On getting clear of the harbor, the first lieutenant causes everything about the decks to be secured for sea; the boatswain, upon receiving the order, secures the anchors, and, if a long passage is anticipated, the chains are unbent and the hawse-bucklers put in. If the chains are not unbent the hawse-pipes are closed by means of jackasses (canvas bags stuffed with oakum). The chains after being cleaned are paid below. Dry and stow away everything used in getting under way.

If the vessel be under sail alone, the anchors and chains are kept ready for use until a good offing is made.

On piping down from getting under way the first lieutenant turns the deck over to the officer having the watch, who is at once to acquaint himself with the position of the ship, her condition, and all orders remaining to be executed.

Before losing sight of the land, the navigator takes the departure, puts over the patent log and sets the course, when the officer of the deck will commence heaving the log and marking the log-book. The chafing gear will now be put on, the boats topped up and secured, and the studding-sail gear will be rove, if not done before leaving port.

The Officer of the Deck. An outline of the daily routine at sea will be found in the internal rules and regulations of the ship, but a few minor details may be here mentioned. Let it be supposed that an officer is called at 3:50 A.M. to keep the morning watch. Ten minutes is the usual time allowed for him to reach the deck. Having received all the orders, information, &c., he will, on the watch being reported up, and the wheel and lookouts relieved, “relieve the watch,” and have the watch on deck mustered. In the meanwhile he “passes the course” to the man at the wheel, looks at the compass if going free or under steam, or at the sails if “full and by,” and this he should frequently repeat during the watch. After the mustering of the watch it is well to make a rapid survey of the deck, to see that the yards and sheets are properly trimmed, weather lifts and weather braces taut; lights burning brightly, lookouts properly stationed, and to give any cautionary orders to the officer of the forecastle he


may deem expedient, such as to have the topgallant clew-lines led along, and keep a bright lookout ahead.Except when making such inspections, or when obliged to satisfy himself personally of any fact, the officer of the deck should make it a rule to stay at his proper station, on the bridge or horse-block. He should observe this rule, especially when giving orders, instead of rushing about, as is too often the case, to assist in carrying out his own commands.

The captain of each part of the ship should be supplied with a list of his men. Petty officers may generally be relied upon to muster their own parts and to report absentees, if there are no junior officers available for this duty.

The very great advantage of calling the watch ten or fifteen minutes before eight bells, giving the men time to prepare for their watch, and to be mustered before the time for relieving, may be here reiterated (see Organization, p. 305). It would add to the health and comfort of the crew, to the safety of the ship when under sail, and relieve the mind of the officer of the deck of the anxiety felt during that painful interregnum when neither watch feel it incumbent to “man the main clew-garnets and buntlines,” let it look never so squally to windward.

The habit cannot be too earnestly recommended to the young watch officer of anticipating various emergencies and casualties, such as a man falling overboard, parting rigging, &c., &c., and determining what should be done in each event, when it does occur, the right order may burst involuntarily from the lips, and the mind be fully prepared for the necessary evolution.

The orders of the executive officer in reference to washing clothes or scrubbing decks, called “morning orders,” and usually written in an order book, are put in execution immediately after mustering the watch, unless trimming yards, or other essential duties, or want of light prevent. If clothes are to be washed, the command is given to “lay up the rigging fore and aft” and “sweep down,” and the boatswain’s mate is ordered to call the “watch scrub and wash clothes.” A certain time should be allowed for washing-not over an hour-and the clothes should be neatly stopped on the lines so as to lap, each piece, by an inch or two, the white and blue separate, the former always being above or on a different set of lines, that they may not be soiled by the dripping of the latter.

At sunrise the order is given, Lay in, deck lookouts! Lay aloft to the masthead! The lights are taken in, forward officers called, and the master-at-arms directed to turn out and report up the idlers.

The mates of the decks get their orders from the officer of the deck. If the main deck is to be washed, the second


part of the watch is sent below. But if under sail, an officer should be cautious not to allow the watch to become so much engaged, or the running rigging so encumbered, that the sails may not be readily handled, or the yards braced in any sudden emergency.At six bells the boatswain will be directed to “call all hands and pipe the hammocks up,” after which get all the sheets home and sails taut up.

