attracted the attention of the legislature. Regulations have been established and encouragements given, from time to time, for the maker of sailcloth as well as for the sailmaker. The act of the 7 and 8 William III. c. 10. § 14 enacts, “That so much of English sailcloth as shall be found fit for the service of his majesty’s navy, shall have the preference of all foreign sailcloth; and the commissioners of the navy are directed and required, from time to time, to contract and agree for such Englishmade sailcloth, and to allow the makers and manufacturers thereof a recompence of twopence per yard for the same above what they pay for foreign cloth of equal strength and goodness.” The acts, however, that materially affect this subject, are the 9 Geo. II. c. 37. and the 19 Geo. II c. 27. both of which, though originally made to continue for severn years only, have been found so beneficial, that they have been continued, and still do regulate this branch of naval manufacture. We have therefore subjoined correct abstracts of both. Abstracts of “An act for further encouraging and regulating the manufacture of British sailcloth, and for the more effectual securing the duties now payable on foreign sailcloth imported into this kingdom. “All foreignmade sailcloth or canvas, usually entered as hollands, duck, or vitry canvas, fit for the making of sails, and imported into Great Britain by way of merchandize, for which any duties are payable, shall be stamped at the time of the landing thereof, in the port where the same shall be imported or landed. “The commissioners of the customs shall provide stamps for all foreignmade sail cloth or canvas imported, with which, after the duty is paid, it shall be stamped; and for that purpose the commissioners shall cause stamps to be distributed to the proper officers of the customs, at every port where such foreignmade sailcloth or canvas shall be imported; which officers are required to stamp every such piece or parcel of foreignmade sailcloth or canvas: the stamp denote the place or country from whence the said cloth or canvas shall be imported; and the commissioners in providing the stamps shall take care that they be so contrived that the impression may be durable, and so as the same may be the least liable to be counterfeited; and the said stamps may be altered or renewed, from time to time, as his majesty shall think fit; and if any person counterfeit or forge any such stamp or impression upon any foreign made sailcloth, then such person so offending, and duly convicted thereof, shall forfeit the sum of fifty pounds; and if any person shall sell, or expose to sale, any such foreign made sailcloth with a counterfeit stamp thereon, knowing the same to be counterfeit, such offender shall forfeit the sum of fifty pounds. And for the better ascertaining and distinguishing the sailcloth of the British manufacture from foreign sailcloth, every manufacturer of sailcloth in GreatBritain shall affix or impress, or cause to be affixed or impressed, on every piece of sailcloth by him manufactured, a stamp, containing the name and place of abode of such manufacturer, in plain distinct letters and words at length; and if  
any manufacturer of sailcloth, or other person, shall sell or expose to sale, or work up into sails, any piece or bolt of British sailcloth without being stamped as aforesaid, such manufacturer or other person so offending, and being thereof lawfully convicted upon the oath of one or more credible witness or witnesses before any justice of the peace for the place where the offence be committed, shall forfeit the sum of ten pounds for every piece of sailcloth by him or them sold or exposed to sale, or worked up into sails, not being so stamped; and if any person shall wilfully or maliciously cut off, destroy, or obliterate, any stamp so affixed, (except in the tarring or working up the same,) or shall affix or impress any stamp, on which shall be stamped the name or place of abode of any other person, and not his or their real name or names and place or places of abode, such person, being convicted of any of the said offences, shall, for every offence, forfeit the sum of five pounds; which last mentioned forfeiture shall be levied and recovered by distress, and sale of the offender’s goods and chattels, by warrant under the hands and seals of two or more justices of the peace for the place where the offence shall be committed, and shall be applied to the use of the informer or informers.And, for encouraging the use and consumption of the manufacture of British sailcloth, every ship or vessel which shall be built in GreatBritain, and every ship or vessel which shall be built in any of his majesty’s plantations in America, shall, upon her first setting out to sea, have or be furnished with one full and compleat set of sails made up of sailcloth manufactured in GreatBritain; and in case such ship shall not, on her first setting out, be so fitted out and furnished, that then, and for every such neglect and default, the master of such ship shall forfeit the sum of fifty pounds.No sailmaker, or other person, in this kingdom, shall make up into sails or tarpawlins any foreignmade sailcloth or canvas, not stamped according to the directions of this act; and in case any person shall make or work up into sails or tarpawlins any foreignmade sailcloth or canvas, other, than as aforesaid, such sails and tarpawlins shall be forfeited; and such sailmaker, &c. shall likewise forfeit the sum of twenty pounds.All sailcloth made in GreatBritain shall be manufactured in the manner and according to the directions hereinafter mentioned, viz. every piece or bolt of British sailcloth, that shall be 24 