SAILS, when split, should be taken in and repaired aloft if possible; if not, then shifted. The new sail should be ready on deck, and can be sent up to windward as the old one goes down to leeward. If the sail splits so as to be of no further use, unbend and send down at once. If not, keep it on the ship until the new one is ready.

A reef-tackle-cringle, or any part of the leech, can readily be repaired aloft by the sailmaker, in moderate weather. The officer of the deck need only clew up the clew requiring repairs. Men on the yard gather the sail up, the yard being, of course, clewed down. In chase, or being chased, it is absolutely necessary to shift sails (if required to do so at all) quickly. If carrying studding-sails on one side only, the others can be shifted over and set if anything happens to those already set.

If the jib splits, set the fore topmast staysail, cautioning the man at the helm to “mind his weather helm;” take in spanker if necessary.

If the foresail or fore topsail splits, take the sail in, repair it aloft or shift it. Reduce after sail tobalance the ship. Caution the helmsman as before.

If a topsail splits across the head, or if, in turning out a reef, the sail is torn, and it is not convenient to shift it, take the reef in again.


Haul the sail down-gather it on the boom, and put on good stops.

Unhook the tack, unshackle the sheets, and bend a rope’s end for an inhaul to the clew, passing it out to leeward.

Hook the halliards to a strap round the sail, cut adrift the hanks, or untoggle them.

Pull up the halliards! Ease away the downhaul!

When high enough, ease in the sail on the lee side-haul in on the inhaul.


When on the forecastle, shift the gear to the new sail.Pull up the jib halliards! Haul out on the jib downhaul.

Lower the jib down to the boom, hook the tack and shackle the jib sheets; secure the hanks to the head of the sail, and the downhaul and halliards to the head cringle; take off the strap, cut stops, and when ready: Let go the downhaul! HOIST AWAY!



Hook the sail burton to strap on the topmast stay.

The new sail (say the main topsail) is in the weather gangway ready for bending. Clew up the main royal and topgallant sail.

Man the main topsail clewlines and buntlines! Weather main topsail brace! Let go the main to’bo’line!

Haul taut! Clear away the sheets! CLEW UP! Settle away the main topsail halliards! Round in the weather brace!

Lay the yard nearly square, and set taut the braces. ALOFT TOPMEN! Man the boom tricing lines!


Unreeve the first and second reef-earings from the sail (supposing them to be bull-earings).

Unbend the topsail sheets, clewlines, bowlines, reef-tackles, robands, and head-earings, securing the bunt-robands to the buntlines. Bend a top bowline around the bunt to guy the sail clear of the top. A whip from the weather topsail yard-arm bent also at the bunt will keep the sail from going too far to leeward, if any such trouble is expected.

Lower the sail down to leeward by the buntlines.

Send up the new sail, with the sail burton before and to windward of the stay. Bend a bowline to the sail strap as soon as it can be reached from the top.

When the clews are above the top-High enough!

See the turns out of the sail.

Hook the reef-tackles, carry out the head-earings from the bunt to the yard-arms, and haul out. Bring to and bend the sail. Shift the reef-tackles to their own cringles, bend the sheets, clewlines, bowlines and buntlines, the latter being rounded up. Loose the sail. Reeve the bull-earings; when the forepart of the top is clear of men, Stand by! LET FALL!

SHEET HOME! LAY IN! DOWN BOOMS! (secure boom-ends with the strap and toggle). LAY DOWN FROM ALOFT!

Man the main topsail halliards! Tend the braces, let go and overhaul the gear! Haul taut!



Set the topgallant sail and royal; steady out the top bowline.


The new sail (mainsail) being ready, stretched across the deck forward of the mast, yardarm-jiggers on the yard, lee lift taut-

Main clew garnets and buntlines!

Haul taut! UP MAINSAIL!



Furl the sail; unhook reef-pendants; stop buntlines to head of sail. When ready

Stand by the earings! EASE AWAY! Lower away the buntlines!

All the gear coming down with the sail. Unbend and. bend to new sail, stopping buntlines and leechlines to the head. When ready-

Man the yardarm jiggers, buntlines and leechlines!

Buntlines and yard-arm jiggers are manned best, a few hands on the clew-garnets and leechlines, hands to light up tacks and sheets.


The yard-arm jiggers are run out, leechlines hauled up; bend the sail, loose it and hook the reef pendants.