If on a wind, proceed as follows:

Get a jigger on the main tack, slacking the weather lift and lee brace, and the sheet if necessary. Then haul taut the lift and brace, haul aft the sheet. Now get jiggers on the weather, then the lee topsail sheet, getting them home alike; overhauling well the clew-lines and reef-tackles, slacking the halliards and tending the topgallant sheets. Then clap on to the topsail halliards, heaving off the lee brace and tending the weather one and the topgallant sheets. Get the topsail up to a taut leech, then haul home the topgallant sheets, pull up on the halliards-always attending the braces and the sheets of the sail next above, and then get the royal sheets close home and the sail up taut. Proceed similarly on the fore and mizzen, haul the heads of the fore-and-aft sails chock out, and then the sheet or foot out-haul aft.

See the head-sails hoisted with a taut luff, and trim aft the sheets.

If free, with studding-sails set, get the lower studding-sail halliards up, then trim the out-haul. With the other studding-sails, get the tacks boom-ended, halliards chock up and sheets trimmed, in the order named.

In trimming studding-sails, if the tack of the sail will not reach the boom end when the halliards are up, the boom has probably been rigged too far out.

The sails being trimmed, put the tops to rights, hammock cloths and boom cover smoothed over and stopped down, bright-work cleaned, chains swept out, peajackets put in the bags and stowed away, and rain clothes hung on the jackstays between the launches.

An officer should never leave anything to be done by his relief which he should have performed himself.

At sunset the command is given, Station deck lookouts! and Lay down from the mast-head!-the side lights are lighted and placed in position, in the light-boxes. Send aloft the masthead light if under steam.

Half an hour before each meal the ship’s cook makes his report at the mast; before breakfast and supper that “tea-water is ready for serving out,” and at 11:30 brings the dinner for inspection. If nothing has occurred to interfere with the regular meal hours he is ordered to serve out.

Everything affecting the health and comfort of the crew should receive the earnest attention of the officers. There


are minor points of duty which no rules or regulations can. reach, and which must be left to the thoughtfulness and good sense of the officers themselves. Thus a considerate officer will anticipate a rain-squall, and get washed clothes or scrubbed hammocks down in good time. He will not commence an all-hands job fifteen minutes before twelve o’clock, and send the men down to dinner at one bell. Boats and working parties will be recalled in time for their meals; timely preparation will be made for rain that the men may not be exposed to it unnecessarily, and a dry place reserved for the watch below.


Young officers should make themselves familiar with the lead of the running rigging, and where it belays, and on first getting to sea, it is well to exercise the crew at manning the ropes, that they may learn their lead and be enabled to find them on the darkest night.

To Set a Foresail, give the order

Man the fore tack and sheet!

At this command the men jump to their stations, the fore-tack and sheet are manned, one hand being by each clew-garnet, and the buntlines and leechlines let go.

Lay down on the fore yard and overhaul the rigging!

At this order, one or two of the topmen lay down, and overhaul, through their blocks, the buntlines and leech-lines.

If the weather is moderate, as soon as the officer of the deck sees that the men are at the stations, he orders-

Clear away the rigging! HAUL ABOARD!

At this the clew-garnets are let go, the tack hauled forward, and the sheet aft.

The Mainsail is set in the same manner, substituting main for fore; and to get the tack close down, it is advisable, if the yard is braced sharp up, to ease off the lee main brace,* and overhaul the weather clew-garnet, weather main-topsail clewline and main lift. After the tack is down, brace up the yard, haul taut the lift; reeve and haul the bowline.

When the yards are square, and the wind directly aft, the mainsail is never set, but is hauled up snugly; with the wind quartering, the lee clew may be set to great advantage. To do so, Man the main sheet! Overhaul the main buntlines and leechlines! When ready:

Ease down the lee clew-garnet! HAUL AFT!

The weather clew is kept fast.

* Not applicable to the fore, as the brace has more of a horizontal lead.


To set the Foresail before the wind.Man both fore sheets!

The rigging being let go and overhauled as before, order

DOWN FORESAIL! As the sail comes down, take through the slack of the tacks; haul taut both lifts, haul through the slack of the sheets.

To set the Courses (by the wind), order-

Man the fore and main tacks and sheets!

Lay down on the lower yards to overhaul the rigging!

When the gear is reported all manned-

Haul taut! Clear away the rigging! HAUL ABOARD!

To take in a Course in moderate weather. If a foresail, order, Man the fore clew-garnets and buntlines! The clew-garnets and buntlines being manned, men stationed at the tack, sheet, and bowline, order-

Haul taut! UP FORESAIL!

The tack, sheet, and bowline, are let go, the clews of the sail are run up by the clew-garnets, the body by the buntlines; man the leechlines and haul the leeches to the yard.

In a fresh breeze, or gale of wind, it is necessary, in order to avoid shaking or flapping the sail, which may split it, to proceed thus: If you wish to set a course, the yard being braced up, everything being manned, order-

Ease down the lee clew-garnet! HAUL AFT!