inches in breadth and thirtyeight yards in length, shall weigh according to the numbers and weights here mentioned; viz. No. 1, 44 pounds each bolt; No. 2, 41; No. 3, 38; No. 4, 35; No. 5, 32; No. 6, 29; No. 7, 24; No. 8, 21; No. 9, 18; and No. 10, 15 pounds each bolt.And in case any piece or bolt of either of such respective numbers or sorts of British sailcloth shall be made of a different breadth or length than before mentioned, such piece or bolt of British sailcloth shall be encreased or diminished in weight, in proportion to the difference in such length or breadth, and shall be marked or stamped with such number as shall be agreeable to the weight; and the warp or chain of every piece or bolt of the first six numbers of such British sailcloth shall be wholly wrought and made of double yarn, and shall contain, in every piece or bolt of 24 inches in breadth, at least 560 double threads of yarn, and in every piece of such sailcloth, that shall be 30 inches in breadth, at least 700 double threads of yarn; and in every bolt of such sailcloth, that shall be of any other breadths than as aforesaid, a certain number or quantity of double threads of yarn, in proportion to the number of double threads of yarn expressed to be contained in the breadth, as aforesaid; and the warp and shoot yarn, which shall be wrought in every piece or bolt of the first four numbers of such sailcloth, be made of long flax, without any mixture of short or bar flax; or of long flax, or Italian hemp, or Braak hemp; and all the flax and hemp used in making the warp and shoot yarn of such sailcloth, of the aforesaid four first numbers, shall be of a strong staple, fresh, sound, and  
good in its kind, and well dressed; and the yarn well cleansed, even spun and well twisted; and all the shoot yarn of each piece of sailcloth of the four first numbers shall be full as strong as the warp yarn, and close struck with four shoots of treble threads at the distance of every two feet or thereabouts; and both the warp and shoot yarn shall be as strong as the warp and shoot yarn that are usually wrought in the sailcloth of those four first numbers that are made for and used in his majesty’s navy: and no flax yarn used in any British sailcloth shall be whitened with lime, on forfeiture of sixpence per yard for every yard that shall be so whitened, made, sold, or worked up into new sails, in GreatBritain, any ways essentially different, lighter, or inferior in strength and goodness to any of the aforesaid directions or restrictions.Every sailmaker or other person, who shall make or work up sailcloth into sails or tarpawlins, shall cause this act, or an abstract thereof, to be put up or affixed, there to continue, in some public part of the loft, shop, or workhouse, where his said trade is carried on, or his workmen employed, under the penalty of forty shillings.Abstract of “An act for the more effectual securing the duties now payable on foreignmade sailcloth imported into this kingdom; for charging all foreignmade sails with a duty; and for explaining a doubt concerning ships being obliged at their first setting out to sea to be furnished with one compleat set of sails made of British sailcloth.”” Every master of any ship or vessel belonging to any of his majesty’s subjects, navigated with any foreignmade sail or sails, or who shall have any foreignmade sail or sails onboard his ship or vessel, shall, at the time of making his entry or report of such ship or vessel at the CustomHouse, make a report upon oath of all foreignmade sails used in or being onboard such ship or vessel; and he shall, before such ship or vessel is cleared by the officers of the customs inwards, where such ship makes any discharge of her lading, pay the same duties as are payable for all foreignmade sails imported by way of merchandize.Every such sail shall be stamped at the port where such ship makes her entry in manner hereinafter mentioned; and in case the master of such ship shall not make the said entry, and pay such duty before the ship shall be cleared by the officers of the customs, such sails shall be forfeited, and the master shall for every offence forfeit the sum of fifty pounds, one moiety thereof to the use of his majesty, and the other moiety to the person who shall sue for the same. Provided always, if the master of such ship shall, after his report made, and before the ship is cleared by the officers of the customs, declare his intention of not paying the said duty, and shall deliver to the officer of the customs of the port, where he makes such report, the sails for which he has declared his intention of not paying the said duty; in such case the sails are hereby declared to be forfeited to his majesty; and such master shall not be subject or liable to pay the said duty or penalty of fifty pounds. Provided always, that nothing herein contained shall be deemed, construed, adjudged, or taken, to charge or make liable any captain or master of any ship coming from the EastIndies, with any of the duties or forfeitures aforesaid, for or upon account of such ship being navigated with, or having onboard, any foreignmade sail or sails, which shall be by such captain or master brought from the EastIndies. All foreignmade sailcloth or canvas, usually entered as hollands, duck, or vitry canvas, fit to be made use of for the making of sails, which shall be imported into GreatBritain, by way of merchandize, and upon the importation whereof any duties are made payable, shall be stamped at the time  