Man the main tack and sheet! and set the sail.


Previous to the order being given to unbend sails, let every man stationed on the yards be provided with a sail-tie, or a length of spun-yarn, sufficiently long to go twice round the sail. Every man takes his stop aloft, and when he has seen his robands clear, he then passes his stop twice round the sail, keeping his yard-gaskets fast until the sail is quite ready for easing in. Sails may be unbent in this manner without danger almost in any weather, in case the gaskets are not secured to the sail, as they should be; but in any event, the additional stops are valuable.


Suppose, for instance, that you have split a reefed course, and wish to replace it by another.

Haul it up as in blowing weather; cast off a few of the reef-points and robands along the yard, and clap on


several good stops around the sail; secure the buntlines around the body of the sail, and then cast off all the reef-points, robands, reef-earings, and leechlines; cast off the lee head-earing and rouse the lee clew, by a line from the top, into the body of the sail, and secure it to the buntlines; then, having a line from the deck forward attached to the body of the sail, ease off the weather-earing, and lower away.Having the other sail in readiness, stretched across the deck, and properly furled for bending; bend the gear, and proceed as described for a course in “Bending Sail, Port Exercise.” Man buntlines, leechlines, and yard-arm jiggers. SWAY ALOFT! Bring the sail to the yard square, with a taut head, hook the reef-pendants, hook the clew jiggers to them, and rouse them well up; bend and reef the sail, shackle the tacks and sheets, hook the clew-garnets, and set it as in blowing fresh.

If the bunt jigger is led temporarily through a bull’s-eye or slip-rope secured to the chain slings of the yard, and then hooked to its glut and stopped to the centre of the head, it will help materially in getting the midship roband opposite its proper place.


Having split, say a close-reefed main topsail, in a gale, to shift it.

Proceed as in taking in a close-reefed topsail, lay out, furl and unbend.

The men on the yards cast off the reef-points of the close-reef, and untoggle beckets of other reefs. Pass the gaskets around the sails, and use sail-ties in addition, cast off the reef-earings, retain first and second reef-earings on the yard (bull-earings), the others go with the sail.

Brace in the main yard till it is square. Send down the sail by the buntlines; unbend all the other gear. Reeve a line from the weather side of the deck well forward, over the lower stay, through the lee head-earing cringle, make fast to the weather head-earing cringle.

A whip from the weather yard-arm to the bunt (topmast studding-sail halliards) will, in this case, be a necessity.

When ready for sending down, ease away the lee-earing, haul away on the tripping-line, rousing it over the stay. Ease away the weather earing, hauling on the tripping-line, and tending the yard-arm whip. When both earings are well clear and pointing to windward of all and forward, ease away on the buntlines.

If the main yard cannot be squared (mainsail set), prepare to send the sail down to leeward; lead the tripping-line through the weather head-earing cringle to the lee one, and


get the weather part of the sail to leeward of the stay first. Then ease away the lee Baring.In this case we will need a top bowline to the bunt as a forward guy, the lead of the tripping-line being too much up-and-down to answer that purpose.

Were the tripping-line carried far forward in sending down to leeward, it would give the sail too much swing.

The topmen aloft now put on yard-arm jiggers, and have everything ready for bending the new sail.

The latter is sent aloft by the sail burton, and if properly fitted, made up as furled, it is bent as under ordinary circumstances; when the gear and sail are bent, loose the sail, shackle the reef-tackles to their proper cringles, haul them taut, the clewlines and buntlines hauled up snug, take any number of reefs required. Send the men in and down from aloft, sheet home and sway the yard clear of the cap.


But should the topsail not be fitted with gaskets, to be sent aloft as furled, the old custom may be followed of reefing on the foot, before going aloft, as follows:

Stretch the close-reef band taut along the deck, take the clews as near where they will haul up as possible, trace the clews down clear to the foot of the sail, haul the foot taut without moving the clews out of their places; gather up the foot as near the close-reef as possible, tie the close-reef points around the foot, keeping the reef knots near at hand to be ready for casting off; use rope-yarn stops to secure all the other reefs in succession around the foot, the yarns going from the forward jackstay of each reef-band around to its after jackstay; roll up the sail snug, clews and buntline toggles out, and send it aloft by a sail burton with a strap around the bunt.

When bent, take each reef in succession, cutting the rope-yarns that secure the forward and after reefing jack-stays of each reef together around the foot; for the close-reef cast off the points.