Then when the clew is sufficiently aft to fill the sail-

Ease down the weather clew-garnet! HAUL ABOARD!

To take it in, under similar circumstances, the men being stationed, order, Ease off the fore-tack and bowline! HAUL UP TO WINDWARD! Then, Ease off the sheet! HAUL UP TO LEEWARD! Having the buntlines well manned, run them up the moment the sheet is started; the lee clew being the first set, and the last taken in, steadies the sail during the operation.*

Setting the mainsail when bracing up, it is better to get the tack down before the lee brace is near the sharp-up mark.

On setting courses by the wind, before hauling aboard, check the lee braces, for the bunt of the sails may nip or be jammed between the yard and the stay, and at all events, the main tack will come down better.

Topsails are the first sail set in getting under way, when cruising under sail, and the last taken in, in coming to anchor, except the spanker. At sea they remain constantly set, are reduced by reefing, in fresh winds, but never taken in except in gales of wind, or for the purpose

* In taking in a course, blowing fresh, haul taut the lee lift before starting the tack.


of repairing or unbending. The mizzen topsail is an exception, inasmuch as it is often settled down on the cap or furled, when sailing with the wind directly aft, and often taken in in heavy weather, when the fore and main are close reefed.To set a Topsail. The yard being square and on the cap, order

Stand by to lay aloft, sail-loosens of the fore (main or mizzen) top-sail! LAY ALOFT! When the men are aloft, LAY OUT AND LOOSE!

The top-gallant studding-sail booms need not be triced up. The men lay out on the yard, and loose the sail by casting off the gaskets. While doing which

Man the topsail sheets and halliards! Tend the braces!

The clew lines are tended and buntlines let go, and overhauled aloft, the gaskets cast off, the bunt-jigger unhooked, and the men on the yard holding up the sail by hand, it is reported ready. The sheets being well manned, the order is given, Stand by! LET FALL! SHEET HOME! LAY IN! LAY DOWN FROM ALOFT! The clews of the sail are hauled out to the lower yard-arms by the sheets, until the foot of the sail is taut, hands easing away the clewlines as the sheets go home.* Meanwhile:


The yard is hoisted by the halliards, until the leeches of the sail are taut, keeping the topsail reef tackles, topgallant sheets and studding sail tacks, and the topsail clewlines and topmast studding sail halliards well overhauled.

To take in a Topsail, as in coming to anchor. Man the topsail clew jiggers and buntlines! Weather braces! At this order, the clew-jiggers and buntlines are manned; hands stationed by the sheets, halliards, bowlines, and braces; the latter for the purpose of squaring the yards if braced up; have a hand on each lower yard-arm to render the sheets through their sheaves; order, Clear away the topsail sheets, CLEW UP! The clews are hauled up by the clew-jiggers, and the body by the buntlines; when the sail is up, and the weather braces manned, Settle away the topsail halliards!SQUARE AWAY! The yard is now lowered on the cap and squared in at the same time, the buntlines and clew-jiggers are kept some distance above the yard.

Clew Catchers are sometimes used. They consist of travelers, variously fitted, which go around the lower lift and secure to the clew of the topsail. Such an arrangement may be useful when the topsail sheets are known to be much worn and easily parted. But a sound topsail sheet will only carry away in bad weather; then, the

* In setting the light sails, the men are ordered in before sheeting home, to avoid accidents due to the motion of the yards, which have considerable play.
In heavy weather, or whenever there are men on the lower yards, it would be well to observe the same rule in sheeting home the topsails.


clew-catcher, if fitted, may travel up the lift a certain distance, and by making a span of it, bring a violent strain on the lower yard-arm. Many of our best officers object to the use of clew-catchers at any time, as tending only to save a sail at the risk of carrying away a lower yard.To Set a Close-Reefed Topsail. Brace up the topsail yard sufficiently, and the lower yard more than the topsail yard. Haul taut the lee topsail brace, then having loosed and let fall, Man the topsail sheets! Attend the gear, let go and overhaul the buntlines, Ease down the lee clewline, HAUL HOME THE LEE SHEET! keeping the vessel off if necessary; then, Ease down the weather clewline! HAUL HOME THE WEATHER SHEET! Man the halliards and sway the yard clear of the cap. Trim the yards, haul taut the weather-brace and haul the bowline.*

To Take in a Topsail in a Gale. Say the fore: Man the fore-topsail clewlines and buntlines, weather fore-topsail brace! The weather clewline is manned best; hands by the lee brace, sheets, and halliards; when ready, keep the ship off a point, ease off a fathom of the lee sheet, Settle away the halliards! BRACE IN AND CLEW DOWN! Ease away the weather sheet! CLEW UP TO WINDWARD! The weather clewline and both buntlines are run up; Ease away the lee sheet!CLEW UP TO LEEWARD! The weather brace is hauled in when the yard is clewed down. Point the yard to the wind, steady it well, and furl the sail.

