GENERAL REMARKS ON THE HULL, SPARS, AND SAILS.-DEFINITIONS.
Wooden ships are usually built on stocks and launched on ways, which are inclined planes leading to the water’s edge. Sometimes vessels are built in docks, which are artificial basins with level floors, shut off from outside waters by gates or by a single dam known as a caisson. These gates are water-tight and can be opened or closed; the dock is supplied with means for pumping out the water or letting it in.
The lowest fore and aft piece which forms the foundation of a ship is called the keel (Plate 1, No. 1). It is of live-oak, or elm, and made of several pieces, the joints of which are known as scarphs.
To receive the edge of the first row, or strake, of outside planking, called the garboard strake (2), the keel is scored throughout its length, the score being styled a rabbet (3).
To protect the main keel from injury in grounding there is fitted under it a false keel (4), bolted on after the bolts which secure the frames to the main keel are clinched.
The forward end of the ship is formed of the stem (5), usually of live-oak, and inclining forward from the keel. A rabbet, similar to the one scored in the keel, is cut into the sides of the stem and receives the forward ends of the outside planking, which are called the fore hood-ends.
The stem is backed and strengthened by the apron (6), placed abaft it, and by the deadwood (7).
Deadwood consists of timbers that fill the spaces where, owing to the shape of the vessel, the floor-timbers have to be discontinued.
Inside of the forward deadwood and the apron is the stemson (8), a large knee which joins the apron to the upper part of the deadwood.
The after-end of the ship is bounded by the stern-post (9), usually of live-oak, which stands perpendicular to the keel or slightly inclined aft. It is fitted like the stem with a rabbet on each side to receive the after-ends of the outside planking, or after-hoods, and it is strengthened by the introduction of a stern-post knee (10), inner post (11), and the after-deadwood (12). Above the latter is the after-deadwood knee (13).
|Screw vessels have generally two stern-posts; the after one, which carries the rudder, is called the rudder-post.The joining of the stern-post to the keel is effected by tenons and bolts.The frames (14) form the ribs of the ship. They stand mostly at right angles to the keel and each is formed of two parts joined together, each part being in itself made up of several pieces. The lowest portions of a square frame are called the floor-timbers; above these come the futtocks, then the long or short top-pieces. The starboard and port side of each frame form one continuous piece.
Where, owing to the form of the ship, the frames do not stand at right angles to the keel, they are called cant frames.
The following parts of the ship serve to secure the above-mentioned portions together and give the structure stiffness and strength; viz., the keelsons, breast-hooks (15) and stern-hooks (16), outer and inner planking, beams (17) and diagonal braces.
The main keelson (18) is a fore and aft timber which is laid directly over the keel on the floor-timbers and may extend beyond the latter and over the deadwood, forward and aft. The keelson is bolted through frames, keel, and deadwood. There are usually additional keelsons at each side of the main keelson, known as sister keelsons (20). There are also boiler or bilge keelsons to support the boilers (19). Bilge-keels are exterior keels bolted on to the bottom of the ship on either side of and parallel to the main keel, and at some distance from the latter, to prevent rolling in vessels of certain form.
To hold the two sides of the ship together in the forward and after ends, where the frames have no floor-timbers crossing the keel, owing to the form of the ship, there are worked in knee-shaped, horizontal timbers, either with a natural curve, or formed of two or more pieces backed by an iron or wooden knee. These curved supports, secured to either side of the ship, are termed breast-hooks (15) forward and stern-hooks (16) aft; when they support a deck they are called deck-hooks.
The outer planking of a ship is formed of a number of oak planks of varying thickness, but nearly parallel when placed in position over the frames.
To check marine growth on the bottom of vessels and the consequent decrease of speed, all wooden vessels of war are sheathed with copper from the keel to a point some distance above their line of flotation, or “water-line.”