In this manner the sail is bent without exposing more than one reef at a time, until the close-reefed sail is set.

Topsails with French reefs are very convenient for sending up reefed in this manner.

In sending the new sail aloft, use the yard-arm guy to keep it well to windward.

All being ready for setting, Man the lee sheet, tend the gear! Haul taut! Ease down lee clewline!HAUL HOME TO LEEWARD! Ease down weather clewline! HAUL HOME TO WINDWARD! Hoist the yard clear of the cap and steady it. Haul taut reef-tackles to relieve the close-reef earings. The


main yard is braced up sharper than the topsail yard before sheeting home.Reefing on the foot is rarely practised, the method of making up the sail as furled being preferred.

NOTE. In sending down a topsail, it is all-important to point it fair, before lowering. Therefore, try to keep it well to windward, clear of the lower stay.

The fore storm-staysail can be hauled down and storm-mizzen set if necessary to keep the ship to.

In sending a sail down or up when running with the wind abaft the beam, first heave the ship to if it can be done.

If a main topsail splits, when lying to, of course it must be unbent immediately, and the other sent up when ready; but if we wish merely to shift the sail, have the new one ready before starting anything aloft.


If, in chase, you are unwilling to lose the effect of a course, while replacing it by another, you may perform both operations at once, thus:

Get the one you wish to bend (which we will distinguish as the new one), stretched across the deck under the yard; get up the yard-arm jiggers, and hook them to the first reef-cringles of the new sail; unbend the buntlines from the foot of the old sail, haul up the ends, and send them down between the yard and the old sail; bend them to the new one, stopping them to the head. Stopper the clews of the old sail, and shackle the tack and sheet blocks to the clews of the new one; the topmast studding-sail halliards may be bent to the head-earings of the old sail to lower it by.

While this is doing, the men on the yard will hook the bunt-jigger and stop the leechlines to the head of the old sail; cast off the robands.

Man the yard-arm jiggers and buntlines, and run the new sail up to the yard abaft the old one; while bringing the head of the former to the yard, the fatter is lowered on deck by the bunt-jigger, leechlines, and head-earings, lines being attached to the head cringles to lower by; after the old sail is down, bend the leechlines to the new one.



This evolution can only be practised when the ship is going free, with any benefit to her speed. It has been done by some good officers in the following manner: We will


suppose the fore topsail the one to be shifted; middle the sail to be bent across the fore stays, stopper the clews of the topsail, unbend the fore topsail sheets and buntlines, have the burtons on the fore topsail yard-arms, and well boused taut. Have good whips on the topsail yard-arms, overhaul them down, bend them on to the first reef-cringles of the new sail; the head earings should be hitched to the whips. Send a light burton down before the old sail, and hook it in the centre of the head of the new sail; single the topsail sheets, and bend them to the clews of the new sail, bend the buntlines to the proper places on the foot of the new sail, but do not make fast the robands to them; bend a tripping-line to the head of the new sail by the robands, about half way out on the head of the sail, so as to keep the sail going up clear of the one bent. When all is quite ready, man everything together, and send the sail up as a flying sail; be careful to get a good pull of the reef-tackles, before the men lay out on the yard to unbend and bend sails. It will require the greatest care in displacing the earings of one sail, and passing the earings of the other; when the robands are fast, you may let the old sail hang by the reef-tackles, then run the clewlines up high enough for sending the sail on deck, with the help of the burton at the mast-head, which must be shifted abaft the topsail yard for the purpose.Use topmast studding-sail halliards for the yard-arm whips, in case the studding-sails are not set.


Take in and furl the sail, unbend the gear, send the yard on deck, shift, cross the yard, bend the gear, and set the sail.

On board of a first-rate, a topgallant sail may be unbent aloft, sent down by the royal yard-rope or topgallant studding-sail halliards, and the new sail sent aloft by the same means, and bent, hauling the earings out by hand.


Having carried away the starboard boom, to replace it by the port one, the latter being rigged in.

The topmast studding-sail would of course be taken in as quickly as possible, and the outboard end of the boom with it. The inboard end would probably be lowered on deck with the boom tricing-line and a whip from the lower lift.