To take in a close-reefed topsail with the wind abaft the beam, haul up the lee clewline first; brace the yard in by the weather brace until it is pointed to the wind, if possible, before laying out to furl.

In taking it in before the wind, with the watch, haul up one clew at a time, hauling up both buntlines as before; brace the yard sharp up and shiver the sail; then lay out and furl it.

In furling a sail in a gale, secure the yard well before sending the men out; and when out, render them all the assistance possible with the helm.

To Take in and Furl the Mizzen Topsail in a Gale. Man the mizzen-topsail clewlines and buntlines, lee mizzen topsail brace! Hands by the sheets and halliards, weather brace and bowline. When ready, Settle away the halliards! CLEW DOWN! Hauling in on the lee brace; Ease away the sheets! CLEW UP! The yard is pointed to the wind, and the gear hauled close up;Lay aloft all the mizzen topmen!


To Set a Topgallant-sail. Order, Lay aloft and loose the fore (main or mizzen) topgallant sail! Man the

* In all cases of hoisting a square sail attend the sheets of the sail next above.


topgallant sheets and halliards! While the sail loosers are loosing the sail, the sheets and the halliards are manned, hands being by the clewlines and braces. Overhaul the royal sheets and topgallant studding sail halliards. When ready, Stand by! LET FALL! Lay in! LAY DOWN FROM ALOFT! SHEET HOME! While hauling home the sheets, if on the wind, brace up the yard sufficiently to shake the sail; take a turn with the weather brace, and let go the lee one. If before the wind, let go both braces; and if the wind is quartering, the lee one. Tend the braces! HOIST AWAY! Hoist the sail up to a taut leech. BELAY THE HALLIARDS! Trim the yard to the wind, set taut the weather brace, keeping the lee one a little slack.To Take in a Topgallant-sail. Lay aloft to furl the fore (main or mizzen) topgallant sail! Man the: fore topgallant clewlines! Weather fore-topgallant brace, When the clewlines and weather brace are manned, hands by the sheets, halliards and lee brace; if in a moderate breeze, order, Haul taut! IN FORE-TOPGALLANT SAIL! The sail is clewed up, halliards let go, buntline hauled up, and the yard braced in at the same time. In a fresh breeze, order-

Round in the weather brace! Ease away the lee sheet and halliards! CLEW DOWN! Let go the weather sheet! CLEW UP! If the wind is aft, or on the quarter, order, Let go the halliards!CLEW DOWN! Let go the sheets! CLEW UP! Squaring the yard as it comes down by the braces, and starting the sheets when down. The sail being clewed up, steady the yard by the braces, and then order, LAY OUT AND FURL!

The three topgallant-sails are set and taken in, in the same manner, giving the order, Lay aloft and loose the topgallant sails! and Man the topgallant clewlines, &c., &c.

In taking in a topgallant-sail in a fresh breeze, ease the lee sheet, but do not let it go until the yard is well started in and down. This will keep the yard from cockbilling and. make it easier to clew down. But have the lee clew hauled up before the weather sheet is started.

To Set or Take in the Royals. Proceed as with the topgallant-sails, in moderate weather. The flying jib generally goes with the royals, and the following are the orders:

Aloft and loose the royals! Clear away the flying-jib!

When ready-


To take them in, Aloft to furl the royals! Man the royal clewlines, flying jib downhaul! Haul taut! IN ROYALS, DOWN FLYING-JIB! FURL THE ROYALS! STOW THE FLYING-JIB!

If the royals have been kept on too long, handle them in


taking in precisely as described for the topgallant-sail, keeping fast the weather sheet until the yard is down and the lee clew hauled up. As the royal has no buntline to control the body of the sail, lay the yard for furling so as to spill the sail, being careful not to let it get flat aback, otherwise it will be blown under the foot-rope and make it difficult to lay out on the yard.When the flying-jib is taken in under similar circumstances, let go the halliards, but do not start the sheet till the sail is about half way down, then keep easing off till the sail is down, otherwise it is likely to be split. Do not haul over the weather sheet until the sail is nearly stowed and the men on the boom are ready to receive the clew.