Inner planking. This planking is not continuous, as in the case of outside planking, and in different parts of the ship is called by different names. It is known as the limber-strakes (21) nearest the keelson. These strakes extend along the bottom of the ship on either side of the
|keelson. As the planking is carried up the side beyond the limber-strakes it is known as the ceiling (22); following it up higher we find projecting ledges, called shelf-pieces, or clamps, placed inside the frames to receive the deck-beams.The deck-beams (17), extending from side to side of the ship, holding the sides together, form the support for the deck-planking. The beams are supported by posts or stanchions (23) in their centre, and by clamps at each end. They are joined to the sides of the ship by iron or wooden knees, known as hanging (24), lodging (25), lap (26), or dagger (corruption of diagonal) knees, from their positions and form.The waterways (27) are timbers set in the side over the tops of the deck-beams and bolted to these and to the frames at the side.
Decks are of oak, teak, or yellow pine, and are spiked to each deck-beam over which they pass.
Vessels owe much of their strength to the use of diagonal trusses or braces, of metal, secured inside of the frame-timbers and forming a net-work which binds the frames firmly together.
To the above outline of the parts of the hull is appended a list of prominent interior fittings and of the terms used in describing them:-
Aft. At or near the stern of the ship.
After passage. Usually a space in the after orlop of frigates, being a passageway to the different store-rooms on that deck.
Air-port. Hole cut in ship’s side to give light and air to berth-deck. Usually circular.
Amidships. In or near the middle of the ship.
Apron. A timber secured in rear of the stem to strengthen it at the joint of upper and lower stem-pieces.
Athwartships. In the direction of the ship’s breadth.
Bag-room. Where clothing-bags of crew are stored. Usually forward on the berth-deck or leading off of fore-passage.
Ballast. Stone or iron placed in the hold to bring the ship down to her proper line of flotation and give stability.
Beams. Timbers that extend from side to side, supporting the decks.
Bee-blocks. Clamps bolted to the bowsprit through which reeve the fore-topmast stays.
Belaying-pin. A pin of wood or metal at the side of the vessel or on the masts, around which a rope is fastened or belayed.
Bends. The thickest outside planking, extending from a little below the waterline to the lower gun-deck ports.
Berth-deck. The sleeping and mess-deck of the crew and officers of a ship.
Bibbs. Pieces of timber on either side of the mast to which the trestle trees are secured.
Bilge. The flat part of a ship’s body on each side of the keel.
Bilge-keels. Long pieces of wood or iron affixed to ship’s bottom to lessen the rolling motion.
Bill-board. A ledge on the ship’s bow to receive the fluke of the anchor
Binnacle. A box containing the ship’s compass.
Bitts. Large vertical timbers projecting above the deck to secure the ship’s cable, also vertical posts to secure the main-tack, main-sheet, etc., according to location.
|Boat-chocks. Blocks of wood shaped to receive the bottoms of boats, when hoisted in.Bolsters. Rounded blocks of wood filling the angle between the trestle-tree and the mast, to prevent chafing of the rigging against the former.Bolts. Pieces of iron or other metal used in fastening parts of the ship together.
Booby-hatch. A small hatchway, or the covering or companion of such an aperture.
Boom-iron. Iron rings secured to one yard or spar, to support another spar, which passes through the iron. Such are the studding-sail boom-irons on the lower and top-sail yards.
Bowsprit-bed. The part of the stem on which the bowsprit rests.
Bread-room. The store-rooms in which are kept the ship’s allowance of hard-bread, etc. Usually situated in the after orlop.
Break of Forecastle. Where the rise of the forecastle towards the waste of the ship, ends. Commonly used to define the after side of a top-gallant forecastle.
Break of Poop. Where the rise of the poop towards the waist, ends. Commonly used in speaking of the forward end of the poop.
Breast-hooks. Knees, or an assemblage of timbers, set in the bows of ships and secured on either side to the timbers of the bow.
Bridle-ports. The ship’s forward gun-ports. Through these ports are led the bridles of tow-lines or warps.
Bridge. A light structure extending across the ship above the spar-deck, to afford the officer of the deck or lookout a place for observation.
Bucklers. Shutters used in closing hawse-pipes (hawse-bucklers), or filling the circular opening of half-ports when there is no gun in the port (port- bucklers).