Put a whip on the port lower lift, secure its end to the port boom outside the quarter-iron. Have a guy from forward secured to the boom at the same place as the whip. Take

Plate 122, Fig 513-514. Shifting Jib-Boom.


off the lower studding-sail halliard block and tack block, unless the latter is permanent, in which case unreeve the tack.Launch the boom in clear of the boom-iron, the tricing-line being hooked at the heel, set taut the whip on the lower lift and trice the heel of the boom above the lower yard, unclamping the quarter-iron. Lift the boom out of the quarter-iron and lower on the yard-arm whip, hauling forward on the guy.

There should be a backlashing from the whip outboard to keep it from slipping in. When the boom is up-and-down, the heel hung by the tricing-line, cast off the guy and port whip, carry the outboard end of the spar over to starboard, and bend on the whip from the starboard lift; also a guy from forward, starboard side. The usual back-lashing will be needed on the whip to keep it from slipping inboard. Haul on the whip, tend the forward guy, and land the boom in the starboard quarter-iron, clamping it. Launch the end out through the boom-iron, rig the end (tack and studding-sail halliard block), take off whip and guy, and prepare for rigging out and setting the studding-sail. If not intending to set the lower studding-sail, rig the usual jumper with the lower studding-sail halliards.

TO SHIFT JIB-BOOM. (Figs. 513 and 514.)

The forecastlemen and fore topmen prepare for housing fore topgallant mast, and for rigging in flying jib-boom. In addition, the men stationed on the jib-boom, lay out; carry out and hook the cap block, and reeve the heel rope; hook jiggers to topmast stay and whisker ends; cast adrift topmast staysail and jib, and hook jib halliards to jib-boom end; hook tackle from topmast stay to light in boom by; hook fore clew-jiggers to heel of jib-boom. The forecastle-men on deck place the new jib-boom on the forecastle ready for going out; ease up back ropes, jumpers, guys and jib-stay, take a turn and tend jib halliards, man fore clew-jiggers and jiggers on the topmast stays.

If the wythe is fitted to unclamp, the stays rove through the flying jib-boom need not be unrove. Otherwise, and in the absence of funnels on the head booms, the stays reeving through them must be unrove and stopped up.

Rig in the flying jib-boom, and house the topgallant mast: then-

A turn with the mast rope! Haul taut the jib heel rope! Tend the jib halliards! unclamp the heel of boom, ease up the jib halliards to allow the boom to clear the saddle; a few hands man the fore clew-jiggers and jiggers on the whiskers. When ready-

Ease away! RIG IN! easing the heel rope until the band


is close to the bowsprit cap; the jib halliards and fore clew-. jiggers are hauled on sufficient to keep the heel of the boom high enough to just clear the knight-heads; the whiskers are triced up to the fore topmast stays, the jib and flying-jib are roused in alongside the topmast staysail. As soon as the boom is housed close inA turn with the heel rope! let go the jib halliards; lash the bands to the bowsprit cap; hook the tackle from the fore topmast stay to a strap around the jib-boom just inside the bowsprit cap, haul it taut, take a turn.

Tend the stay-tackles! Walk away with the fore clew-jiggers! at the same time ease away on the heel rope, and land the boom on the forecastle; cast off from bowsprit cap and unreeve the heel rope and reeve it on the new boom; shift the stay-tackle and fore clew-jiggers from the old to the new boom.

Man the heel rope and stay-tackle; tend the fore clew-jiggers; when ready-

Haul away the stay-tackle and heel rope! walk the boom out until pointed.

Avast hauling; tend the stay jiggers and jib halliards! The band is placed; the stay-tackle is cast adrift, the jib halliards are hooked to the boom end, hauled taut and tended; the stay jiggers on the whiskers are tended; when the boom is rigged, stay rove, &c., order-

RIG OUT! the men walk away on the heel rope; ease away on the fore clew-jiggers until the boom is clear of the knight-heads, and when clear, let go and cast them off; ease away the jib halliards and stay jiggers; when the boom is far enough out to take in the saddle, pull up the jib halliards and secure the clamp.

Point the flying jib-boom; at the same time the men proceed to take off stay-tackle and jiggers, and to set up guys, jumpers, back ropes and jib stay. Man the topgallant mast rope as soon as the jib-boom is in place, fid the topgallant mast, rig out and secure the flying jib-boom. Bend jib and flying jib.

Instead of sending down the topgallant mast in ordinary weather, lash the light yards aloft, overhaul the yard ropes (the long ones) down well forward; toggle them abaft their sheaves in the mast, and set them up with jiggers, forward.