To Set a Head Sail. The manner of setting and taking in all the head sails is the same. To set the jib give the order, Clear away the jib! Man the halliards! Have a hand by the downhaul to clear it away, and, in case of the fore-topmast staysail or jib, send a hand out to light up the hanks. When ready, Let go the downhaul! HOIST AWAY! When up taut, trim the sheet.

In setting a jib, the sheet should not be kept taut, but eased, to let the sail go up; and observe, at the conclusion, that both the stay and the guys are taut.

To Take it InMan the jib downhaul! Have a hand at the halliards and sheets. When manned,Mind your weather helm! (if blowing fresh), Let go the halliards! HAUL DOWN! By easing off the sheet as the halliards are let go, the pressure of the hanks on the stay is relieved, and the sail comes down easily. LAY OUT AND STOW THE JIB! When stowed, take in the slack of the halliards and sheets.

The Spanker, being at one extremity of the lever, governs the vessel more or less in all the evolutions. It serves to bring her to the wind, or to prevent her from falling off; is always set at sea, except with the wind aft or well on the quarter; and in coming to anchor, is the last sail taken in, as it is used to bring the vessel up head to wind, after the topsails are clewed up.

In Setting the Spanker, top the boom up by both topping-lifts (if two are used), after which overhaul the lee one. Man the spanker outhauls! Have hands by the clew-rope, head-downhaul and brails, and hands aloft to overhaul them. Let go the brails! HAUL OUT! Slack the weather yang, and trim the sheet.

To Take it In. Man the spanker brails! Bead downhaul! Have the lee brails well manned, and hands to take in the slack of the weather ones; and hands by the outhauls. Let go the outhauls!BRAIL UP! At the same time, haul up the clew rope, haul the boom amidships and crotch it, or in wearing, haul it over on the weather


quarter, ready for the other tack; steady the gaff by the weather vang.To Set a Spanker or Trysail Blowing FreshClear away the spanker! When the furling line is cast off, Man the foot outhaul! Clear away the brails, HAUL OUT! easing away the clewrope and brails. Having steadied the foot of the sail, Man the head outhaul! Clear away the downhaul, HAUL OUT! easing off the weather yang. Then trim aft the foot outhaul.

To Take it In when blowing. Man the head downhaul and brails! Lee brails best. Clear away the head outhaul! BRAIL UP! checking the foot outhaul if necessary. When the head is down, ease away the foot outhaul and brail up snug. The wind being now out of the sail, the brails may be slacked enough to haul up the clew. Steady the gaff and boom amidships.

A trysail is handled in a similar way.

Staysails. Set between the fore and main masts, are the main topmast and topgallant staysails; the first is stowed, when not set, under the fore-top, and the other in or above the fore-top.

There may be also mizzen topmast and topgallant staysails.

They are set like the head-sails, the sheets leading down on deck, and belayed in the lee gangway.

These sails are only used in light weather, with the wind free. They are termed lifting sails.

Studding, or Steering Sails, in light or moderate weather, with the wind free or aft, are used with great advantage, to increase the speed of a vessel. The weather topmast and topgallant studding-sails may be set with the wind one point free, or forming an angle of seven points with the keel. The lower studding-sail can only be used to advantage with the wind abaft the beam. With the wind aft and yards square, studding sails are set on both sides. The topgallant studding sail is generally set first.

The Topgallant Studding-sail. At sea, this sail is kept in the top, stowed up and down in the topmast rigging. To set it, order

Stand by to set the – topgallant stun’-sail!

Haul taut the topgallant lift.* One of the quarter-watch repairs to the topsail yard, where he converts the boom tricing-line into an “in-and-out jigger,” and toggles the heel of the boom to a bull’s-eye, which traverses on the jack-stay fitted for the purpose, or there may be a quarter-strap. (See Rigging Ship, p. 138.)

* It is observed that the support thus obtained is trifling. If, through neglect, the lift is not overhauled again after the studding-sail has been taken in, the yard itself will be endangered if the topgallant sail has to come in quickly.


The sail is cast loose in the top, having only a squilgee strap around it. Fig. 474. The halliards manned on deck, and the tack in the top, a hand by the sheet, and one also on the yard to assist to rig out the boom.Haul taut! RIG OUT! HOIST AWAY!

When the boom is sufficiently out (which will be known by the mark on it), the heel is secured, keeping it on the right slue for the tack. As the sail goes up, the topmen take in the slack of the tack. When it is above the topsail yard, out squilgee, haul out the tack, run up the halliards and finally trim down the sheet.