of the landing thereof, at or in the port or place where the same shall be imported, as hereafter mentioned.And whereas the stamps used in pursuance of the former act are of too small dimensions, and make a very obscure mark and impression, liable to be soon defaced and become undistinguishable, it is enacted, that the commissioners of the customs shall provide stamps of 8 inches diameter each, for the stamping of all foreignmade sails and foreignmade sailcloth, and shall cause the said stamps to be distributed amongst proper officers of the customs, of every port in GreatBritain; and the officers of every port are hereby required to stamp all foreignmade sails, and foreignmade sailcloth, which shall be imported into the several ports where they reside; and which stamps shall, in order to make the impression durable, be dipped in a liquor made of redlead, mixed with linseed oil well boiled; and the stamp or impression therewith made shall express and denote the place and port in which such sails and foreignmade sailcloth are entered; and the commissioners, in providing the stamps, shall take care that they be so contrived, that the impression may be plain and durable, and so as the same may be the least liable to be counterfeited: and if any person shall counterfeit or forge any stamp provided in pursuance of this act, upon any foreignmade sailcloth, or foreignmade sails, or shall sell such sailcloth with counterfeited or forged stamps, knowing the same to be forged, then such person so offending shall forfeit the sum of fifty pounds.No sailmaker or other person, within GreatBritain or in his majesty’s plantations in America, shall make up into sails or tarpawlins any foreignmade sailcloth not stamped according to this act; and in case any person shall make up into sails or tarpawlins, any foreign sailcloth other than as aforesaid, such sails and tarpawlins shall be forfeited; and every person so offending, and being thereof lawfully convicted, upon the oath of one or more credible witnesses, before one or more justices of the peace, for the place where the offence shall be committed, shall forfeit the sum of fifty pounds, for every such sail or tarpawlin; which penalty of fifty pounds shall be levied and recovered by distress and sale of the offender’s goods and chattels, by warrant under the hands and seals of two or more justices of the peace for the place where the offence shall be committed, and shall go and be applied to the use of the informers; and for want of such distress, such justices may commit such person to gaol for the space of six months, or until he pays the penalty of fifty pounds.Every person who shall make up into sails any foreignmade sailcloth, shall place the stamps affixed or impressed on such foreign sailcloth in the most conspicuous part of such sails, (that is to say,) on the afterside of such sails, and in such manner, that the number of stamps in every sail may appear proportionably to the number of bolts or pieces contained in the said sail; and in case any person shall make up any foreignmade sailcloth or canvas, into sails, in any other manner than as aforesaid, such sails shall be forfeited, and such person shall for every offence forfeit the sum of ten pounds.No person whatsoever shall alter, repair, or mend, any sails, made of foreignmade sailcloth, not stamped according to this act; and in case any person shall alter, repair, or mend, any sails not stamped as aforesaid, such person shall, for every sail so mended, forfeit the sum of twenty pounds. Every sailmaker in GreatBritain, and in his majesty’s plantations in America, affix or impress, or cause to be affixed or impressed, on every new sail by him so made, a stamp, 8 inches in diameter, containing the name and place of abode of such sailmaker in plain distinct letters and words at length; and which said stamp, in order to make the impression durable, shall be dipped in a liquid made with lampblack, mixed with linseedoil well boiled; and in case any person shall make any new sail, and shall deliver the same to any captain or master of any ship or vessel, not being stampt  
with his name and place of abode, such sail shall be forfeited; and every person shall, for every sail by him so delivered, not stamped, forfeit the sum of ten pounds.And whereas doubts have arisen about the meaning of a clause in the preceding act, of the ninth year of his present majesty’s reign, by which ships are obliged at their first setting out, or being first navigated at sea, to be furnished with one full and compleat set of sails made of sailcloth manufactured in GreatBritain: to obviate such doubts for the future, it is enacted, that every ship or vessel built in GreatBritain, or in his majesty’s plantations in America, shall upon her first setting out, or being first navigated, be furnished with one compleat set of new sails, (bona fide belonging to such ship or vessel) made of sailcloth manufactured in GreatBritain; and in case such ship or vessel shall not, on her first setting our, be furnished with a new set of sails made of sailcloth of the manufacture of GreatBritain as aforesaid, that, for every such default, the master of such ship or vessel shall forfeit the sum of fifty pounds.It has been subsequently enacted by the 33 Geo. III. c. 49. that no part of the penalties, contained in the 9 Geo. II. c. 37. which do not attach to double sail cloth, shall extend to British canvas made with single thread warps, corded or not corded, and fit for or made into sails. And that such single canvas shall be deemed British sail cloth, and be equally entitled, with double canvas, to the bounties. Provided that the said single thread sail cloth be made of equally good materials, and be conformable, in weight and all other things, to the restrictions on double thread sail cloth. DUTIES PAYABLE UPON THE IMPORTATION OF SAIL CLOTH.