Send down the royal and topgallant yard, unreeve the yard ropes rove through the mast sheaves, come up topgallant and royal rigging and Jacob’s ladder laniards.

Start and attend backstays and stays, hanging the back-stays in the top.


SWAY AWAY!-out fid-LOWER AWAY!-out preventer-fid.(if used).Pass the lizard as the head of the mast comes below the cap.

Bear the heel off the topsail yard.

Lower the mast on deck-heel aft, and after side up. Shift the mast rope and lizard to the new mast, taking care to see it clear of turns. Have jiggers ready on the backstays.


Cast off the lizard as soon as the mast-head enters above the topmast tressle-trees.

Clamp the gate.

Place the royal rigging and truck, and reeve the royal yard rope

Place the jack and topgallant funnel-reeve the topgallant yard rope

Enter the preventer-fid as soon as possible-light up all the rigging. SWAY TO FID!

When the fid is entered, Launch!

Steady taut the stays and rigging.

Cross the topgallant and royal yards.

At sea, when under close-reefed topsails, the mast is sent down abaft, and to windward of the topsail yard.

As before stated, a hole should be bored in the heel of the topgallant mast above the proper fid-hole, for the preventer-fid, as a mast rope frequently carries away in the final pull.


For a yard tackle, to send down the yard, use the top-burton, if good; otherwise, trice up and. hook at the top-mast-head any luff purchase with a four or five-inch fall, long enough to reach from the topmast-head to the deck. The lower block of the yard purchase hooks to the slings of the yard.

Hook the quarter blocks to the lower cap.

If there is but little wind while shifting the yard, hitch the bight of the buntlines and one bowline around the sail amidships.

Unbend the gear, man the buntlines on deck, and at the order to “ease away, lay in,” run the sail up nearly to the topmast-head, and keep it clear of the yard purchase by the bowline; let it hang till the yard is sent up and crossed, then lower and bend in the usual manner.

But, if blowing fresh, the quickest way will be to furl and unbend, send the sail on deck by the buntlines, and sway it aloft again after the yard has been shifted. The


sail may be left in the top, but will probably be found very much in the way.Trice up the fly-block with top jiggers, unshackle the tye-blocks from the yard.

Take the tack-blocks off the topgallant studding-sail booms, hitching the tack round the strap of the block.

Get the studding-sail booms up and down the topmast rigging, with the boom tricing-line and topgallant studding-sail halliards.

Unreeve the topgallant sheets and topsail reef-tackle. Knot the end of the studding-sail halliards and round them up.

Having hooked the yard purchase at the slings, hook the port top-burton (yard to land in starboard gangway) to the port burton strap, which is an iron band on the yard well out on the port quarter.

Bend a top bowline to the slings of the yard, as a fore-and-aft guy to keep the jaws clear of the topmast and of the top, while sending down.

Tend the topsail lifts and braces, cast off the parrel, and sway away, pulling up on the yard purchase, hauling f or-ward the guy. When the jaws are clear, trip the port yardarm by hauling on the burton. Lower away on yard purchase and burton.

Unrig the lower yard-arm on deck, and the upper yardarm in the top. Put a swab or grating under lower yardarm.

Steady the lower yard-arm well forward, to keep the upper yard-arm close to the top while taking off the gear aloft.

Take off the boom-irons, jewel-blocks, first and second reef-earings, and unshackle the lifts and braces.

When the rigging is taken off, keep it clear for the new yard. Have a marrying line for the starboard lift.

Finally, lower the yard on deck, lower yard-arm aft, easing the burton. This leaves the yard pivoted on the yard purchase, and easy to manage. If the yard must be transported, use tackles from the fore and main.

Shift the burton and yard purchase to the new yard, and SWAY ALOFT!

When up-and-down, rig the new yard as the old one was unrigged.

A bowline bent to the upper quarter of the yard will keep it clear of the fore part of the top.

Attend the lifts and braces, SWAY ALOFT! Have the starboard burton hooked to its burton strap to assist in squaring the yard. As the yard rises above the cap, pull up on the starboard lift and burton, slacking the port burton. When the jaws are fair, slack away the fore-and-aft tackle. Pass the parrel, secure the lifts, take off the burtons.

Reeve the reef-tackles and the topgallant sheets.

Replace the studding-sail booms and their tack-blocks.

Secure the quarter-blocks, the standing part of topsail


clewlines, and shackle the tye-blocks. Take off the yard purchase.Sway aloft and bend the sail.