Bulk-heads. Partitions that divide off different parts of the ship.
Bulwarks. The sides of the ship above the upper deck.
Bumpkin. A projection of wood or iron from the bow or quarter, to give proper angle for the lead of the fore-tack or main-brace.
Cabin. The quarters of the commanding officer of a ship. On the gun-deck of a ship with flush spar-deck, or under the poop (poop-cabin) of a single-decked vessel or one having a poop in addition to a covered gun-deck. In the latter case the gun-deck cabin is usually occupied by a flag officer.
Cable-tier. Formerly platforms on which the ship’s cables were coiled. At present understood to mean light platforms in the wings where spare rigging is stowed.
Cant-frames. Frames, forward and aft, which are not at right angles to the central fore and aft line of the vessel.
Cap. A joint fitted over the heads of masts to support the next higher mast, which passes through a hole in the cap.
Cap-shore. A stout upright which supports the forward edge of the lower cap.
Capstan. A barrel of wood or metal that revolves horizontally on a spindle; is used with capstan-bars or moved round by steam to raise heavy weights, weigh anchor, etc.
Carlings (28). Short timbers running fore and aft, connecting the beams.
Cat-head. An iron or wooden projection from the ship’s bow to raise the anchor clear of the water.
Caulking. Filling the seams of a ship with oakum or cotton.
Cavil. A large wooden cleat used for belaying.
Ceiling. Portions of the inside planking of a ship.
Chains (see Channels). Chain chests. Lockers in the channels for the storage of wash-deck gear.
Chain-lockers. Receptacles for the chain cables of the ship, usually forward of the main-mast in the main-hold.
Chain-pipes. Iron linings of the holes through which the cables are led in passing from one deck to another.
Chain-plates. Iron plates for securing lower dead-eyes to ship’s side.
Channels. Ledges of plank projecting from the side to give additional spread to the lower shrouds.
|Chess-trees. Pieces of timber bolted in the top-sides, with sheaves for fore and main sheets, after guys. etc. Those for the fore and main sheets are known also as fore and main sheet “chocks.”Cleats. Pieces of wood with projecting arms, used for belaying ropes.Coaming. A raised boundary to hatchways, to keep water from getting down, etc.
Cockpit. A space below the after hatchway under the berth-deck; usually the forward end of the after passage.
Compressor. In its simplest form, an iron lever fitted below each chain-pipe, the chain is controlled when running out by being, jammed between the compressor arm and edge of the chain-pipe.
Counter. The rounding of the stern over the run.
Cross-trees. Thwartship timbers supported by the bibbs and trestle-trees to sustain the frame of the top constitute the lower cross-trees. Top-mast cross-trees resting on the top-mast trestle-trees, extend the top-gallant shrouds.
Cutwater. The forward part of a ship’s prow, forming the forward edge of the stem.
Dagger-knee. A knee which is inclined diagonally, usually to clear a port. Davits. Cranes projecting from the ship’s side to hoist boats, etc.
Deadeye. A round flattish wooden block encircled by an iron “strap” and pierced with holes to receive a laniard by means of which rigging and stays are set up taut.
Dead-wood. Timber built up on top of the keel to give solid wood for supporting the heels of cant frames.
Decks. The different platforms of ships.
Dispensary. The ship’s pharmacy, usually placed on starboard side of berth-deck forward of warrant officers’ rooms, may also be in or near sick-bay.
Dolphin-striker. A small spar projecting downward from below the bowsprit to extend certain rigging of the head-booms and keep the latter in place.
Eye-bolt. A projecting bolt of which the head is fashioned into an eye, used for hooking tackles, etc.
Fid. A bar of iron or wood which passes through a fid-hole in the heel of a mast and rests on the trestle-trees on either side.
Fife-rail. Rails placed around each mast, fitted with belaying-pins to belay ropes.
Fish-davit. A movable piece of timber or iron projection, used to raise the fluke of an anchor and place it on the bill-board.
Fishes. Pieces of wood or iron used in effecting temporary repairs with injured masts, yards, etc.