It is the practice of Government to mark each bolt or piece of canvas, before it is made up into sails, with a blue streak down the middle; made with a composition of linseed oil, white lead, and ground indigo, well boiled together. By the 9 and 10 Wm. III. c. 41. Any person in whose possession any canvas with the blue streak up the middle, being the king’s mark, is found, without a certificate of its having been purchased of the commissioners of the navy, forfeits the property, and is liable to the penalty of £200 with costs of suit. By the 9 Geo. I. c. 8. The judge, before whom such offender is convicted, is empowered to mitigate the penalty, commit until the same be paid, or order corporal punishment, by being publickly whipped; or kept to hard labour for a time, not exceeding six months. The commissioners of his majesty’s navy by the 1st. of Geo. I. c. 15. are empowered, for embezzlement of the king’s stores under the value of 20s. to fine the offender, not exceeding double the value taken; or to imprison, not exceeding three months.  
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IN the merchantservice, the masting of ships often depends upon the fancy of the builder or owner; of course, the dimensions of the sails must correspondently vary. It would not, therefore, have been attended with great utility, if we had given the dimensions of sails to merchantships of particular tonnages; because some sails house more than others, and their heads are of very different lengths. They will be best obtained by following the directions for the making of each sail, as given before in this treatise.
It has been suggested, by a very experienced sailmaker, that much advantage would frequently result to the naval service, if many of the sails of ships were made of equal size; so that, in cases of necessity, they might be interchangeably used. Thus, the mizentopsail being, at present, nearly the size of the maintopgallant sail, there seems no reason why the yards, masts, and, of course, the sails, should not be made to suit each other. The main and fore topsails only differ, in general, 1 cloth, or about 2 feet, at head and foot, and in depth from 1 to 3 feet: the masts, yards, and sails, might here be made alike; as, indeed, is generally the practice in brigs, and was first introduced in the Northcountry trade. The main and fore topgallantsails differ very little in depth, and only 1 cloth, or about 2 feet, at head and foot: these might easily be made alike. The mizen topgallantsail and main and fore royal might be brought to the same Dimensions. The mainsail and foresail might be made alike as to their head; but, as the mainsail has a gore at the leech and a larger gore at the foot, in order to clear it of the gallows, boats, &c. which the foresails has not, it may be more difficult to arrange them; but, if much convenience is found in the sails named above, this might be obviated in time. The number of sails in a vessel take up considerable room; they are put all together, in a sailroom or cabbin, and create confusion in getting out; and, in the event of losing sails by stress of weather, and in long voyages, the above alterations might be very useful. The spare yards and masts onboard a ship might hence be reduced in number; and, if attention were paid, in the lowermasts, to captain Pakenham’s plan, there seldom seems a case where a vessel, meeting damage at sea in her masts, yards, sails, or rigging, might not be repaired without going into harbour. Topmast studdingsails, as well as lower studdingsails, are occasionally substituted for awnings; they might, by a very little attention in planning the rigging of a ship, be made so as to answer both uses. Probably These hints would be attended with more advantage in the merchantservice than in the royal navy, because a merchantship is not often so plentifully stored with spare sails as ships of the British navy.