To Take it In. Order, Stand by to take in the topgallant stun’sail! Man the sheet and downhaul, have a. hand by the halliards, by the tack, and on the topsail yard to rig in the boom; order, Lower away! HAUL DOWN! RIG IN! Let the topmen rouse the sail well abaft the topgallant sail, keep fast the tack while you lower the halliards, or the sail will fly forward of the topgallant sail, and render the operation more difficult. When the sail is in, take the jigger off the topgallant lift, if used.

The fore and main are generally set and taken in together.

A topgallant studding-sail is fitted with a downhaul bent to the inner end of the yard, and leading down into the top; by this it may be easily hauled down in taking in, and dipped forward when necessary.

The Topmast Studding-sail. To set it, order, Stand by to set the topmast stun’sail! Get a burton on the topsail yard and haul it well taut; the upper block of the burton being generally taken to the topmast cap to give a better angle of support; get the sail out, and make up ready for sending aloft; overhaul down and bend on the halliards and tack; have one squilgee strap around the sail, and another around the halliards and outer yard-arm, to keep it up and down in hoisting; hook the in-and-out jigger on the lower yard for rigging out the boom. Having the gear manned-


When the sail is high enough above the yard to clear the brace, out squilgee! As it is run up to the topsail yard-arm, take in the slack of the tack and light the downhaul over the brace-block. Haul the tack close out, hoist the sail up taut, in the top trim the short sheet and dip the downhaul and deck sheet. As soon as the boom is out, its heel is lashed to the fore yard, and the in-and-out jigger shifted for rigging in.

In-and-out Jigger. A gun-tackle purchase is used thus: To rig out, the outer tail-block is secured to the neck of the boom-iron, the inner one to the heel of the studding-sail boom; the fall is rove through a leading block, and then down on deck. In shifting it to rig in the


boom, shift the inner block to the slings of the yard, and the other to the heel of the boom, fall leading as before.To take in the Topmast Studding-sail. Order, Man the topmast stun’-sail downhaul! or,Stand by to take in, &c. Man the downhaul, deck-sheet, in-and-out jigger; and have hands by the halliards, tack, and short sheet in the top.

Lower away! HAUL DOWN, RIG IN! Lower away the halliards, and haul the sail down to the boom by the down-haul; then let go the tack and haul down on the downhaul and sheet together, rigging in the boom at the same time. Take the burton off the topsail yard! Make up the sail, hitch the halliards to the clew of the topsail; stop the bights of the tack, boom-brace and lower studding-sail halliards to, the pacific iron; having the tack over the fore brace. Stop in the gear along the fore yard, thence down the swifter, bights at the slings of the yard triced up by a tricing line.

The downhaul and sheets are made up with the sail.

A fore topmast studding-sail is often carried when running before a fresh breeze, such as would reduce a ship to double-reefed topsails if close-hauled; in which case the boom should be well supported. In large vessels there is a brace to the boom, but, in addition, to take the upward strain, the lower studding-sail halliards are used as a jumper, thus: Toggle them above the boom, bring the standing part down, and set it up securely in line with the boom. This acts as a martingale.

A main topmast studding-sail is carried, in some vessels, with the wind abaft the beam, and has great effect in increasing the speed. It is set and taken in like the fore.

In some vessels the topmast studding-sail tack is brought in along the yard, and the boom brace fitted with a short pendant and whip purchase, which is thought to be a proper method for a large vessel, having only the brace to attend to in trimming the yard; but generally the brace and tack are rove through the sheaves of a double-block in the main rigging, and both belayed close together.

To set a Lower Studding-sail. Order, Stand by to set the starboard (or port) lower stun’-sail!Get it out and make it up for setting; overhaul down the outer and inner halliards, and bend them on, the former to the yard, and the latter to the inner head-earing of the sail; overhaul in and bend on the outhaul to the clew; pass a stop around the sail, and secure it by a double squilgee, the tripping-line from it leading in on deck.* Haul well taut the

* The tripping-line for the topmast stun’-sail squilgee also leads on deck, that for the topgallant stun’-sail in the top. These are single. See Fig. 475, Plate 110.

Plate 110, Fig 474-475. Tripping lines on stun'-sail.

Plate 111, Fig 476. Stun'-sails set.


fore lift and brace. Man the lower boom topping-lift, and forward guy, and have a hand by the after guy. Pull well up on the inner halliards. Top up the boom, and at the order, RIG OUT! haul forward on the forward guy, and at the same time have everything manned for setting the sail.Haul taut! HOIST AWAY, HAUL OUT! taking in the slack of the outhaul and inner halliards. When halfway up between the deck and lower yard, haul out the squilgee, and as the sail falls, haul out on the outhaul, and hoist the sail up taut to the topmast studding-sail boom; then haul out the outhaul and pull up on the inner halliards. Reeve the sheet through a thimble or block on the goose-neck of the lower boom, and haul it well taut. The lower boom is trimmed by the fore yard, so that the sail may set, as nearly as possible, parallel with the foresail.