Floor-timbers. Timbers of the frames which lie directly across the keel. Fore and Aft. Lying in the direction of the ship’s length.
Forecastle. The upper-deck of a man-of-war forward of the after part of the fore-channels.
Fore-foot. The forward end. of the keel.
Fore-hold. The forward part of the hold, usually extending from abaft the fore-passage to about midway between fore and main masts.
Fore-passage. A passageway below the berth-deck leading to the general store-room and with entrances on either side to various special store rooms, sail-room, etc.
Fore-peak. The narrow part of a vessel’s hold close to the bow and under the lowest deck, often accessible only from the general store-room.
Funnel. An iron band at a mast-head around which the rigging fits.
Futtock-plates. Iron plates to which the deadeyes of the topmast rigging and futtock-shrouds are secured.
Futtocks. Timbers of the frame between the floors and top-timbers.
Gammoning. The lashing or iron strap by which the bowsprit is secured to the stem.
Gangway. The spar-deck on each side of the booms between the quarter-deck and forecastle. Also an open space through the bulwarks as a passageway in and out of the ship.
General Store-room. Is situated below the berth-deck and at the forward end. of the fore-passage.
|Gooseneck. A bent piece of iron used to connect a boom to a mast by entering an eye-bolt or clamp, and capable of movement at the curve.Grating. An open latticed covering for hatches, etc.Gripe. A piece bolted on forward of the stem, forming the lower end of the cut water.
Gun-deck A covered deck of a man-of-war carrying the whole or a portion of her battery. When the guns are carried on the upper-deck, its name as spar-deck remains unchanged.
Gun-room. Obsolete expression for the quarters of the commissioned officers.
Gunwale. The covering-piece of the heads of the timbers in a small vessel, or boat.
Half-deck. That part of the gun-deck between the main and mizzen masts on each side.
Hammock-nettings. Trough-shaped receptacles along the rail on either side, in which the hammocks are stowed. A net-work of ropes was formerly used for this purpose, hence the term; other nettings will be described, as used.
Hanging-knee. Knee placed vertically under a deck-beam.
Hatch. An opening in a deck, forming a passage from one deck to another, and into the holds.
Hawse-buckler. A plate used for closing the opening of the hawse-hole.
Hawse-holes. Holes in the bows of the ship through which pass the cables.
Hawse-pipe. Iron lining of the hawse-holes to take the chafe of the cables.
Hawse-plug. Plugs which fill the hawse-pipes to prevent the entrance of water when the cables are unbent. Usually made of canvas and stuffed, then termed “jackasses.”
Head-board. Boards placed at the forward and after ends of the hammock-nettings.
Helm. Strictly, the bar by means of which the rudder is moved from side to side. Usually understood to mean the rudder, tiller, and wheel, or the whole of the steering arrangement.
Hold. The interior part of ship in which the stores or cargo, etc., are stowed. In a man-of-war if there are two holds the forward one is called the fore-hold and the after one, whatever its position, the main hold.
Horse-block. A small raised platform abreast the mizzen-mast, for the use of the officer of the deck when the ship is not supplied with a bridge.
Hounds. A projection on a mast for the trestle-trees to rest upon.
Hull. The main body of the ship.
Inboard. In the interior of the ship, as distinguished from outboard.
Keelson. A timber in the interior of the ship bolted on over the keel and floor timbers.
Knight-heads. Strong uprights on each side of the upper part of the stem to strengthen the bow and support the bowsprit.
Ledges (29). Light beams, parallel to the deck-beams butting on the clamps and carlings.
Light-boxes. Frames in which are set the side-lights of a vessel when under way.
Limbers. Gutters on each side of the keelson to allow the water to pass into the pump-well. Limber-boards, the covering of the limbers.
Life-buoy. An apparatus for the assistance of those who may fall overboard.
Locker. A drawer or chest that may be closed with a lock. Shot-locker, a compartment in the hold for storing shot; chain-locker, a similar compartment for the chain-cables.