Haul home the topsail sheets and hoist the topsail.

In shifting a yard at sea, send it up or down on the weather side. Take the course in and square the lower yard.

After crossing the new yard, if the jaws have fallen to leeward, or the yard does not rest fairly on the cap, and consequently will not allow the parrel to be passed taut at once, use a rolling tackle to rouse it over to windward and the top bowline to haul it forward.


Send up both top-pendants and two tackles.

One top-pendant, say the port one (at the main), reeves through a top-block on one side of the lower cap, through the dumb sheave in the topmast, and its end is secured on the opposite side of the cap. The other top-pendant reeves through a block on the opposite side of the cap, then through the thimble of a lizard with two good tails, through the live sheave of the topmast, and its end is secured to a bolt in the lower cap on the opposite side.

The fid-hole being athwartships; each of the sheaves is at an angle of 45° from it, and they are at an angle of 90° from each other.

Send the topgallant studding-sails down out of the top. Any ropes or whips which may be wanted must be hung from the top rim, to prevent their getting under the topmast rigging as the mast comes down. Hang all the backstays abreast the top, or from the lower mast-head.

Send down topgallant yard and mast, getting them both on deck.

Secure the topgallant and royal funnels, and the truck on the fore part of the cross-trees.

Cast off the catharpin lashings on one side.

Secure the topgallant studding-sail booms and the bunt of the topsail to the topsail yard, bend the top bowlines to

the slings, cast off the parrel, attend the topsail halliards, braces and lifts, haul forward on the bowlines. Let go the reef-tackles and topgallant sheets, and when clear of the lower cap, lower the topsail yard across the fore part of the top, lashing it there. Clear away the topmast rigging, backstays, and stays, starting all the laniards, except one stay and the weather backstays, which are attended as the mast is swayed. Man the top tackle falls. Let go the topsail halliards and lifts, and all the ropes that go to the topmast-head. SWAY AWAY!-out fid-LOWER AWAY!

The top pendants now supplied are long enough to lower the mast on deck. After the mast is unfidded, take a turn


with the top pendants, and unhook the top tackles, taking their straps off the pendants. The upper blocks of the top-tackles remain hung aloft ready for use in fidding the new mast. In all cases where the top-tackles are clapped on the pendants, keep a turn with the pendants themselves. Lower the topmast by the top pendants, bracing up the lower yard if necessary.*When the tressle-trees are a few feet above the lower cap, stopper that pendant which reeves through the live sheave, and have about two fathoms of it abaft the stopper clear for surging, then belay it well. Overhaul the other pendant, which will drop clear of the dumb sheave. If the hanging blocks are not taken off, haul them and the topmast rigging taut out under the cross-trees. Have lashings from the lower cap to steady the cross-trees. See all the men clear.

Let go the stopper on the top pendant, surge the topmast.

If the tressle-trees hang the mast, take the top pendant to the capstan, or clap the top-tackle on it, heave the mast up and surge as before. If need be, hang the topmast rigging by stops to the cap.

When the mast-head is clear, secure the topmast cross-trees, funnel and cap on top of the lower cap. Pass the two tails of the lizard round the topmast, below the hounds, taking two round turns with each tail and then knotting them together; hang the lizard with a small rope from the topmast-head to keep it from slipping down. If there is a sheave in the head of the topmast, hang the lizard from there.

Lower the topmast with the heel down the hatchway forward of the mast until the head is clear of the tressle-trees. Bend the end of a whip from forward to the mast-head and haul forward; when the head is before the top rim, take the top pendant to the capstan, or clap a deck-tackle on it. Hook a burton from aft to the heel; when the heel is above the coaming of the hatchway, haul aft on the burton, lower on the top pendant and land the mast on deck.