To take In, order, Stand by to take in the lower stun’-sail! Man the clewline, sheets, and inner halliards, have hands by the outer halliards and outhaul, Ease away the outhaul! CLEW UP! The outhaul being let go, the clew is hauled up to the yard; then, Lower away, HAUL IN! Ease off the outer halliards, and haul in on the inner halliards, sheet, and clewline. When the sail is inboard and over the forecastle, Lower away the inner halliards! The sail being down, make it up. To get the lower boom alongside: Man the after guy! Tend topping lift and forward guy! Set taut! HAUL AFT! get the boom in its place and trice up the gear.

To Set all the Studding-sails on One Side. Order-

Get the starboard (or port) stun’-sails ready for setting!

Preparations are made as described, with the addition of topping up the lower boom ready for rigging out. When the officer of the forecastle reports-

“All ready forward, sir!” order

Set taut!


At this order the booms are rigged out together; the topgallant studding-sails swayed aloft and just clear of the topsail brace-blocks, the topmast studding-sail above the fore brace-block, and the inner halliards of the lower studding-sail pulled well up. The men then shorten in on the halliards, when order

Haul taut! HOIST AWAY! Fig. 475. OUT SQUILGEES!

The tacks are hauled close out and the halliards taut up. Fig. 476.

To Take them In.

Stand by to take in all the starboard (or port) stun’-sails!

When all is reported ready

Haul taut! Ease away the out-haul! CLEW UP! LOWER AWAY!


At this, the lower studding-sail is clewed up, the topmast studding-sail boom-ended, and the topgallant studding-sail started, but their tacks kept fast.HAUL DOWN! RIG IN!

The sails and booms all come in together.

If studding-sails are to be set on both sides, at the same. time, have all hands called to “make sail,” and order, Starboard watch, starboard side; Port watch, port side! Then order, Stand by to set stun’-sails both sides! and proceed as in setting on one side, taking care that the yards are square, and the lifts, burtons, and braces, well taut.

Handling Studding-Sails. In setting studding-sails in a strong breeze, if you can keep the ship away until they are becalmed, you will get them up and well set when the gear would not otherwise stand.

In bracing forward, studding-sail tacks, boom braces, jumper and topping-lifts require careful attention.

In bracing in, unless the boom brace be manned, the chances will be in favor of the boom going anywhere but in a line with the yard.

Preparatory to setting studding-sails, let the topgallant clewline be hauled taut, that the man who goes out on the topsail-yard may have something to hold on to; and in hoisting the lower studding-sail, be careful that the yard is not brought up with a jerk against the topmast studding-sail boom, as by the neglect of this point, the boom is often sprung. After the sail is set, the topping-lift should be slacked sufficiently to bring the outer leech taut.

Topgallant Studding-Sails. In setting a lee topgallant studding-sail forward of the sails, in lieu of stopping the halliards to the upper yard-arm (which is the outer one), bring them down to the lower yard-arm, so that in hoisting, the sails will capsize over, as it were, and bring the extremity, to which the halliards are stopped, uppermost. Sway higher, out squilgee and let the men on the topsail-yard cant the yard forward, which under these circumstances, may be readily done without getting foul. If the sail should be already set, and it is desirable to “dip” it forward, lower it about halfway down, ease off the tack, and let the man on the topsail-yard get hold of the outer leech. In this way the inner yard-arm is immediately canted clear of the topgallant sail.

But unless all the gear of a topgallant studding-sail is dipped forward with it, it will be awkward to handle when required to come in quickly, and the dipping is therefore not recommended.

In taking in topgallant studding-sails, ease away on the halliards and haul down the downhaul, keeping fast the tack until the yard is well inside the leech of the topgallant sail, when you may ease off the tack, and by hauling down on the sheet and downhaul, the sail comes in without difficulty.


For should the tack be started first, the sail flies forward of the topgallant sail and causes much trouble.Topmast Studding-sails. In hauling down, ease away the tack just before the outer arm of the yard touches the boom end; and if the tack jambs, which is not unfrequent, rig in the boom at once. The leverage is great, and boom-irons are frequently broken in this way.