Magazine. The store-room for the ship’s powder, usually aft, under the wardroom, although many ships have two magazines, in which case one is forward and near the fore-passage.
Main-deck. A name given to the gun-deck of a vessel-of-war, and to the upper gun-deck of a two-decker.
Main-hold. That portion of the hold which extends from a short distance forward of the main-mast to the break of the orlop-deck.
Manger. Part of the deck divided off forward to prevent any water from running aft that may enter through the hawse-holes.
|Manger-board. A plank running across the deck a short distance abaft the hawse-pipes, the after boundary of the manger.Mast-coat. A canvas-covering fitted around the mast and over the wedges to prevent leakage around the mast.Naval-pipe. Same as chain-pipe.
Oakum. Old rope picked to pieces, like hemp, used in caulking.
Orlop-deck. Usually a half-deck extending aft from the main-hold, a distance depending greatly upon the shape of the after body.
Outboard. On the outside of the ship, in contradistinction to inboard.
Partners. The framing around a mast-hole, to take the direct strain of the mast and mast-wedges.
Pawl. An iron arm on a capstan to keep it from recoiling.
Pin-rail. A railing on each side of the ship abreast of the masts, fitted with belaying pins for securing ropes.
Pay. To pay a seam is to pour hot pitch and tar into it after it has been caulked.
Poop. A deck raised above the after part of the spar-deck, reaching forward to the mizzen-mast.
Port. An opening cut in the side of the ship through which a gun may be discharged.
Port. The left side of a ship looking forward, as distinguished from starboard.
Pump-well. The part of the bilge upon which the suction of the pump acts directly.
Quarter-deck. Usually that part of the spar-deck which extends from the stern to the main-mast.
Quarter-gallery. Projections from the quarters of a vessel.
Rake. The inclination of a mast, etc., from a perpendicular direction to the keel.
Riding-bitts. The bitts around which the ship’s cables are taken.
Ring-bolts. Eye-bolts having a ring through the eye of the bolt.
Rudder. The instrument by which a ship is steered.
Run. The narrowing of the after part of the ship.
Sail-room. Storage-room for spare sails, hammocks, and sail-maker’s stores. In modern ships usually opens into the after-passage; some vessels have forward sail-rooms in fore-passage.
Sampson-knee. A heavy timber forward of the riding-bitts which serves to strengthen the latter.
Shell-room. Storage-room for explosive projectiles; when but one on board, is usually under the orlop near the after-hatch.
Shore. A post or timber used as a temporary support.
Sick-bay. The hospital of the ship, usually situated forward on the berth-deck.
Scuppers. Holes cut through the waterways and side to allow water to run off the decks.
Scuttle. A small circular aperture in a deck not intended for the passage of persons, through which powder, etc., may be passed from one deck to another.
Sheathing. Usually understood to mean a covering of copper, felt, etc., placed over a portion of the ship’s surface to protect it. Copper sheathing covers the immersed part of a ship to protect it from marine growth.
Spar-deck. The upper deck of a ship-of-war.
Spirketing. The inside planking of a ship extending from the lower edges of the gun-ports to the waterways.
Spirit-room. A name formerly given to the paymaster’s store-room in the after-part of the after-hold, reserved for stowage of spirits. The name applies at present to the paymaster’s store-room for dry provisions.
Stanchions. Uprights placed under deck-beams to support them in the centre.
Starboard. The right side of a ship looking forward, as distinguished from port.
Steerage. The quarters of junior officers and clerks, situated outside the wardroom on either side of the deck, the space between the two steerage-rooms being known as the steerage-country.
|Stem. The forward boundary of a ship, the continuation of the keel to the height of the deck.Steps of Mast. Places into which the lower ends or heels of lower masts are secured or stepped. The fore and main masts are stepped at present in iron steps fitted over the main-keelson, with flanges to the sister-keelsons. The mizzen-mast step is a piece of timber secured to the orlop or berth deck beams.Stern. The after-part of the ship.
Stern-post. The after-boundary of the ship, a continuation of the keel, tenoned into the latter and secured to it in addition by composition plates.