Suppose the new topmast (main) to be stowed on the starboard side of the booms, head forward. Launch it aft till the hounds are about on a line. with the foot of the mast. Reeve the starboard top pendant through the live sheave, secure it to its own part, forming a long bight or strap from the heel, and lashing the bight around the topmast well below the hounds. Clap a top-tackle on the pendant, and pull up, tending the heel of the topmast, get the mast up-and-down, and point the heel down through the

* With the latest patent truss, the topmast is sent down through it. If the truss is otherwise fitted, the yard must be untrussed and hauled forward, and braced out of the way if necessary. In this case the lift on the side braced up will take against the topsail yard; hook a top-burton to the lower cap, and to the lower yard forward of the topsail yard, steady it taut and overhaul the: lower lift abaft.


scuttle, lower away till the head is clear of the collar of the stay, point the head fair between the tressle-trees, and pull up on the top-tackle. Just before the hounds enter between the tressle-trees, snatch the other top pendant in the dumb sheave, clap the port top-tackle on it, and when it takes the weight of the mast, secure the end of the starboard top pendant to its eye-bolt at the cap. Walk away with the top-tackles, the mast taking the weight of the rigging, topmast cap, &c., as it goes aloft. When the yard-tackles are nearly two blocks, stopper and belay the ends of the pendants on deck, overhaul down whips (lower clew-jiggers) from the top, hook them on to the upper top-tackle blocks, and fleet these purchases and their straps as far up on the pendants as possible. Now sway up to fid, lighting up the rigging as necessary, and with tackles on the backstays to steady the mast.When the mast is fidded, square the lower yard and truss it if untrussed; stay the topmast and set up the rigging; get the topsail yard into place, and sway aloft and fid the topgallant mast. After setting up the topgallant rigging, send up the light yards.

Send down top pendants, blocks and top-tackles as convenient.


The topgallant masts and yards having been sent down, send aloft the top pendants, top tackles and jeers. The, lower yards are sent down first, and then the topmasts. If the ship is rolling, use thwartship tackles on the lower yards. Hook fore-and-aft tackles; single the lower lifts and hook the burtons to the burton-straps. Be prepared aloft to unkey trusses and unhook slings. Come up topmast rigging and stays, but be careful in easing the fore-and-aft stays, not to ease more than absolutely necessary.

The jeers may be worked on the gun-deck of a frigate and taken to the capstan. Have seamen to lower.

When the top-tackles are hauled taut to unfid, the topsail lifts, buntlines, and reef-tackles must be well overhauled, especially if this gear has been thoroughly wet, and has consequently shrunk; the laniards of topmast rigging must be overhauled. It is a good plan to hang the backstays and halliards aloft from the lower cap, as in swaying up much weight is saved.

The lower booms must be gotten alongside before the lower yards are sent down, and the flying-jib and jib-booms must come in with the topgallant masts and topmasts.

Some seamen think lower yards hold less wind aloft, and braced up; and others disapprove of sending down lower yards and housing topmasts both; and the evolution at present is seldom performed.


If at anchor where you might be required to get under way to save the ship, do not strike the lower yards or house topmasts.When the top-tackles are swayed upon, we must not forget to overhaul the topsail halliards, and the halliards of the head sails; in fact, everything leading to the topmast-heads. The gear of the courses, such as leechlines, &c., must be attended.

Everything being manned and attended, the command is. given to sway up and heave round; the braces, lifts, fore-and-aft tackles, burtons, thwartship tackles, topsail sheets, are either manned or tended as required. The topmen tend stays, backstays, and laniards of topmast rigging, and overhaul all other rigging necessary. Lower away when the trusses and slings are clear, and fids out. Rest the lower yards on blocking in the nettings, and lash the heels of the topmasts to the lower masts. Keep a strain on the jeers, so that the yards will not sag amidships.

The bights of the topmast rigging are hung over the edge of the top. The whiskers and dolphin striker are triced in, the ends of the former lashed together. Stop the parts of the head stays above the bowsprit to the fore stays, and the parts under the bowsprit to the bowsprit shrouds.

The topsail yards are lowered across the tops.


On the moderating of the gale, the topmasts must be fidded and the lower yards sent up.

Before starting top-tackles or jeers, all rigging, such as backstays, halliards, &c., &c., should be well overhauled and hung from the top, and have jiggers and luffs on the stays and backstays, to steady the masts as they go up, and to be ready for setting up. The fore-and-aft stays, topsail lifts, &c., should be overhauled beyond the old nips, so as to leave the masts free for going up. All running gear, such as reef-tackles, buntlines, and head-halliards, must be well overhauled.

If there is not force enough in the ship, fid the topmasts first, then send up the lower yards.

When all is ready, having top-tackle falls manned, and jeer falls led to capstan, luffs, &c., tended, sway up and heave round, fid and stay topmasts, key trusses and hook slings. Having set up the stays, backstays and topmast rigging, get the topsail-yards in place, and send up the topgallant masts and light yards.