In dipping the main-topmast studding-sail before the sail, the wind will be just enough on the opposite quarter to glance off the topsail and blow the inner leech aft. If the course can be altered, the sail may readily be handled, otherwise the short way is to haul down, stop the bowline in on the main yard, and set the studding-sail before all.

Lower Studding-sails. Whenever the lower studding-sail has been carried with the yards much forward, get a good pull of the after-guy before starting anything, else the lower boom will fly forward when the outhaul is let go.

Should the lower boom get under the bows, and the topmast studding-sail boom be in, put the lower halliards with a bowline knot round the lower boom, and haul them out with the lower outhaul; then, with these and the topping-lift from the fore yard, it may be got up. If not, secure the heel, disconnect the goose-neck, and whip the spar up heel foremost.

Of course, if the ship can be kept away, and the fore-yard braced in, all will be easier.

The operation of taking in a lower studding-sail may be greatly facilitated by giving the ship a sufficiency of weather helm to “touch” the inner leech. Luffing under such circumstances might be attended with loss of booms.

When the jib is drawing (excepting possibly in a ship with great drift from the head booms to the foremast), the lower studding-sail cannot be doing any good service.

Other Sails. There are a few other sails, such as a gaff-topsail, which sets over the spanker; aring-tail, which sets abaft the spanker; a save-all, under the lower studding-sail boom, and a jib-topsail, which sets flying over the jib. These are never met with in the service now, except the gaff-topsail, which is occasionally set on board the schooner-rigged gunboats, or in vessels bark-rigged.

Square Sails, &c. In loosing a sail, whether it be blowing fresh or not, the yard-arm and outer gaskets should be cast off first, for otherwise the weight of the bunt would jamb them, and render cutting necessary to get them clear.

In taking in a topsail, the weather sheet is started first, to prevent the sail from flapping, of which there would be danger if it were taken in the opposite way. This rule applies equally to courses, as the belly of the sail thus blows up against the stays, and is prevented from splitting.


Remember that the lee lower lift should be hauled well taut before starting the tack, lest the sudden upward spring of the weather yard-arm should endanger the lee leech of the topsail, and instead of letting go, ease the bowline off handsomely with the tack.In setting either courses or topsails, in blowing weather, the rule seems to be invariable in reference to sheeting home to leeward first-the reason for which is to prevent the sails from flapping; and if the wind is quartering, the yard should be well braced in before the sails are set.

In hoisting sails, from a royal to a close-reefed topsail, the lee brace ought invariably to be let go, and the weather one tended. As the latter is eased away, and the sail hoisted, the yard will cant of itself, till the leech is taut, which is the indication of the sail being up. If everything is clear, there will be no necessity for hauling in the lee brace while hoisting.

In taking in a royal or topgallant sail, the lee sheet is started first and clewed up to spill the sail; for when blowing fresh, if the contrary practice was adopted the yard would probably fly fore-and-aft, part the brace and risk the mast, which is of far more consequence than the sail. The weather sheet must be eased off after the yard is clewed down, which can be done better by hauling in on the weather brace at the same time. Lay the yard and keep the sail well spilled with the helm until the gaskets are passed.

If before the wind, keep both sheets fast until the yard is down; then clew up and brace by.

The parrels of these yards are generally slack, and the yards should be bound when possible, against the rigging, by bracing in.

A royal carried too long before, or a studding-sail carried too long near the wind, cannot do the least good. If the “trimmer” is consulted while carrying a press of lofty sail before the wind, the ship will be found to be excessively out of trim by the head. Near the wind, the topgallant studding-sail is fore-and-aft, bellying to leeward, and taking the wind out of the topgallant sail.

In conclusion, the following general principle of handling sails may be stated:

In taking in a sail of any kind, endeavor to spill it; the more wind it holds the harder it will be to manage.

Letting go a lee sheet spills any sail, but in resorting to this method, in a fresh breeze, the sail may be split, and the larger the sail the more dangerous it is to allow of its shaking.

To relieve a ship quickly in case of danger, the lee sheet must of course be let go, even at the expense of the sail; but where it is not a question of danger, and the object is to obtain prompt and complete control of a sail, there is a


powerful agent available for the purpose of becalming canvas, and thus securing its easy management. This agent is the helm, which is often more useful than any clewlines or buntlines, and more efficacious than any number of extra hands.With the wind forward of the beam, for instance, taking in any square sail from a course to a royal is rendered much easier by a few spokes of lee helm. Similarly with the wind abaft the beam, a topmast or lower stun’-sail is handled with comparative ease if becalmed by a like amount ofweather helm.

In all cases of making or taking in sail, remember the importance of looking out for the gear tended, as well as for that which is manned.