Sweep-pieces. Ledges of wood hinged to the inner edges of gun-ports to give additional facility in training the guns.
Taffrail. The rail around a ship’s stern.
Tenon. The end of one piece of wood diminished and cut with shoulders to fit in a hole of another piece, called a mortise.
Thole-pin. Pins fitted in the gunwale of a boat, to be used with a rope ring or grommet as a rowlock.
Thwart. A cross-piece in a boat, used as a seat by the oarsmen.
Tiller. A bar of wood or iron which fits into the rudder-head and by which the steering is effected. (See Helm.)
Top. A platform at the eyes of the lower rigging, supported by the trestle-trees and cross-trees; the top-mast rigging sets up at each side of the top.
Top-gallant Forecastle. A deck raised over the forward end of the spar-deck extending from the bows nearly or quite to the fore-mast.
Top-rim. The forward edge of a top, rounded to prevent chafe.
Transom. A beam extending across the after-part of the ship.
Tree-nail. Pin of hard wood used as a fastening in the place of a metallic bolt.
Trestle-trees. Fore and aft pieces on each side of a mast resting on the hounds to support the rigging, cross-trees, etc.
Truck. A small wooden cap on a flag-staff or mast-head with holes or sheaves for halliards. A mast-head truck is also fitted to receive the spindle of the lightning-rod.
Ward-room. The quarters of the commissioned officers of a ship, usually occupying the after-part of the berth-deck. The rooms on the starboard side occupied by the line officers, those on the port side by the staff officers-the intervening space is styled the ward-room country.
Warping-chock. A block of wood, or metal casting, scored to receive a towline. Bridle-ports are fitted with such chocks, which can be removed when not in use.
Warrant-Officers’ Rooms. Usually on the berth-deck, two on each side, forward of the steerage. The boatswain and gunner occupy the starboard, the carpenter and sail-maker the port rooms.
Waterways. Pieces of timber placed over the tops of the beams and secured to the beams and ship’s side, filling the angle between the beams and the inside of the frame-timbers.
Wheel. A wheel to the axle of which are connected the tiller- or wheel-ropes by which the rudder is moved in steering.
Weigh. To weigh anything is to raise it-to weigh anchor.
Whiskers. Small spars projecting on either side of the bowsprit from the bees, extending the jib and flying-jib guys.
Wings of the Hold. That part of the hold or orlop which is nearest to the side.
Wythe. An iron fixture on the end of a mast or boom, bearing a ring through which another mast or boom is rigged out. Pronounced with.
Yoke. A cross-piece of timber or metal fitted on the rudder-head when a tiller cannot be used.
|Spars and Rigging. The names of the spars and rigging of the ship are given in the references to Plate 2.
Sails. The names of the sails and certain running rigging of a ship are given in the following references to Plate 3.
Rig of Vessels (compare Plate 4). Vessels are divided according to their rig into numerous classes, of which the following may be mentioned as the principal types usually met with at sea:
|The Ship (1). Three masted, square rigged on all three masts.The Barque or Bark (2). Three masted, square rigged fore and main, fore and aft rig on mizzen.The Barkentine (3). Three masted, square rigged fore, fore and aft rig main and mizzen.
The Brig (5). Two masted, square rigged.
The Brigantine. Same as brig but without a square mainsail.
The Hermaphrodite Brig (6). Two masted, square rigged fore, fore and aft rig main.
The Topsail Schooner (7). Two masted, square rigged forward, but with a fore and aft foresail.
The Schooner. Two masted (8), three masted (4), or four masted fore and aft rig.
The Sloop (9). One masted, fore and aft rig.
NOTE. A vessel is said to be square rigged on a certain mast, when the sails set on that mast are bent to yards, and fore and aft rigged when the sails are bent to gaffs.
The topsail yards of merchantmen are almost invariably double, the topsail being in two parts, the lower part bent to the lower topsail yard and not hoisted, the upper portion bent to the upper yard and hoisted, as in the case of a single topsail. The clews, or lower corners, of the upper topsail are shackled to the yard arms of the lower topsail yard.